A Critical Analysis of The “First Revelation” Narratives (3/3)

A Critical Analysis of The “First Revelation” Narratives (3/3)


Appendix B: Critical Evaluation of the Chains of Narration Here is a detailed evaluation of all thechains of narration of the seven students who report this narrative from fromIbn Shihab al-Zuhri: 1. 'Uqayl ibn Khalid The followingillustration depicts the sub-variants of 'Uqayl ibn Khalid's variants: 'A'ishah 'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr al-Zuhri 'Uqayl ibn Khalid Layth ibn Sa'd Shu'ayb ibn Layth Yahya ibn Bukayr Hajjaj ibn Muhammad al-Bukhari 'Abdal-Malik ibn Shu'ayb ibn Layth Yusuf ibn Ahmad ibn Muslim Muslim Hanbal Yahya ibn Ayyub Abu 'Awanah 'Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn 'Abdullah ibn Ja'far Hanbal Ibn Mandah Yahya ibn Sa'id regards 'Uqayl ibn Khalidto be weak.[74] Ahmad ibn Hanbal says that though Layth ibnSa'd is trustworthy yet he is not very careful in matters of hearing from histeachers (thiqatuṇ wa lakinna fi akhdhihi suhulah).[75] Ibn 'Asakir and al-Suyuti mention thatthere are some discrepancies in what he narrates from al-Zuhri (fi hadithihi'an al-Zuhri ba'd al-idtarab).[76] In the above sub-variants, it can be seenthat he narrates from al-Zuhri through 'Uqayl ibn Khalid. Though many authorities regard Yahya ibn'Abdullah ibn Bukayr to be trustworthy, Abu Hatim and al-Nasa'i have adifferent opinion about him. The former says: yuktabu hadithuhu wa la yuhtajjubihi and the latter says: da'if at one place and laysa bi thiqahat another.[77] 2. Yunus ibn Yazid The following illustration depicts the sub-variants of Yunus ibn Yazid's variants: 'A'ishah Urwah ibn al-Zubayr al-Zuhri Yunus ibn Yazid 'Abdullah ibn Wahb Yunus ibn 'Abd al-A'la Abu al-Tahir Ahmad ibn 'Amr Abu 'Awanah al-Tabari Muslim al-Hasanibn Sufyan Ibn Mandah Abu'Amr Abu 'Abdullah al-Bayhaqi Althoughmost authorities regard Yunus ibn Yazid to be trustworthy, we find thefollowing information about him as well: قال أبوزرعة الدمشقي سمعت أبا عبد الله احمد بن حنبل يقول في حديث يونس عن الزهريمنكرات وقال الميموني سئل أحمد من أثبت فيالزهري قال معمر قيل فيونس قال روى أحاديث منكرة وقال بن سعد ... وليس بحجة ربماجاء بالشيء المنكر AbuZur'ah al-Dimashqi said: "I heard Ahmad ibn Hanbal say that the narratives of Yunusfrom Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri contain munkarat." And Maymuni said: "Ahmad wasasked about the most trustworthy student of Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri; he repliedthat it is Ma'mar; when someone asked about Yunus, he said that he narrates munkarnarratives." Ibn Sa'd said: " ... he is laysa bi hujjah and would at timesnarrate what is munkar."[78] نا عبد الرحمن نا محمد بن عوف الحمصي قال قال احمد بن حنبلقال وكيع رأيت يونس الأيلي وكان سيء الحفظ قال احمد سمع منه وكيع ثلاثة أحاديث ناعبد الرحمن نا أبی قال سمعت مقاتل بن محمد قال سمعت وكيعا يقول لقيت يونس بن يزيدالأيلي وذاكرته بأحاديث الزهرى المعروفة وجهدت ان يقيم لي حديثا فما أقامه 'Abd al-Rahman reported from Muhammad ibn'Awf who reported from Ahmad ibn Hanbal that Waki' said: "I have seen Yunusal-Ayli and he had a bad memory." Ahmad said: "Waki' has heard three narrativesfrom Yunus." 'Abd al-Rahman narrated from his father [Abu Hatim al-Razi] whosaid: "I heard Muqatil ibn Muhammad say: 'I heard Waqi' saying: "I met Yunusibn Yazid al-Ayli and discussed with him well known narratives of Ibn Shihabal-Zuhri and I tried that he should at least report one narrative correctly tome but he was not able to."'"[79] قال أبوبكر الأثرم أنكر أبو عبد الله علی يونس وقال كان يجيء عن سعيد بأشياء ليس من حديثسعيد وضعف أمر يونس وقال لم يكن يعرف الحديث وكان يكتب أرى أول الكتاب فينقطعالكلام فيكون أوله عن سعيد وبعضة عن الزهري فيشتبه عليه قال أبو عبد الله ويونسيروي أحاديث من رأي الزهري يجعلها عن سعيد قال أبو عبد الله يونس كثير الخطأ عنالزهري وعقيل أقل خطأ منه وقال أبو زرعة الدمشقي سمعت أبا عبد الله أحمد بن حنبليقول في حديث يونس بن يزيد منكرات عن الزهري Abu Bakr al-Athram said: "Abu'Abdullah Ahmad ibn Hanbal objected to Yunus and said: 'He wrongly attributesthings to Sa'id ibn Musayyab.' And Ahmad ibn Hanbal did not regard him asreliable and said: 'He does not know hadith and he would write the firstpart of the book from Sa'id and then end the discourse and write other partsfrom al-Zuhri and later would not be able to tell between which is which.' AndAhmad ibn Hanbal [further said]: 'Yunus would report narratives which wouldcontain the view of Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri and would attribute this view to Sa'idibn al-Musayyab and said that Yunus makes many errors in what he narrates fromIbn Shihab al-Zuhri and 'Uqayl would make lesser errors than him.'" And Abu Zur'ah al-Dimashqi said: "Iheard Abu 'Abdullah Ahmad ibn Hanbal say: 'Yunus's narratives from Ibn Shihabal-Zuhri have munkarat in them.'"[80] 3. Ma'mar ibn Rashid The followingillustration depicts the sub-variants of Ma'mar ibn Rashid's variants: _____________ Al-Ka'bi records that in the opinion of Sulayman ibn Harbmost of Ma'mar's narratives have errors (inna ma'maraṇ 'ammatu hadithihikhata'). He also records that Abu Nu'aym had forsaken him and has said thathe would make many errors (kana kathir al-khata').[81] Al-Dhahabirecords that 'Abd al-Razzaq heard Ibn al-Mubarak say that he only writes thenarratives of Ma'mar if he has heard them from someone else as well. At this,when 'Abd al-Razzaq asked Ibn al-Mubarak of thereason, he replied that he has recognized the good people after comparing them withthe bad ones.[82] Three of Ma'mar'sstudents report these narratives from him: a. 'Abd al-Razzaq ibnHammam b. 'Abdullah ibn Mu'adhal-San'ani c. Muhammad ibn 'Umaral-Waqidi Regarding'Abd al-Razzaq ibn Hammam, 'Uqayli records that Sufyan ibn 'Uyaynah said thathe feared that 'Abd al-Razzaq would be among those who wasted all his effortsin this world; al-'Abbas ibn 'Abd al-Azim al-Anbari swore by God that 'Abdal-Razzaq was a big liar and that Muhammad ibn 'Umar al-Waqidi was moretruthful than him.[83] Al-Dhahabirecords:[84] according to al-Nasa'inarratives reported from him have manakir; in the opinion of al-Bukhari,what is narrated from 'Abd al-Razzaq's book is more correct; Ibn 'Adi says thatnarratives which he reports regarding fada'il are not corroborated byanyone Al-Daraqutni says that though heis reliable yet he makes errors in the case of Ma'mar in narratives not found in his book.[85] AbuHatim says: yuktabu hadithuhu wa la yuhtajju bihi.[86] Al-Bardha'irecords that he saw Abu Zur'ah was not happy with his matter and ascribed avery grave thing to him (ra'aytu Aba Zur'ah la yahmidu amrahu wa yansubuhuila amriṇ ghaliziṇ).[87] About 'Abdullah ibn Mu'adhal-San'ani, 'Uqayli records:[88]'Abd al-Razzaq would regard him to be liar (yukadhdhibuhu); 'Abdullahibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal says that he heard his father Ahmad ibn Hanbal say that hesaw 'Abdullah ibn Mu'adh in Makkah but did not write anything from him. It maybe noted that other authorities have regarded him to be trustworthy. Followingis the jarh on Muhammad ibn 'Umar al-Waqidi. Al-Bukhari[89]opines that he is sakatu 'anhu and that Ahmad and Ibn Numayr have abandonedhim (tarakahu). At another place, al-Bukhari[90] regards him to be matruk al-hadith. Al-Nasa'i[91]also regards him to be matruk al-hadith. Ibn Hibban[92]records that Ahmad has declared him to be a liar and that Yahya ibn Ma'inregards him to be laysa bi shay' and that 'Ali ibn al-Madini says thathe would forge narratives (yada'u al-hadith). Al-Dhahabi[93]records that in the opinion of al-Daraqutni fihi al-du'f and that Ibn'Adi says that his narratives are not safe. Al-Mizzi[94]records that in the opinion of Muslim he is matruk al-hadith and Abu Ahmadal-Hakim regards him to be dhahib al-hadith. Ishaq ibn Rahawayh[95]also regards him to a forger of hadith ('indi min man yada'u al-hadith).Ibn Hajar[96] saysthat he is matruk. 4. Al-Walid ibn Muhammad al-Muqari Thefollowing illustration depicts the variant of al-Walid ibn Muhammad: 'A'ishah 'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr al-Zuhri al-Walid ibn Muhammad Suwayd ibn Sa'id 'Umar ibn Shabbah al-Jawhari Abu Ahmad al-'Askari Al-Walid ibn Muhammad is suspect. Al-Dhahabi writes:[97] According to Abu Hatimhe is da'if al-hadith; Ibn al-Madini says: la yuktabu hadithuhu;Ibn Khuzaymah writes: la yuhtajju bihi. Yahya ibn Ma'in regards him tobe a liar; in the opinion of al-Nasa'i he is matruk al-hadith. Ibn Hajar also regardshim to be matruk.[98] AboutSuwayd ibn Sa'id, al-Mizzi[99]records the following jarh: Ya'qub ibn Shaybah saysthat he is saduq mudtarib al-hifz particularly when he had become blind.According to al-Bukhari, Salih Muhammad al-Baghdadi and Abu Ahmad al-Hakim whenhe became blind he would narrate Hadith which were not his. In the opinion ofal-Nasa'i, he is laysa bi thiqah wa la ma'mun. Yahya ibn Ma'in says thathe is halal al-dam. Ibn Hibban has recorded him in his Al-Majruhinand said: ya'ti 'an thiqat fi al-mu'dalat; yukhti fi al-athar wayuqallibu al-akhbar and also said that it is essential to abstain from hisnarratives.[100] Ibn al-Jawzi[101] has recorded him inhis Al-Ḍu'afa' and stated that Yahya ibn Ma'in regarded him to be agreat liar (khadhdhab) and unreliable (saqit). He also said thatif he had a horse and a spear he would have attacked him. He also records thataccording to Ahmad he is matruk al-hadith. 5. Salih ibn Abi al-Akhdar The followingillustration depicts the sub-variants of Salih ibn Abi al-Akhdar's variants: 'A'ishah 'Urwah ibnal-Zubayr al-Zuhri Salih ibn Abial-Akhdar Abu Da'ud al-Tayalisi Yunus ibn Habib Abu Bakr ibn Abi Da'ud al-Ajurri Following is some ofthe jarh recorded by al-Mizzi[102] on Salih ibn Abi al-Akhdar: Yahya ibn Ma'in saysthat he is laysa bi al-qawi and da'if. In the opinion of al-'Ijli:yuktabu hadithuhu wa laysa bi al-qawi. According to Ibrahim ibn Ya'qubal-Juzjani he is blameworthy in his Ahadith. Abu Zur'ah says that he is da'ifal-hadith and that he had two books from al-Zuhri: one of them was 'ardand the other was munawalah; he mixed up both and could not tell whichwas which. Abu Hatim regards him to be layyin al-hadith. According toal-Bukhari, he is da'if, layyin and is nothing in what henarrates from al-Zuhri. According to al-Tirmidhi, he is da'if and thatYahya ibn Sa'id al-Qattan also regarded him to be so. Al-Nasa'i also calls him da'if. 6. Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah ibn Abi 'Utayq(Ibn Akhi al-Zuhri) The followingillustration depicts the sub-variant of Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah ibn Abi 'Utayq'svariants: 'A'ishah 'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr al-Zuhri Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah Muhammad ibn 'Umar al-Waqidi Thejarh on Muhammad ibn 'Umar al-Waqidi has been presented earlier. 7. Al-Nu'man ibn Rashid The followingillustration depicts the variant of al-Nu'man ibn Rashid: 'A'ishah 'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr al-Zuhri al-Nu'man ibn Rashid Jarir Wahb ibn Jarir Ahmad ibn 'Uthman Following is some ofthe jarh recorded by al-Mizzi[103] on al-Nu'man ibn Rashid. Yahya ibn Sa'id al-Qattanregards him to be very weak. Ahmad ibn Hanbal regards him to be mudtarib al-hadithand that he has narrated manakir ahadith. Yahya ibn Ma'in says that heis da'if; laysa bi shay'; according to al-Bukhari there is greatdiscrepancy in his narratives though he is primarily saduq. Abu Da'udsays that he is da'if. Al-Nasa'i says that he is da'if, kathiral-ghalat, ahadithuhu maqlubah. Ibnal-Junayd asked Yahya ibn Ma'in if al-Nu'man ibn Rashid was weak (da'if)only in reporting from al-Zuhri. His reply was that he is weak in reportingfrom everyone.[104] It can thus be seenthat none of the seven chains of narration that emanate from Ibn Shihab al-Zuhriare free of flaws. Appendix C: Mursal Variants i. 'Ubayd ibn 'Umayr (d. 73 AH) حدثناابن حميد قال حدثنا سلمة عن محمد بن إسحاق قال حدثني وهب بن كيسان ر مولى آلالزبير قال سمعت عبدالله بن الزبير وهو يقول لعبيد بن عمير بن قتادة الليثي حدثنايا عبيد كيف كان بدء ما ابتدئ به رسول الله من النبوة حين جاء جبريل عليه السلامفقال عبيد وأنا حاضر يحدث عبدالله بن الزبير ومن عنده من الناس كان رسول اللهيجاور في حراء من كل سنة شهرا وكان ذلك مما تحنث به قريش في الجاهلية والتحنثالتبرر وقال أبو طالب وراق ليرقى في حراء ونازل فكان رسول الله يجاور ذلك الشهر من كل سنة يطعم من جاءه من المساكين فإذاقضي رسول الله جواره من شهره ذلك كان أول ما يبدأ به إذا انصرف من جواره الكعبةقبل أن يدخل بيته فيطوف بها سبعا أو ما شاء الله من ذلك ثم يرجع إلي بيته حتي إذاكان الشهر الذي أراد الله عز وجل فيه ما أراد من كرامته من السنة التي بعثه فيهاوذلك في شهر رمضان خرج رسول الله إلي حراء كما كان يخرج لجواره معه أهله حتي إذاكانت الليلة التي أكرمه الله فيها برسالته ورحم العباد بها جاءه جبريل بأمر اللهفقال رسول الله فجاءني وأنا نائم بنمط من ديباج فيه كتاب فقال اقرأ فقلت ما اقرأفغتني حتي ظننت أنه الموت ثم ارسلني فقال اقرأ فقلت ماذا أقرأ وما أقول ذلك إلاافتداء منه أن يعود إلي بمثل ما صنع بي قال اِقْرَأ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِيخَلَقَ إلي قوله عَلَّمَ الإْنْسَانَ مَا لَم يَعْلَمْ قال فقرأته قال ثم انتهي ثمانصرف عني وهببت من نومي وكأنما كتب في قلبي كتابا قال ولم يكن من خلق الله أحدأبغض إلي من شاعر أو مجنون كنت لا أطيق أن أنظر إليهما قال قلت إن الأبعد يعنينفسه لشاعر أو مجنون لا تحدث بها عني قريش أبدا لأعمدن إلى حالق من الجبل فلأطرحننفسي منه فلأقتلنها فلأستريحن قال فخرجت أريد ذلك حتى إذا كنت في وسط من الجبل سمعتصوتا من السماء يقول يا محمد أنت رسول الله وأنا جبريل قال فرفعت رأسي إلى السماءفإذا جبرئيل في صورة رجل صاف قدميه في أفق السماء يقول يا محمد أنت رسول الله وأناجبرئيل قال فوقفت أنظر إليه وشغلني ذلك عما أردت فما أتقدم وما أتأخر وجعلت أصرفوجهي عنه في آفاق السماء فلا أنظر في ناحية منها إلا رأيته كذلك فما زلت واقفا ماأتقدم أمامي ولا أرجع ورائي حتي بعثت خديجة رسلها في طلبي حتي بلغوا مكة ورجعواإليها وأنا واقف في مكاني ثم انصرف عني وانصرفت راجعا إلي أهلي حتي أتيت خديجةفجلست إلي فخذها مضيفا فقالت يا أبا القاسم أين كنت فوالله لقد بعثت رسلي في طلبكحتي بلغوا مكة ورجعوا إلي قال قلت لها إن الأبعد لشاعر أو مجنون فقالت أعيذك باللهمن ذلك يا أبا القاسم ما كان الله ليصنع ذلك بك مع ما أعلم منك من صدق حديثك وعظمأمانتك وحسن خلقك وصلة رحمك وما ذاك يا بن عم لعلك رأيت شيئا قال فقلت لها نعم ثمحدثتها بالذي رأيت فقالت أبشر يا بن عم واثبت فوالذي نفس خديجة بيده إني لأرجو أنتكون نبي هذه الأمة ثم قامت فجمعت عليها ثيابها ثم انطلقت إلي ورقة بن نوفل بن أسدوهو ابن عمها وكان ورقة قد تنصر وقرأ الكتب وسمع من أهل التوراة والإنجيل فأخبرتهبما أخبرها به رسول الله أنه رأى وسمع فقال ورقة قدوس قدوس والذي نفس ورقة بيدهلئن كنت صدقتني يا خديجة لقد جاءه الناموس الأكبر يعني بالناموس جبرئيل عليهالسلام الذي كان يأتي موسي وإنه لنبي هذه الأمة فقولي له فليثبت فرجعت خديجة إليرسول الله فأخبرته بقول ورقة فسهل ذلك عليه بعض ما هو فيه من الهم فلما قضي رسولالله جواره وانصرف صنع كما كان يصنع وبدأ بالكعبة فطاف بها فلقيه ورقة بن نوفل وهويطوف بالبيت فقال يابن أخي أخبرني بما رأيت أو سمعت فأخبره رسول الله فقال له ورقةوالذي نفسي بيده إنك لنبي هذه الأمة ولقد جاءك الناموس الأكبر الذي جاء إلي موسيولتكذبنه ولتؤذينه ولتخرجنه ولتقاتلنه ولئن أنا أدركت ذلك لأنصرن الله نصرا يعلمهثم أدني رأسه فقبل يافوخه ثم انصرف رسول الله إلي منزله وقد زاده ذلك من قول ورقةثباتا وخفف عنه بعض ما كان فيه من الهم Wahb ibn Kaysanwho is a liberated slave of Al Zubayr said: "I heard 'Abdullah ibn al-Zubayrsaying to 'Ubayd ibn 'Umayr: 'Narrate to us how first Gabriel broughtrevelation to God's Messenger.' 'Ubayd narrated to 'Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr andthose who were there in the gathering while I was present: 'Every year God'sMessenger spent one month in the cave of Hira' and this would be from among thetahannuth the Quraysh would do in the times of jahiliyyah. Theword al-tahannuth means al-tabarrur. Abu Talib said: By hewho ascends Hira' and descends. In the month in which God's Messenger wouldstay in the Hira' cave he would feed all the needy who would come to him. WhenGod's Messenger completed his stay of one month, the first thing he did on hisreturn before he went to his house was to circumambulate the Ka'bah seven timesor what God willed from these and then return to his house. This continueduntil the month of the year in which the Almighty decided to bless him withprophethood. That was the month of Ramadan. God's Messenger went to the cave ofHira' the way he used to. His family was also with him. When the night arrivedin which God chose to bless him with messengerhood and have mercy on his peoplethrough it, Gabriel came with God's directive. So God's Messenger said: "Thenhe came to me while I was asleep with a cloth of silk on which there was awriting and said: 'Read.' I said: 'I cannot read.' So he pressed me until Ithought that I would die. Then he released me and I said: 'What should I readand this too I said just to save myself from him pressing me again.' He said: 'اِقْرَأ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَالَّذِي خَلَقَ till عَلَّمَ الإْنْسَانَ مَا لَم يَعْلَمْ.' I read it out. Gabriel stopped at this and left. Then I wokeup from my sleep. It was as if a [piece of] writing had been etched on myheart. The people I hated the most among those created by God were poets orlunatics. I did not even have the strength to look at them. I said [to myself:] 'I am definitely a poet or a lunatic. I would not likethat the Quraysh ever speak of me in this capacity. I should go to the peak ofa mountain and throw down myself from it and kill myself and [thus] relievemyself.' So, I set about to fulfill my intention until when I reached themiddle of the mountain I heard a voice from the sky saying: 'O Muhammad! Youare God's messenger and I am Gabriel.' So, I raised my head towards the sky andI saw Gabriel in the form of a man. Both his feet were spread in the horizon ofthe sky. He was saying: 'O Muhammad! You are God's messenger and I am Gabriel.'I then stopped while looking at him. This spectacle absorbed me and distractedme from my intention. So, I neither took a step forward nor backward. I beganturning my face away from him in the expanse of the sky. But to whichever placeI turned it, I saw him. I remained standing where I was neither steppingforward nor backward until the time when Khadijah sent her messengers to findme until they reached Makkah and came back to her while I was stationed at myplace. Then Gabriel went away from me and I returned to my family and came overto Khadijah and sat close to her touching her thighs. She said: 'O Abu al-Qasim!Where were you? By God! I sent my messengers to find you until they reachedMakkah and returned to me.' I said to her: 'I am definitely a poet or alunatic.' She said: 'May God protect you from this O Abu al-Qasim! God will notdo this to you when He fully knows your truthfulness, trustworthiness, kindnessand dealings with the kindred. What has happened my cousin? Maybe you have seensomething.' I said to her: 'Yes.' Then I narrated to her what I saw. Shereplied: 'Glad tidings to you O cousin and rest assured. By the being in whosehand is Khadijah's life I am hopeful that you will be the prophet of this ummah.'"Then she stood up and put on her outside apparel and went over to Waraqah ibnNawfal ibn Asad who was the son of her uncle. Waraqah had become a Christianand had read their religious books and had been instructed by the recipients ofthe Torah and the Gospel. So she told him of the news she was informed of byGod's messenger in terms of what he saw and heard. At this, Waraqah said: "Quddus[holy]! Quddus [holy]! By the being in whose hands is Waraqah's life! If youare telling the truth to me, O Khadijah, the great Namus ie. Gabriel hasvisited him the one who would visit Moses and that he is the prophet of thisnation. Tell him to rest assured." Khadijah then returned to God's messengerand informed him what Waraqah had said to her. This lessened some of the griefhe was inflicted with. When[105]God's messenger completed his secluded stay and returned he did what he used todo: he circumambulated the House of God; he saw Waraqah ibn Nawfal was alsocircumambulating it. He said: "O son of my brother! Inform me what you saw andheard." At this, God's messenger informed him. So, Waraqah said to him: "By thebeing in whose hands is my life! You surely are the prophet of this nation.Indeed, the great Namus has come to you who came to Moses [as well in thepast]. Your nation will definitely reject you, harass you, turn you out and tryto kill you. If I am alive at that time I will surely help you for the sake ofGod – such help which He knows." Then he drew closer towards him the head ofGod's Messenger's and kissed his forehead. God's Messenger then returned to hishouse and Waraqah's conversations increased his assurance and reduced some ofthe grief that had inflicted him.'"[106] ii. 'Abd al-Malik ibn 'Abdullah ibn Abi Sufyan ibnal-'Ula ibn Jariyah (d. )[107] ناأحمد نا يونس عن ابن اسحاق قال حدثني عبد الملك بن عبد الله بن أبي سفيان بنالعلاء بن جارية الثقفي وكان واعية عن بعض أهل العلم أن رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم حين أراد الله عز وجل كرامته وابتدأه بالنبوةوكان لا يمر بحجر ولا شجر الا سلم عليه وسمع منه فيلتفت رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم خلفه وعن يمينه وعن شماله فلا يرى الا الشجروما حوله من الحجارة وهي تحييه بتحية النبوة السلام عليك يا رسول الله فكان رسولالله صلى الله عليه وسلم يخرج الي حراء في كل عام شهرا من السنة ينسكفيه وكان من نسك في الجاهلية من قريش يطعم من جاء من المساكين حتي اذا انصرف منمجاورته وقضاه لم يدخل بيته حتي يطوف بالكعبة حتي اذا كان الشهر الآخر الذي أرادالله عز وجل به ما أراد من كرامته من السنة التي بعثه فيها وذلك شهر رمضان فخرجرسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم كما كان يخرج لجواره وخرج معه بأهله حتي اذاكانت الليلة التي أكرمه الله عز وجل فيها برسالته ورحم العباد به جاءه جبريل بأمرالله تعالي فقال رسول الله صلي الله عليهوسلم لجاءني وأنا نائم فقال أقرأ فقلت وماأقرأ فغتني حتي ظننت أنه الموت ثم كشطه عني فقال أقرأ فقلت وما أقرأ فعاد لي بمثلذلك ثم قال أقرأ فقلت وما أقرأ وما أقولها الا تنجيا أن يعود لي بمثل الذي صنع بيفقال اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍاقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ الْأَكْرَمُ الَّذِي عَلَّمَ بِالْقَلَمِ عَلَّمَ الْإِنسَانَمَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ ثم انتهي فانصرف عنيوهببت من نومي وكأنما صور في قلبي كتاب ولم يكن في خلق الله عز وجل أحد ابغض اليمن شاعر أو مجنون كنت لا أطيق أنظر اليهما فقلت أن الأبعد يعني نفسه صلي الله عليه وسلم لشاعر أو مجنون ثم قلت لا تحدث قريش عني بهذاأبدا لأعمدن الي حالق من الجبل فلأطرحن نفسي منه فلأقتلنها فلأستريحن فخرجت لاأريد غير ذلك فبينا أنا عامد لذلك سمعت مناديا ينادي من السماء يقول يا محمد أنترسول الله وأنا جبريل فرفعت رأسي الي السماء أنظر فاذا جبريل في صورة رجل صافقدميه في أفق السماء يقول يا محمد أنت رسول الله وأنا جبريل فوقفت أنظر اليهوشغلني عن ذلك وعما أريد فوقفت ما أقدر علي أن أتقدم ولا أتأخر ولا أصرف وجهي فيناحية من السماء الا رأيته فيها فما زلت واقفا ما أتقدم ولا أتأخر حتي بعثت خديجةرسلها في طلبي حتي بلغوا مكة ورجعوا فلم أزل كذلك حتي كاد النهار يتحول ثم انصرف عنيوانصرفت راجعا الي أهلي حتي أتيت خديجة فجلست الي فخذها مضيفا اليها فقالت يا أباالقاسم أين كنت فوالله لقد بعثت رسلي في طلبك حتي بلغوا مكة ورجعوا فقلت لها انالأبعد لشاعر أو مجنون فقالت أعيذك بالله يا أبا القاسم من ذلك ما كان الله عز وجلليفعل بك ذلك مع ما أعلم من صدق حديثك وعظم أمانتك وحسن خلقك وصلة رحمك وما ذاك يابن عم لعلك رأيت شيئا أو سمعته فأخبرتها الخبر فقالت أبشر يا بن عم وأثبت لهفوالذي تحلف به اني لأرجو أن تكون نبي هذه الأمة ثم قامت فجمعت ثيابها عليها ثمانطلقت الى ورقة بن نوفل وهو ابن عمها وكان قد قرأ الكتب وكان قد تنصر وسمع منالتواره والانجيل فأخبرته الخبر وقصت عليه ما قص عليها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه رأى وسمع فقال ورقة قدوس قدوس والذي نفسورقة بيده لئن كنت صدقتني يا خديجة انه لنبي هذه الأمة وانه ليأتيه الناموس الأكبرالذي كان يأتي موسى عليه السلام فقولي له فليثبت ورجعت الى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فأخبرته ما قال لها ورقة فسهل ذلك عليه بعض ماهو فيه من الهم بما جاءه فلما قضى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم جواره صنع كماكان يصنع بدأ بالكعبة فطاف بها فلقيه ورقة وهو يطوف بالكعبة فقال يا ابن أخ أخبرنيبالذي رأيت وسمعت فقص عليه رسول الله صلىالله عليه وسلم خبره فقالت ورقة والذي نفسورقة بيده انه ليأتيك الناموس الأكبر الذي كان يأتي موسى عليه السلام وانك لنبيهذه الأمة ولتوذين ولتكذبن ولتقاتلن ولتنصرن ولئن أنا أدركت ذلك لأنصرنك نصرا يعلمهالله ثم أدنى اليه رأسه فقبل يافوخه ثم انصرف رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم الى منزله وقد زاده الله عز وجل من قول ورقةثباتا وخفف عنه بعض ما كان فيه من الهم Ibn Ishaq stated:" 'Abd al-Malik ibn 'Abdullah ibn Abi Sufyan ibn al-'Ula ibn Jariyah who had aretentive memory related to me from a certain person endowed with knowledgethat when the Almighty decided to bless God's Messenger with His grace andbestow prophethood upon him whenever he passed by a stone or a tree, the latterwould greet him and he would hear this from them. So, God's Messenger wouldturn back and look to his right and his left but would not see anything exceptthe trees and stones surrounding him. They would address him with the greetingof prophethood: 'Peace be to you O God's Messenger!' He would go to the cave ofHira every year for a month and worship there. Those among the Quraysh whoworshipped in this manner in the jahiliyyah period fed the needy whowould come to them. After God's Messenger would return from his stay and end hisseclusion he would not enter his house until he had circumambulated the Ka'bah.Finally when the month arrived in which the Almighty decided to bless him withHis grace in the year he was assigned prophethood and that was in the month ofRamadan, God's Messenger departed the way he would depart [every year] for hisstay and his family also went with him. When the night fell in which Godbestowed his grace on him by commissioning him as a messenger and wanted toshow mercy to His people, Gabriel came to him with God Almighty's directive.God's Messenger said: 'He came to me while I was sleeping and said: "Read." Ireplied: "What should I read?" He then pressed me and I thought that I woulddie, then he released me and said: "Read." I replied: "What should I read?" Heagain did the same thing to me and then said: "Read." I replied: "What should Iread?" I only said this to rescue myself for him lest he should do the same tome again. He said: "اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ خَلَقَالْإِنسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ اقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ الْأَكْرَمُ الَّذِي عَلَّمَبِالْقَلَمِ عَلَّمَ الْإِنسَانَ مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ ." He thenstopped and went away from me. I woke up from my sleep and it was as if awriting had been etched on my heart. The people I hated the most among those created by God were poets orlunatics. I did not even have the strength to look at them. I said [to myself:]"I am definitely a poet or a lunatic." Then I said: "The Quraysh must neverspeak of me in this capacity. I shall definitely go to the peak of a mountainand throw down myself from it and kill myself and [thus] relieve myself." So, Iset about to fulfill my intention. When I was undertaking this climb to fulfillmy intention, I heard a caller calling from the sky: "O Muhammad! You are God'smessenger and I am Gabriel." So, I raised my head towards the sky and I sawGabriel in the form of a man. Both his feet were spread in the horizon of thesky. He was saying: "O Muhammad! You are God's messenger and I am Gabriel." Ithen stopped while looking at him. This spectacle absorbed me and distracted mefrom my intention. I was neither able to take a step forward nor backward.Wherever I turned my face to in the sky, I saw him. I remained standing where Iwas neither stepping forward nor backward until Khadijah sent her messengers tofind me until they reached Makkah and came back [to her] while I was stationedat my place until the day was about to end. Then Gabriel went away from me andI returned to my family and came over to Khadijah and sat close to her touchingher thighs. She said: "O Abu al-Qasim! Where were you? By God! I sent mymessengers to find you until they reached Makkah and then returned." I said toher: "I am definitely a poet or a lunatic." She said: "May God protect you fromthis O Abu al-Qasim! God will not do this to you when he fully knows yourtruthfulness, trustworthiness, kindness and dealings with the kindred. What hashappened, my cousin? Maybe you have seen or heard something." So I narrated toher the story. She replied: "Glad tidings to you O cousin and rest assured. Bythe being by whom I swear, I am hopeful that you will be the prophet of this ummah."'Then she stood up and put on her outside apparel and went over to Waraqah ibnNawfal who was the son of her uncle. Waraqah had read religious scriptures andbecome a Christian and had heard the content of the Torah and the Gospel. Soshe narrated to him what she was informed of by God's messenger (sws) in termsof what he saw and heard. At this, Waraqah said: 'Quddus [holy]! Quddus [holy]!By the being in whose hands is Waraqah's life, if you are telling the truth tome O Khadijah, he is the prophet of this nation and the great Namus visited himthe one who would visit Moses. Tell him to rest assured.' Khadijah thenreturned to God's messenger (sws) and informed him of what Waraqah had said toher. This lessened some of the grief he was inflicted with. When[108] God's messenger completed his secludedstay he did what he used to do: he circumambulated the House of God; he sawWaraqah ibn Nawfal while he was also circumambulating it. He said: 'O son of mybrother inform me what you saw and heard.' At this, God's messenger (sws)informed him. So, Waraqah said to him: 'By the being in whose hand is my life!Indeed the great Namus has come to you who came to Moses [as well in the past]and you surely are the prophet of this nation. Your nation will definitelyharass you, reject you and [some will] try to kill you and [some will] come toyour help. If I am alive at that time I will surely come to your aid with ahelp which God knows.' Then he drew closer towards the head of God'sMessenger's and kissed his forehead. God's Messenger (sws) then returned to hishouse and Waraqah's conversations increased his assurance and reduced some ofthe grief that had inflicted him."[109] _____________ [74]. Abu 'AbdullahAhmad ibn Hanbal al-Shaybani, Al-'Ilal wa ma'rifahal-rijal, 1st ed.,vol. 1 (Beirut: Al-Maktab al-islami, 1988), 228. [75]. See, for example: Al-Mizzi, Tahdhib al-kamal, vol. 24, 261. [76]. Ibn'Asakir, Tarikh Madinah Dimashq, vol. 50, 364; Jalal al-Din 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Kamal al-DinAbi Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Sabiq al-Din al-Suyuti, Tabaqat al-huffaz, 1sted. (Beirut:Dar al-kutub al-'ilmiyyah, n.d.), 102. [77]. See, for example: Al-Mizzi, Tahdhibal-kamal, vol. 31, 403. [78]. Ibn Hajar,Tahdhib al-tahdhib, vol. 11, 396. [79]. 'Abdal-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Idris ibn Abi Hatim, Al-Jarh wa al-ta'dil,1st ed., vol. 9 (Beirut: Dar al-ihya' al-turath al-'arabi, 1952),248. [80]. Al-Mizzi, Tahdhib al-kamal, vol. 32, 555. [81]. Al-Ka'bi,Qabul al-akhbar, vol. 1, 365-366. [82]. Al-Dhahabi, Siyar, vol. 7, 9. [83]. Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn 'Umar ibn Musa al-'Uqayli, Al-Ḍu'afa'al-kabir, 1st ed. vol. 3 (Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-'ilmiyyah, 1984), 109. It may be noted that al-Dhahabi has pointed outthat al-'Abbas is the only person who has this opinion about 'Abd al-Razzaq andother authorities do not agree with him. See: Abu 'Abdullah Shams al-DinMuhammad ibn Ahmad ibn 'Uthman ibn Qayamaz ibn 'Abdullah al-Dhahabi, Mizan al-i'tidal fi naqdal-rijal, 1st ed., vol. 4(Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-'ilmiyyah, 1995), 343. [84]. Al-Dhahabi, Mizanal-i'tidal, vol. 4, 343. [85]. Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh Madinah Dimashq, vol.36, 182. In the narrative under discussion, Ma'mar reports from 'Abdal-Razzaq. [86]. Ibn Abi Hatim, Al-Jarh wa al-ta'dil,vol. 6, 38. [87]. Abu Zur'ah'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abd al-Karim ibn Yazid al-Razi, Al-Ḍu'afa' wa ajwibahal-Razi 'ala su'alat al-Bardha'i, 2nd ed. (al-Mansurah: Daral-wafa', 1409 AH), 450. [88]. Al-'Uqayli, Al-Ḍu'afa'al-kabir, vol. 2,308. [89]. Al-Bukhari, Al-Tarikh al-kabir, vol. 1, 178. [90]. Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Isma'il al-Bukhari, Al-Ḍu'afa'al-saghir, 1sted. (Halab: Dar al-wa'y, 1396 AH), 104. [91]. Abu 'Abd al-RahmanAhmad ibn Shu'ayb al-Nasa'i, Al-Ḍu'afa' wa al-matrukin (Halab: Daral-wa'y, 1396 AH), 92. [92]. Abu HatimMuhammad ibn Hibban al-Busti, Al-Majruhin min al-muhaddithin wa al-du'afa' waal-matrukin, 1st ed., vol. 2 (Halab: Dar al-wa'y, 1396 AH), 290. [93]. Al-Dhahabi, Mizan al-i'tidal, vol. 6, 273. [94]. Al-Mizzi, Tahdhib al-kamal, vol. 26, 188. [95]. Abu al-Wafa'Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Sibt ibn al-'Ajami al-Halbi, Kashf al-hathith 'amman rumiyabi wad al-hadith (Beirut: Maktabah al-nahdah al-'arabiyyah, 1987), 243. [96]. Abu al-FadlAhmad ibn 'Ali ibn Hajaral-'Asqalani, Taqrib al-tahdhib, 1st ed. (Syria:Dar al-rashid, 1986), 498. [97]. Al-Dhahabi, Mizan al-i'tidal, vol. 7, 140. [98]. Ibn Hajar, Taqrib al-tahdhib, 583. [99]. Al-Mizzi, Tahdhib al-kamal, vol. 12, 251. [100]. Ibn Hibban, Al-Majruhin, vol. 1, 352. [101]. Abu al-Faraj 'Abdal-Rahman 'Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al-Jawzi, Al-Ḍu'afa' wa al-matrukin, 1st ed., vol. 2 (Beirut: Dar al-kutubal-'ilmiyyah, 1406 AH), 32. [102]. Al-Mizzi, Tahdhib al-kamal, vol. 13, 13-15. [103]. Al-Mizzi, Tahdhib al-kamal, vol. 29, 446-448. [104]. Ibn al-Junayd, Su'alatAbi Ishaq Ibrahim ibn 'Abdullah ibn al-Junayd li ImamYahya ibn Ma'in, 418. [105]. From here on, there is an anomaly in the directive. In the earlier part, it was statedthat he had already returned from Hira' and then what ensued was mentioned. Atthis juncture, his return from Hira' is mentioned once again – an event whichhad already taken place. The same anomaly exists in the next narrative. [106]. Al-Tabari, Tarikh,vol. 1, 532-533. See also: Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh MadinahDimashq, vol. 63, 11-14. [107]. It isevident from the biographical note by al-Bukhari that he was a follower (tabi'i)who has narrated from al-'Ula ibn Jariyyah who was acompanion of the Prophet (sws). See: Abu 'AbdullahMuhammad ibn Isma'il al-Bukhari, Al-Tarikh al-kabir, vol. 5 (n.p.: Dar al-fikr, n.d.), 421. [108]. The anomaly pointed out in the previous narrative beginsfrom here in this narrative. [109]. Ibn Ishaq, Al-Sirah, vol.2, 100-103, (no. 140). Seealso: al-Bayhaqi, Dala'il al-nubuwwah, vol. 2, 146-149. ____________




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