A Critical Analysis of The “First Revelation” Narratives (2/3)

A Critical Analysis of The “First Revelation” Narratives (2/3)

III Conclusion It is evident from thisanalysis that the questions which arise on the text and chain of narration ofthis report do not leave it with much credibility. It may also be noted that the earliest source IbnIshaq (d. 151 AH)) in this regard only mentions the natureof the Prophet's (sws) dreams, and his inclination towardsseclusion. There is no mention of any tahannuth. The text is also devoid of other detailsthat are found in al-Bukhari. Here is the text: نا أحمد نا يونس عنابن اسحاق قال حدثني محمد ابن مسلم بن شهاب الزهري عن عروة عن عائشة أنها قالت أولما ابتديء به رسول الله صلي الله عليهوسلم من النبوة حين أراد الله عز وجل كرامتهورحمة العباد به ألا يرى شيئا الا جاءت كفلق الصبح فمكث علي ذلك ما شاء الله عزوجل أن يمكث وحبب الله عز وجل اليه الخلوة فلم يكن شيء أحب اليه من أن يخلو وحده 'Urwah reports from 'A'ishahthat she said: "The commencement of prophethood of God's messenger when theAlmighty intended to bless His servants and show mercy on them was that hisdreams would be like daylight. He continued receiving these as long as theAlmighty wanted. Then God endeared to him the fondness for seclusion. Nothingbecame dearer to him than to remain alone in seclusion."[34] If this much was the actual content of thisreport, then perhaps no objection can be raised against it. IV Appendices A: The Questionable Personality of IbnShihab al-Zuhri: Here are some details regarding the questionable personality of Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri: Al-Ka'bi records:[35] Al-Karabisi says thatal-Zuhri has reported from Salim and 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah what no one hasever reported. When Yahya ibn Ma'in was asked about al-Zuhri, he replied: laysabi shay'. Yahya is also reported to have said that the narratives of Yahyaibn Abi Kathir are better than those of al-Zuhri. Al-Dhahabi records:[36] Shu'bah said that Yahya ibn Abi Kathir isbetter than al-Zuhri as far as Hadith is concerned; Ahmad ibn Hanbal said thatif there was a difference in the narrations between al-Zuhri and Yahya, the latterwas to be preferred. Theslackness in al-Zuhri's transmission is evident from what one of his students'Ubaydullah ibn 'Umar once said about him: أخبرناأنس بن عياض عن عبيد الله بن عمر قال رأيت ابن شهاب يؤتي بالكتاب من كتبه فيقال لهيا أبا بكر هذا كتابك وحديثك نرويه عنك فيقول نعم ما قرأه ولا قريء عليه "I saw Ibn Shihab when one of his books was brought tohim. So he was asked: 'O Abu Bakr! This is your book and contains narrativesrecorded by you; can we narrate it on your authority.' He replied: 'Yes,' whileneither did he read it nor was it read out to him."[37] Inanother variant, this sloppy nature of transmission is mentioned thus: أخبرناأبو محمد بن الأكفاني أنبأنا أبو الحسن بن أبي الحديد أنبأنا جدي أنبأنا عبدالغافر بن سلامة بن أزهر الحمصي أنبأنا أبو سعيد الأشج فيما كتب إلينا أنبأنا أبوضمرة أنس بن عياض ثنا عبيد الله بن عمر قال أتيت الزهري بكتاب مدرجفقلت أروي هذا عنك قال نعم 'Ubaydullahibn 'Umar said: "I brought a folded book toal-Zuhri and said to him: 'Can I narrate this from you.' He replied: 'Yes.'"[38] Another student of al-Zuhri, Ma'mar ibn Rashid recordshis carelessness in the following way: أخبرناعبد الله بن يحيي بن عبد الجبار السكري قال أنا إسماعيل بن محمد الصفار قال ثناأحمد بن منصور الرمادي قال ثنا عبد الرزاق قال أنا معمر قال رأيت رجلا من بني أميةيقال له إبراهيم بن الوليد جاء الی الزهري بكتاب فعرضه عليه ثم قال أحدث بهذا عنكيا أبا بكر قال إي لعمري فمن يحدثكموه غيري Ma'mar said: "I saw a person from theUmayyad clan called Ibrahim ibn al-Walid; he came over to al-Zuhri with a bookand presented it to him and then said: 'Should I narrate it from you O AbuBakr!' He replied: 'I swear who else but myself could have narrated it toyou.'"[39] At another instance, Ma'mar records asimilar indifference of his teacher: أخبرناأبو القاسم إسماعيل بن أحمد أنبأنا محمد بن هبة الله أنبأنا محمد بن الحسين أنبأناعبد الله بن جعفر ثنا يعقوب ثنا العباس بن عبد العظيم حدثنا عبد الرزاق قال قالمعمر كان الزهري في أصحابه مثل الحكم بن عتيبة في أصحابه ينقل حديث بعضهم إلی بعض Ma'mar said: "Al-Zuhri would be the same inthe matters of his companions as al-Hakam ibn 'Utaybah would be regarding hiscompanions: both would attribute the narrative of one teacher to another."[40] Right after the above narrative, it isstated: أخبرناأبو محمد بن طاووس أنبأنا أبو الغنائم بن أبي عثمان أنبأنا أبو عمر بن مهدي أنبأنامحمد بن أحمد بن يعقوب ثنا جدي حدثني أحمد بن حنبل سمع عبد الرزاق قال قال معمركان الزهري في أصحابه مثل الحكم في أصحابه يروي عن عروة وسالم الشيء كذلك Ma'mar said: "Al-Zuhri in the matters ofhis companions would be the same as al-Hakam ibn 'Utaybah would be regardinghis companions. He would report from 'Urwah and Salim narratives in a similarway.[41] This is a veryimportant piece of information since in the narrative under discussion, al-Zuhriis allegedly reporting from 'Urwah. In the light of this information, we do noteven know if al-Zuhri is actually reporting this narrative from 'Urwah or not. Another significantfact to note in the context of 'Urwah reporting this narrative is the statementof his son Hisham ibn 'Urwah regarding al-Zuhri's reports from 'Urwah. Al-Raba'i(d. 329 AH) records: حدثنامحمد بن روح، قال: سمعت الأصمعي يقول: سمعت ابن أبي الزناد يحدث عن هشام بن عروةقال: ما حدث ابن شهاب عن أبي بحديث فيه طول إلا زاد فيه ونقص. Hisham ibn 'Urwah said: "Whatever detailedreports Ibn Shihab narrated from my father he either added to them or shortenedthem."[42] This sheds light on al-Zuhri's tendency tocarve out narratives in the manner he wanted to present them. Thus, who knowswhat he has added or subtracted in the narrative under discussion. One of the charges against al-Zuhri was his questionablelinks with the ruling Umayyads in his times. Makhul (112 AH), a contemporaryauthority of his times, is reported to have said: أي رجل هو لولا أنه أفسد نفسه بصحبةالملوك What a person he could have been had he not corruptedhimself by the company of rulers.[43] It is recorded by Ibn al-Junayd (d. 270 AH): سمعت يحيي بن معين يقول: «منصور عن إبراهيم عن الأسود عنعائشة، أحب إلي من هشام بن عروة عن أبيه عن عائشة»، قيل له: فالزهري عن عروة عن عائشة؟ قال: «هماسواء، ومنصور أحب إلي، لأن الزهري كان سلطانيا "I heard Yahya ibn Ma'in say: 'Mansur reporting from Ibrahimfrom al-Aswad from 'A'ishah is preferred by me over Hisham ibn 'Urwah reportingfrom his father who reports from 'A'ishah.' It was said to him: 'Then whatabout al-Zuhri reporting from 'Urwah from 'A'ishah?' He replied: 'Both of themare equal. Mansur's report is preferred by me because al-Zuhri belonged to theruling party.'"[44] Here again the words "what about al-Zuhri reporting from'Urwah from 'A'ishah," should be noted since the narrative under discussion hasprecisely this chain of narration. Here is how 'Amr ibn 'Ubayd (d. 144 AH) condemned himwith regard to his links with the ruling party: أخبرناأبو البركات الأنماطي أنبأنا ثابت بن بندار أنبأنا محمد بن علي بن يعقوب القاضيأنبأنا محمد بن أحمد البابسيري ثنا الأحوص بن المفضل بن غسان ثنا أبي قال وحدثنيمحمد بن عبد الله الغلابي عن عمر بن رديح قال كنت مع ابن شهاب الزهري نمشي فرآني عمروبن عبيد فلقيني بعد فقال ما لك ولمنديل الأمراء يعني ابن شهاب 'Umar ibn Radih said: "I was with Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri. We werewalking when 'Amr ibn 'Ubayd saw me. So when he later met me, he said: 'What isyour relation with the napkin of the rulers ie., Ibn Shihab?'"[45] When Abu Hazim Salamah ibn Dinar (d.133/135/ 140/144 AH) counseled the caliph Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Malik (99 AH)that the best rulers are ones who love scholars and the worst of scholars areones who love rulers, it is reported that he replied: والذي لاإله إلا هو ولأزهدن في الزهري من بعد اليوم (I swearby the Being besides who there is no god that I shall definitely forsakeal-Zuhri from this day).[46] Abu Hazim also wrote a detailed letter to al-Zuhri inwhich he chided him by saying: جعلوك قطبا تدور رحي باطلهموجسرا يعبرون بك إلي بلائهم وسلما إلي ضلالتهم وداعيا إلي غيهم سالكا سبيلهميدخلون بك الشك علي العلماء ويقتادون بك قلوب الجهال إليهم(These rulers will make you the axle which will rotate the wheel of their eviland will make you a bridge through whichthey will take you to their falsehood and make you a ladder that will lead totheir misguidance and make you someone who calls towards their rebelliousnessand someone who treads their path through which they will enter doubt amongscholars and through you make the hearts of the ignorant follow them.)[47] It is evident from the following narrative that al-Zuhriwas rebuked by Imam Malik (d. 179 AH) for using his knowledge to acquire worldly benefits: أبوأسامة، عن جرير بن حازم ، عن الزبير بن سعيد الهاشمي ، عن نافع بن مالك ، أبي سهلعن مالك بن أنس، قال: دخلت علي الزهري أنا ورهط معي، فسألناه الحديث فكأنه لم يبسطإلينا. وجاءه حصي لبني مروان، ومعه كتاب فسأله عنه فحدثه قال: فقلت له: يا أبا بكرأتاك نفر من إخوانك فسألوك الحديث فلم تبسط إليهم، وجاءك هذا فانبسطت إليه وحدثتهلمكانه من أصحابه ، ألا أحدثك حديثا بلغني عن رسول الله - صلي الله عليه وسلمفقال: ما هو قلت: بلغني أن رسول الله - صلي الله عليه وسلم - قال: من طلب شيئا منهذا العلم الذي يراد به وجه الله ليصيب به عرضا من الدنيا دخل النار فقال: ما سمعتهذا. قال: قلت أو كل حديث رسول الله - صلي الله عليه وسلم - سمعت قال: لا. قلت:فنصفه . قال: لعلي قلت: فهذا في النصف الذي لم تسمع. Malik ibn Anas stated: "I came to al-Zuhriwith a group of people. We asked him to narrate Hadith to us but it seemed thathe was not willing to do so. Then a eunuch of the Banu Marwan came to him witha book and he asked al-Zuhri to narrate to him. So he did so." I said to him:"O Abu Bakr! A group of your brothers came to you and asked you to narrate Hadithto them but you were not willing to do so. This person came to you and younarrated to him and narrated to him because of his status among his associates.Should I not relate to you a Hadith which has reached me from God's Messenger (sws)?"At this, he replied: 'What is it?' I said to al-Zuhri: 'Has it not reached youthat God's Messenger said that he who sought this knowledge through which thepleasure of God is sought to gain some worldly benefit will enter Hell.' Atthis, al-Zuhri said: 'No, this has not reached me from God's Messenger.' I saidto him: 'Have you heard all the narratives of God's Messenger?' He replied:'No.' I said: 'Half?' He replied: 'Perhaps.' I said: 'Well this was in theother half that you have not heard.'"[48] Itmay also be pointed out that various authorities of 'ilm al-rijal saythat Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri is guilty of the following: i. Tadlis ii. Irsal iii. Idraj As far as tadlis isconcerned, it is recorded: وصفه الشافعي و الدارقطني و غير واحد بالتدليس Imam al-Shaf'i, al-Daraqutni and others have attributed tadlis toIbn Shihab al-Zuhri.[49] The following words of Abu Hatimrecorded by al-Ka'bi show that Abu Hatim also regarded him to be guilty of tadlis: قالأبو حاتم الرازى: الزهرى أحب إلي من الأعمش، وكلاهما يحتج بحديثه فيما لم يدلسا Abu Hatim al-Razi said: "Al-Zuhri ispreferred by me over al-A'mash and the narratives of both can be adduced fromin what both of them are not guilty of tadlis."[50] Nafi' (d. 117 AH) records this weakness onthe part of al-Zuhri in the following words: وكان نافع يقول: إنالزهري سمع أحاديث ابن عمر مني فلقي سالما فقال: هذه أحاديث أبيك؟ قال: نعم، فرواها عنسالم وتركني. Nafi' used to say: "Indeed, al-Zuhri heardfrom me the narratives of 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar. So, when he met Salim [ibn'Abdullah ibn 'Umar], he said to him: 'Are these narratives from your father?'He said: 'Yes.' Thereafter, he narrated them from him and stopped narratingfrom me."[51] As far as al-Zuhri's irsal isconcerned, ImamAbu Da'ud cites the following information: حديثه الفان و مائتان،النصف منها مسند He hasreported twenty two hundred Ahadith. Out of them, only half are musnad[the rest are mursal].[52] Ibn Hajar records: كان يحي بن سعيد لايرى إرسال الزهري و قتادة شيئا ويقول هو بمنزلةالريح Yahya ibn Sa'id al-Qattan is of the opinion that the irsal of Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri and al-Qatadah is baseless and said: "It is like a wind."[53] Al-Dhahabihas reported the following words of Yahya ibn Sa'id al-Qattan from Abu Qudamah al-Sarakhsi: مرسل الزهري شر من مرسل غيره لأنه حافظ وكلما قدر أن يسمیسمي وإنما يترك من لا يستجيز أن يسميه The mursal of Ibn Shihabal-Zuhri is the worst of all since he is a hafiz. Whenever he wants, hediscloses the name of a narrator, and whenever he wants, he conceals his name.[54] To this information can also beadded the following comment of Imam al-Shafi'i: إرسال الزهري ليس بشيءلأنا نجده يروي عن سليمان بن أرقم The irsalof Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri has no value because we have found him narrating from [a person as unreliable as] Sulayman ibn Arqam.[55] It maynoted that Ibn Hajar[56] while referring to various authorities has alluded totwelve people from whom al-Zuhri would do irsal. They are: i. 'Abdal-Rahman ibn Azhar (d. 63 AH) ii. 'Abdal-Rahman ibn Ka'b ibn Malik[57] iii. Abanibn 'Uthman ibn 'Affan (d. 105 AH) iv. Mas'udibn al-Hakam ibn al-Rabi'[58] v. Husaynibn Muhammad al-Salimi[59] vi.'Abdullah ibn 'Umar al-Khattab (d. 73 AH) vii.'Abdullah ibn Ja'far al-Tayyar (d. 80 AH) viii. 'Ubadahibn al-Samit (d. 34 AH) ix. Rafi'ibn Khudayj (d. 74 AH) x. Umm 'Abdullahal-Dawsiyyah[60] xi. AbuHurayrah (d. 59 AH) xii. AbuRuhm Ahzab ibn Usayd[61] Accordingto Yahya ibn Ma'in,[62] al-Zuhri has also not heard from 'Umar ibn Sa'd (d. 65AH). Abu Hatim[63] has specified that al-Zuhri has not heard from Miswaribn Makhramah (d. 64 AH) and 'Asim ibn 'Umar ibn al-Khattab (d. 70 AH). A very clear instance of al-Zuhri's irsalis also found in some variants of the narrative under discussion. They mentionat the end that a delay in revelation grieved the Prophet so much that he wantedto kill himself and would climb the mountains to commit suicide by throwinghimself down: وفترالوحي فترة حتی حزن النبي صلی الله عليه وسلم فيما بلغنا حزنا غدا منه مرارا كييتردى من رؤوس شواهق الجبال فكلما أوفی بذروة جبل لكي يلقي منه نفسه تبدى له جبريلفقال يا محمد إنك رسول الله حقا فيسكن لذلك جأشه وتقر نفسه فيرجع فإذا طالت عليهفترة الوحي غدا لمثل ذلك فإذا أوفی بذروة جبل تبدى له جبريل فقال له مثل ذلك According to what hasreached us: "A lot of delay occurred in revelation which ultimately grievedGod's Prophet a lot. He repeatedly went to throw himself down from mountainpeaks. Every time he climbed towards the peak of a mountain in order to throwhimself down from it, Gabriel appeared before him and said: 'O Muhammad! Yousurely are God's Messenger.' At this, he calmed downed and felt comforted.Gabriel would then go away. When again in future there would be a delay inrevelation, he would again go towards a mountain peak to throw down himself. Assoon as he would climb the peak of the mountain, Gabriel would appear to himand repeat what he said earlier."[64] Moreover, the following narrative makes it very clear that this additionis from al-Zuhri: حدثنامحمد بن عبدالأعلی قال حدثنا ابن ثور عن معمر عن الزهري قال فتر الوحي عن رسولالله فترة فحزن حزنا شديدا جعل يغدو إلی رؤوس شواهق الجبال ليتردى منها فكلما أوفیبذروة جبل تبدى له جبرئيل فيقول إنك نبي الله فيسكن لذلك جأشه وترجع إليه نفسهفكان النبي يحدث عن ذلك قال فبينما أنا أمشي يوما إذ رأيت الملك الذي كان يأتينيبحراء علی كرسي بين السماء والأرض فجئثت منه رعبا فرجعت إلی خديجة فقلت زملونيفزملناه أي دثرناه فأنزل الله عز وجل يَاَ أَيُّهَا المُدَّثِّر قُمْ فَأَنْذِرْوَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّر وَثَيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ قال الزهري فكان أول شيء أنزل عليهاِقْرَأ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ حتی بلغ مَا لَم يَعْلَمْ Al-Zuhri said: "When divine revelation did not come to God's Messenger (sws) for a while, hebecame very sad. He would go to the peaks of mountains so that he could throwdown himself from there. So whenever he reached the mountain peak, Gabrielwould appear to him and say: 'You are God's Prophet.' This would assure him andhe would return to normal. Once, while narrating this incident, the Prophetsaid: 'I suddenly saw the angel who came to me in the Hira cave. He was sittingon a chair between the sky and the earth. At this, I halted because of fear andreturned to Khadijah. So, I said to her: "Have me covered." So she had mecovered with a sheet. At this, God revealed the words: يَاَ أَيُّهَا المُدَّثِّر قُمْ فَأَنْذِرْوَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّر وَثَيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ.'" al-Zuhrisaid: "The first thing that was revealed to him was اِقْرَأ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ till مَالَم يَعْلَم."[65] This has already been noted by manyscholars as an anomaly and is from the balaghat of al-Zuhri.[66] All such balaghat by him are regarded to beworthless by authorities since they are all mursal. Earlier citations testify to this. As for the idrajof Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri it is recorded in al-Mu'tasar min al-mukhtasar: كان يخلط كلامه بالحديث و لذالك قالموسی بن عقبة: افصل كلام النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم من كلامك Ibn Shihabal-Zuhri used to mix his own words with the Hadith and that is why Musa ibn'Uqbah said: "Separate the words of the Prophet from yours."[67] Ibn Rajabal-Hanbali records: فإن الزهريكان كثيرا يروي الحديث، ثم يدرج فيه أشياء، بعضها مراسيل، وبعضها من رأيه وكلامه For Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri wouldnarrate Ahadith and on most occasions would insert sentences from his own self.Some of these would be mursal and some of them would be his own opinionsand words.[68] Rabi'ah [ibn Abi 'abd al-Rahman] would say to Ibn Shihab: ان حالتیليس تشبه حالك، انا اقول برأى من شاء اخذه و أنت تحدث عن النبی صلی الله عليهوسلم، فتحفظ، لا ينبغی لأحد ان يعلم ان عنده شیء من العلم يضيع نفسه. "My situation is totally different from you. I state my own opinion.One is free to accept it [or reject it] and you say it on the authority of theProphet (sws) and so you must be careful, and it is not befitting for a personwho is knowledgeable to waste himself [like this]."[69] Al-Sakhawi (d. 902 AH) records: كان الزهري يفسر الأحاديث كثيراوربما أسقط أداة التفسير ، فكان بعض أقرانه دائمأيقول له: افصل كلامك من كلامالنبي صلي الله عليه وسلم Al-Zuhriused to explain various Ahadith alot and many a time he would not mention the particle of explanation [fromwhich would be known whether the words were from the Prophet or from al-Ẓuhri.]So, some of his contemporaries would always ask him: "Separate your words fromthose of the Prophet."[70] In thenarrative under discussion, an instance of idraj can easily be detected. The word التحنث is explained asالتعبد (worship).As recorded by Ibn Hajar, in the opinion of al-Tibi (d. 743 AH), this is doneby al-Zuhri.[71]It is specified by Ibn Hajar that al-Tibi hasnot cited any reason for this inference. However, to this writer itseems very likely that al-Zuhri is the author of this insertion. Thisinformation cited about Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri places a question mark over hisoverall reliability. Moreover, the followingletter written by the celebrated authority Imam Layth ibn Sa'd (d. 175 AH) toImam Malik (d. 179 AH) casts further doubts on him: وكان يكونمن ابن شهاب اختلاف كثير إذا لقيناه ، و إذا كاتبه بعضنا فربما كتب فی الشئ الواحدعلی فضل رأيه وعلمه بثلاثة أنواع ينقض بعضها بعضا، ولا يشعر بالذى مضی من رأيه فیذلك الأمر، فهو الذى يدعونی إلیترك ما أنكرت تركی إياه. Andwhenever we met Ibn Shihab, there would arise a difference of opinion. And when any one of us would askhim in writing about some issue, he, in spite of being so learned, would givethree very different answers, each of which would negate the other and he wouldnot even be aware of what he had already said. So, it is because of this that Ihave left him – something which you did not like.[72] Itis also recorded about him: ربمااحتج له في الحديث جماعة فحدث به مرة عنهم ومرة عن أحدهم بقدر نشاطه حين تحديثهوربما أدخل حديث بعضهم في بعض كما صنع في حديث الإفك وغيره وربما كسل فأرسل وربماانشرح فوصل فلذا اختلف أصحابه عليه اختلافا كثيرا Sometimes, a group of people would present a Hadith tohim to corroborate something. So, at times, he would narrate from the wholegroup and sometimes from one person of that group. This would be according tothe way he felt during the narration. Sometimes, he would insert the Hadithnarrated by one into that narrated by someone else as he has done so in the Hadithof ifk besides others. When he would feel lazy, he would narrate mursalAhadith, and when he would be feeling fresh, he would narrate muttasilones. It is because of this that his companions differ a lot about him.[73] In conclusion, the above cited jarhon al-Zuhri makes him an extremely suspect narrator. ________ [34]. Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibnYasar, Al-Sirah, vol.2 (n.p.: Ma'had al-dirasat wa al-abhath li al-ta'rif, n.d.), 100. In some laterbooks also, there is only a mention of this inclination towards seclusion. Seealso: Abu 'Isa Muhammad ibn 'Isa al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, vol. 5 (Beirut: Dar ihya' al-turath al-'arabi, n.d.), 596, (no. 3632); Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 6, 153, (no. 25243); Abu al-Qasim Sulayman ibn Ahmad al-Tabarani, Al-Awa'il,1st ed. (Beirut: Dar al-furqan, 1403 AH), 42, (no. 16); Abu BakrAhmad ibn 'Amr ibn 'Asim al-Shaybani, Al-Awa'il (Kuwait: Dar al-khulafa'li al-kitab al-islami, n.d.), 87, (no. 100). [35]. Abu al-Qasim'Abdullah al-Ka'bi, Qabul al-akhbar fi ma'rifah al-rijal, 1st ed., vol. 1(Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-'ilmiyyah, 2000), 268-270. [36]. Abu 'AbdullahShams al-Din Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn 'Uthman ibn Qayamaz ibn 'Abdullahal-Dhahabi, Siyar a'lam al-nubala', 9thed., vol. 6 (Beirut: Mu'assasah al-risalah, 1413AH), 28. [37]. Abu 'AbdullahMuhammad ibn Sa'd al-Zuhri, Al-Tabaqat al-kubra: Al-Qismal-mutammim li tabi'i ahl al-Madinah wa man ba'dahum, 2nd ed.(Madinah Munawwarah: Maktabah al-'ulum wa al-hikam, 1408 AH), 173. [38]. Ibn 'Asakir, TarikhMadinah Dimashq, vol. 55, 364. [39]. Ahmad ibn 'Aliibn Thabit al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Al-Kifayah fi'ilm al-riwayah (Madinah: Al-Maktabah al-'ilmiyyah, n.d.), 266. Someonecan argue that the words فعرضه عليهmean that Ibrahim ibn al-Walid read out the book to al-Zuhri and hence it stoodverified by him. However, the last part of the sentence from al-Zuhriclearly shows that he had permitted Ibrahim to narrate it on his authoritywithout even checking its contents. [40]. Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh Madinah Dimashq,vol. 55, 353. [41]. Ibid. [42]. 'Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Rabi'ah ibn Zabaral-Raba'i, Muntaqa min Akhbar al-Asma'i, 1st ed. (n.p: Dar al-tallas, 1987), 93-94, (no. 3). [43]. Al-Dhahabi, Siyar, vol. 5, 339. [44]. Abu IshaqIbrahim ibn 'Abdullah ibn al-Junayd, Su'alat Abi Ishaq Ibrahim ibn 'Abdullah ibn al-Junayd li Imam Yahya ibn Ma'in, 1st ed.(Cairo: Al-Faruq al-hadithah li al-taba'ah wa al-nashr, 2007), 355. [45]. Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh Madinah Dimashq, vol. 55, 370. [46]. Ibid., vol. 22, 27-31. [47]. Ibid., vol. 22, 42. [48]. Al-Ka'bi,Qabul al-akhbar, vol. 1, 266. [49]. Abu al-FadlAhmad ibn 'Ali ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, Tabaqat al-mudallisin, 1st ed. (Aman: Maktabahal-manar, 1983). 45. [50]. Al-Ka'bi,Qabul al-akhbar, vol. 2, 402. [51]. Ibid.,vol. 1, 269. [52]. Abu 'AbdullahShams al-Din Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn 'Uthman ibn Qayamaz ibn 'Abdullah al-Dhahabi, Tadhkirah al-huffaz. 1sted., vol. 1, Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-'ilmiyyah, n.d.),109. [53]. Abu al-Fadl Ahmad ibn 'Ali IbnHajar al-'Asqalani,Tahdhib al-tahdhib, 1st ed., vol. 9 (Beirut:Dar al-fikr, 1984), 398. [54].Al-Dhahabi, Tadhkirah al-huffaz, vol. 1, 111. [55].Al-Dhahabi, Siyar, vol. 5, 339. [56]. Ibn Hajar,Tahdhib al-tahdhib, vol. 9, 396-398. [57]. According to Ibn Hajar, he died in the caliphate of Sulayman ibn 'Abdal-Malik (96-99 AH).See: Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-tahdhib, vol. 6, 259. [58]. According to al-Mizzi, he was born in the lifetime of the Prophet (sws)and is regarded as a prominent tabi'i. See: Abu al-Hajjaj Yusuf ibn al-Zaki al-Mizzi, Tahdhib al-kamal fi asma'al-rijal, 1st ed., vol. 27 (Beirut: Mu'assasah al-risalah, 1980), 472. [59]. According to al-Safadi, he was a tabi'iof Madinah. See: Abu al-Safa'Salah al-Din Khalil ibn Aybak ibn 'Abdullah al-Safadi, Al-Wafi bi al-wafayat,vol. 13 (Beirut: Dar ihya al-turath, 2000), 59. [60]. According to Ibn Hajar, shebelonged among the companions. See: Abu al-Fadl Ahmad ibn 'Ali Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, Al-Isabah fitamyiz al-sahabah, 1st ed., vol. 8 (Beirut: Dar al-jil, 1992), 252. [61]. It is evident from his biographical note byal-Bukhari that he was a tabi'i. See: Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad ibnIsma'il al-Bukhari, Al-Tarikh al-kabir, 8 vol. 2 (n.p:Dar al-fikr, n.d), 64. [62]. See: 'Abbas ibn Muhammad ibn Hatim al-Duri, TarikhYahya ibn Ma'in, 1st ed., vol. 3 (Makkah: Markaz al-bahthal-'ilmi wa ihya' al-turath al-islami, 1979), 216. [63]. See: 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Hatim, Marasil,1st ed. (Beirut: Mu'assasah al-risalah, 1397 AH), 191-192. [64]. See, for example: al-Bukhari, Al-Jami'al-sahih, vol. 4, 1894, (no. 4670); Ibid., vol. 6, 2561, (no. 6581). [65]. Al-Tabari,Tarikh, vol. 1, 535. [66]. Abu al-Fadl Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, Fath al-Bari, vol. 12 (Beirut: Dar al-ma'rifah, 1379 AH), 359. [67]. Abu al-Mahasin Yusuf ibn Musa, Kitab al-mu'tasar min al-mukhtasarmin mushkil al-athar, vol. 1 (Beirut: 'Alam al-kitab, n.d.), 196. [68]. Abual-Faraj Zayn al-Din ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Fath al-Bari, 1sted., vol. 5 (Jaddah: Dar Ibn al-Jawzi, 1996), 286. [69]. Al-Bukhari, Al-Tarikh al-kabir,vol. 3, 286. [70]. Shamsal-Din Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sakhawi, Fath al-Mughith, 1sted., vol. 1 (Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-'ilmiyyah, 1403 AH), 247. [71].Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari,vol. 1, 23. [72]. Al-Duri, Tarikh Yahya ibnMa'in, vol. 4, 490. [73]. Muhammadibn 'Abd al-Baqi ibn Yusuf al-Zurqani, Sharh al-Zurqani 'ala Mu'atta' ImamMalik, 1st ed., vol. 3 (Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-'ilmiyyah, 1411AH), 476. ____________

Articles by this author



Qur’an Transmission through the Ages

Essentials of Empathy

Positive Thinking

Critical Evaluation of the Occasion of Revelation of Surah Abu Lahab

Power of Adaptability

Sharing is Caring


Crisis Management

Life-Long Learning

Lets be Just, Come what May!

Respecting Human Beings

Unsung Heroes


Man with a Mission


Selections from Hadith



Your Questions Answered


Successful Parents

Colours of Life


The Responsibles!


The Art of Positive Thinking

Humanity Unplugged


A Purposeful Life


Winning Hearts


Your Questions Answered

Selections from Hadith

Overcoming Prejudice

Overcoming Greed

Overcoming Greed


Spiritual Advancement

To Young Adults

Fasting in Extreme Conditions

Humanity First

A Critical Analysis of The “First Revelation” Narratives (3/3)

A Critical Analysis of The “First Revelation” Narratives (2/3)

A Critical Analysis of The “First Revelation” Narratives (1/3)

Introduction to the Special Issue




The Hagar-Zam Zam Narrative

Introduction to the Qur’an

Overcoming Despair and Dejection


The Better Human

Poise and Balance

When the Tough get Going!

Surah Bani Isra’il (3/3)

Surah Bani Isra’il (2/3)

The Importance of the Word “Self”

Prayers can Move Mountains!

Animal Rights

Qualities of a Good Teacher

Let us Live for Others!

The Art of Positive Thinking

Virtues of Silence

The Person in the Mirror

Some Requests to Young Adults

Some Requests to Wives

Humanity burnt at the Stake*

A Summary of some Exegetical Views on Verses 16-19 of Surah Qiyamah (2/2)

A Summary of some Exegetical Views on Verses 16-19 of Surah Qiyamah (1/2)

Some Remedies for Jealousy

Four Steps to Selflessness

The Five Essentials of Constructive Criticism

An Introduction to Ghamidi’s Mizan

How to overcome Selfishness

Your Question Answered

Explanation of Some Qur’anic Words

Anger Management

Some Suggestions for Married Couples

God’s Domain

Let us Light up our Prayers!

Successful Parents

The “Successful Spouse” Test

Let us Value what We have

Dear Husbands … If I may say!

The “Blind Drill”

Life goes on all the same!

Prayers can Move Mountains!

Two types of “Junk Food”

Reforming Our Conduct

Supplications from the Hadith

Supplications from the Qur’an

A Small Act of Kindness

Respecting the Privacy of our Mature Children

Explanation of Some Jarh Terms

Selections from Hadith

Your Questions Answered

Two Tough Trials

Benefiting from Criticism

Your Questions Answered

The Cause of Truth

Your Questions Answered

Selections from Hadith

Restraining our Wounded Pride

Selections from Hadith

The Power of One

Preparing for the Inevitable!

Selections from Hadith

Let us Refuse to Lose!

The Sound of Silence

Selections from Hadith

Let us Enjoy every Moment of our Lives

Lets be Just, Come what May!

Selections from Hadith

Beware of the three C’s: Cynicism, Criticism and Complaint

Never Give Up!

Do We have a Spiritual Part of the Day?

Tears of Old Parents … for their Children

Life goes on all the same!

The Decorum of Criticizing Others

Tears that would not stop!

Selections from Hadith

Hobbies we must have!

Death in Innocence

“Thank you” Culture

Visit to an Old Home

We Owe it to Our Society

Experiencing God

Discovering our Inner Talent

The Battle for Honesty Continues!

Saintly Sinners

Secret to Inner Peace

Your Questions Answered

Small Acts of Kindness

Illness can be a Boon!

Philosophy of Animal Sacrifice on ‘Id

Tears of Gratitude!

Lookout to Leap for Others!


Turning Foes into Friends

Let us then Live for Others!


A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (1/4)

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (2/4)

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (3/4)

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (4/4)

Abdus Sattar Ghauri (The Father Figure of Al-Mawrid!)