A Critical Evaluation of Variations found in the ‘Uthmānic Copies (Part 1/4)

A Critical Evaluation of Variations found in the ‘Uthmānic Copies (Part 1/4)


Qur'ān

I. Introduction

It is recorded in history that copies of the Qur'ān sent by 'Uthmān (rta) to various parts of his empire had variations in certain recitals:[1]these copies were not exactly similar to one another.

In this article, an analysis shall be conducted of these variations in the following order:

First, these variations as recorded by 'Imādī[2]shall be tabulated.

Second, a comprehensive survey of these variations whall be illustrated.

Third, how these variations have been interepreted by some authorities shall be discussed.

Fourth, these variations shall be critically analyzed together with the various interpretations of these variations.

II. The Recorded Variations

'Imādī[3] while quoting from Ibn Abī Dā'ūd's Kitāb al-Masāhif enlists the differences which existed in the 'Uthmānic copies sent to various areas of the empire. They are reflected in the following chart:

Mushaf Verses Mushaf Verses No.
Kūfah and Basrah وَوَصَّى بِهَا Madīnah وَأَوْصَى بِهَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ(132:2) 1.
" وَسَارِعُواْ إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ " سَارِعُواْ إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ(133:3) 2.
" مَن يَرْتَدَّ " مَن يَرْتَدِدْ(54:5) 3.
Kūfah لَّئِنْ أَنجَانَا Madīnah and Basrah لَّئِنْ أَنْجَيتَنَا(63:6) 4.
Kūfah and Basrah وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواْ مَسْجِدًا Madīnah الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواْ مَسْجِدًا ضِرَارًا(107:9) 5.
" خَيْرًا مِّنْهَا مُنقَلَبًا " خَيْرًا مِّنْهُما مُنقَلَبًا(36:18) 6.
" وَتَوَكَّلْ " فَتَوَكَّلْ (26: 217) 7.
" أَوْ أَن يظهر " وَأَنْ يُظْهِرَ فِي الْأَرْضِ (26:40) 8.
" فَبِمَا كَسَبَتْ " وَمَا أَصَابَكُم مِّن مُّصِيبَةٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ (30:42) 9.
" مَا تَشْتَهِي الْأَنفُسُ " فِيهَا مَا تَشْتَهِيهِ الْأَنفُسُ (71:43) 10.
" فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَمِيدُ " وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَمِيدُ (24:57) 11.
" وَلَا يَخَافُ " فَلَا يَخَافُ عُقْبَاهَا (15:91) 12.

Kūfah قَالَ رَبِّي يَعْلَمُ Madīnah and Basrah قُلْ رَبِّي يَعْلَمُ (4:21) 13.
" قَالَ إِنَّمَا أَدْعُو رَبِّي " قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَدْعُو رَبِّي (20:72) 14.
Basrah لله ، الله ، الله Madīnah and Kūfah لِلَّهِ ، لِلَّهِ ، لِلَّهِ (23: 85،87،89) 15.
Madīnah and Basrah وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ ِحُسْنًا Kūfah وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ إِحْسَانًا (15:46) 16.
" وَمَا عَمِلَتْهُ أَيْدِيهِمْ " وَمَا عَمِلَتْ (35:36) 17.
Makkah and Kūfah أَن تَأْتِهِمْ Madīnah and Basrah فَهَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا السَّاعَةَ أَن تَأْتِيَهُم بَغْتَةً (18:47) 18.
Irāq وَسَيَعْلَمُ الْكُفَّارُ Madīnah وَسَيَعْلَمُ الْكَافِرُ (43:13) 19.
" جَآؤُ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالزُّبُرِ Syriaand H~ijāz جَآؤُ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَبالذُّبُرِ (184:3) 20.
" مَّا فَعَلُوهُ إِلاَّ قَلِيلٌ Syria مَّا فَعَلُوهُ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً(66:4) 21.
" زَيَّنَ لِكَثِيرٍ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ قَتْلَ أَوْلاَدِهِمْ شُرَكَآؤُهُمْ Syriaand H~ijāz زَيَّنَ لِكَثِيرٍ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ قَتْلَ أَوْلاَدَهُمْ شُرَكَآئِهِمْ (137:6) 22.
" وَإِذْ أَنجَيْنَاكُم " وَإِذْ أَنجَاكُم مِّنْ آلِ فِرْعَونَ (141:7) 23.
" ثُمَّ كِيدُونِ " ثُمَّ كِيدُونِي فَلاَ تُنظِرُونِ (195:7) 24.

" مَا كَانَ لِنَبِيٍّ Syria مَا كَانَ للِنَبِيٍّ (67:8) 25.
" هُوَ الَّذِي يُسَيِّرُكُمْ " هُوَ الَّذِي يُنْشِرُكُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ (22:10) 26.
" كَانُوا هُمْ أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ Syriaand H~ijāz كَانُوا هُمْ أَشَدَّ مِنْكم (21:40) 27.
" وَالْحَبُّ ذُو الْعَصْفِ " وَالْحَبُّ ذَا الْعَصْفِ (12:55) 28.
" ذِي الْجَلَالِ " تَبَارَكَ اسْمُ رَبِّكَ ذُوْ الْجَلَالِ (78:88) 29.
" وَكُلًّا وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْحُسْنَى " وَكُلًّ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْحُسْنَى (10:57) 30.
Basrah وَرُسُلِهِ Makkah فَآمِنُواْ بِاللّهِ وَرَسُوْلِهِ (171:4) 31.
" تَجْرِي تَحْتَهَا الأَنْهَارُ " تَجْرِي من تَحْتَهَا الأَنْهَارُ (100:9) 32.
" وَمَا عَمِلَتْهُ أَيْدِيهِمْ Kūfah وَمَا عَمِلَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ (35:36) 33.
" ولَّئِنْ أَنجَيتنَا " ولَّئِنْ أَنجَانَا مِنْ هَـذِهِ (63:6) 34.
" قُلْ سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي " قَالَ سُبْحَنَ رَبِّي (93:17) 35.
" قُلْ رَبِّي يَعْلَمُ الْقَوْلَ فِي السَّمَاء " قَالَ رَبِّي يَعْلَمُ الْقَوْلَ فِي السَّمَاء (4:21) 36.

" قُلْ رَبِّ احْكُم بِالْحَقِّ " قَالَ رَبِّ احْكُم بِالْحَقِّ (112:21) 37.

III. A Comprehensive Survey of the Variations

Before any analysis on the discrepancies is presented, it would be appropriate to first present these discrepancies in a comprehensive way since the ones presented by 'Imādī have some errors and are also not comprehensive.

I shall use the abbreviations of the following three sources to cite these differences.[4]

Fadā'il al-Qur'ān[5]by Abū 'Ubayd (d.224 AH) = Fd

Kitāb al-masāhif[6]of Ibn Abī Dā'ūd (d. 316 AH) = Ma

Al-Muqni'[7]by al-Dānī (d. 444 AH) = Mq

The numeral after these symbols (eg. Fd1 or Ma1 or Mq 1) represents the serial no of that narrative in a particular book. The relevant isnāds of these texts are quoted in a later section of this article which conducts isnād analysis. The texts themselves are represented in the chart below.

It is evident from the three sources quoted above that the copies were sent to Makkah, Madīnah, Kūfah, Basrah and Syria. In addition, 'Uthmām (rta) kept a copy with himself that was called the imām (chief codex). One of the sources (Ma16) also speaks of an imām each of Hijāz and Irāq while many speak the masāhif / reading of the people of Hijāz and Irāq (Fd1, Fd2, Ma12, Ma14, Ma16, Ma17, Mq1, Mq2a).

Mushaf Verses Mushaf Verses No.
'Uthmān's Mushaf(Ma1, Ma2, Ma5, Ma11, Mq1); Kūfah and Basrah (Ma9); Irāq (Fd1, Ma12, Ma14, Ma16, Mq2(a)); All except Madīnah and Syria (Mq1) وَوَصَّى بِهَا Madīnah(Fd1, Ma1, Ma2, Ma9, Ma11,Ma12, Ma14, Mq1, Mq2(a), Mq2(b)); Syria (Ma12, Ma13, Ma16, Mq1); H~ijāz(Ma16) وَأَوْصَى بِهَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ(132:2) 1.
'Uthmān's Mushaf(Ma1, Ma2, Ma11); Kūfah and Basrah (Ma9); Irāq(Fd1, Fd2, Ma12, Ma14, Ma16, Mq2(a)); All except Madīnah and Syria (Mq1) وَسَارِعُواْ إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ Madīnah(Fd1,Ma1, Ma2, Ma9, Ma11, Ma12, Ma14, Mq1, Mq2(a), Mq2(b)); Syria (Fd2, Ma12, Ma13, Ma16, Mq1, Mq4); H~ijāz(Ma16) سَارِعُواْ إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ(133:3) 2.
'Uthmān's Mushaf (Ma1, Ma2, Ma11); Irāq (Fd1, Fd2, Ma12, Ma14, Ma16, Mq1, Mq2(a)); Kūfah and Basrah (Mq1) وَ يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوْا Madīnah (Fd1, Ma1, Ma2, Ma11, Ma12, Ma14, Mq1, Mq2(a), Mq2(b)); Syria (Fd2, Ma12, Ma13, Ma16, Mq1, Mq4);H~ijāz(Ma16); Makkah (Mq1) يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوْا (5: 53) 3.
'Uthmān's Mushaf (Ma1, Ma2, Ma11,); Kūfah and Basrah (Ma9); Irāq(Fd1, Fd2, Ma12, Ma14, Ma16, Mq2 (a)); All except Madīnah and Syria (Mq1)) مَن يَرْتَدَّ Madīnah (Fd1, Ma1, Ma2, Ma9, Ma11, Ma12, Ma14, Mq1, Mq2(a), Mq2(b)); Syria (Fd2, Ma12, Ma13, Ma16, Mq1, Mq4);H~ijāz(Ma16); 'Uthmān's Mushaf (Mq1(f)) مَن يَرْتَدِدْ (54:5) 4.
Kūfah (Fd3, Ma9, Ma18, Ma19, Mq1, Mq 5) لَّئِنْ أَنجَانَا Madīnahand Basrah (Ma9, Ma19);Basrah (Ma18, Fd3; Mq 5); All except Kūfah (Mq1) لَّئِنْ أَنْجَيُتَنَا (63:6) 5.
Uthmān's Mushaf (Ma1, Ma2, Ma11); Kūfah and Basrah(Ma9); Irāq (Fd1, Fd2, Ma12, Ma14, Ma16, Mq2(a)); All except Madīnah and Syria (Mq1)) وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواْ مَسْجِدًا Madīnah (Fd1, Ma1, Ma2, Ma9, Ma11, Ma12, Ma14, Mq1, Mq2(a), Mq2(b)); Syria (Fd2, Ma12, Ma13, Ma16, Mq1, Mq4);H~ijāz(Ma16) الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواْ مَسْجِدًا ضِرَارًا(107:9) 6.
Uthmān's Mushaf (Ma1, Ma2, Ma11); Kūfah and Basrah (Ma9); Irāq (Fd1, Fd2, Ma12, Ma14, Ma16, Mq1, Mq2(a)) خَيْرًا مِّنْهَا مُنقَلَبًا Madīnah (Fd1, Ma1, Ma2,Ma9, Ma11, Ma12, Ma14, Mq1, Mq2(a), Mq2(b)); Syria (Fd2, Ma12, Ma13,Ma16, Mq1, Mq4);H~ijāz(Ma16); Makkah (Mq1) خَيْرًا مِّنْهُما مُنقَلَبًا(36:18) 7.
Uthmān's Mushaf (Ma1, Ma2, Ma11); Kūfah and Basrah (Ma9); Irāq(Fd1, Fd2, Ma12, Ma14, Ma16, Mq2(a)); All except Madīnah and Syria (Mq1) وَتَوَكَّلْ Madīnah (Fd1, Ma1, Ma2,Ma9, Ma11, Ma12, Ma14, Mq1, Mq2(a), Mq2(b)); Syria (Fd2, Ma12, Ma13,Ma16, Mq1, Mq4);H~ijāz(Ma16) فَتَوَكَّلْ (26: 217) 8.
Uthmān's Mushaf (Ma1, Ma2, Ma11, Mq1(i)); Kūfah and Basrah (Ma9); Irāq(Fd1, Ma12, Ma14, Ma16, Mq2(a)); Kūfah (Mq1) أَوْ أَنْ يُظْهِرَ Madīnah (Fd1, Ma1, Ma2,Ma9, Ma11, Ma12, Ma14, Mq2(a), Mq2(b)); Syria (Fd2, Ma12, Ma13,Ma16, Mq4);H~ijāz(Ma16); All except Uthmān's Mushaf and Kūfah (Mq1;Mq1(i)) وَأَنْ يُظْهِرَ فِي الْأَرْضِ (26:40) 9.
Uthmān's Mushaf (Ma1, Ma2, Ma11); Kūfah and Basrah (Ma9); Irāq(Fd1, Fd2 Ma12, Ma14, Ma16, Mq2(a)); All except Madīnah and Syria (Mq1) فَبِمَا كَسَبَتْ Madīnah (Fd1, Ma1, Ma2,Ma9, Ma11, Ma12, Ma14, Mq1, Mq2(a), Mq2(b)); Syria (Fd2, Ma12, Ma13,Ma16, Mq1, Mq4);H~ijāz(Ma16) وَمَا أَصَابَكُم مِّن مُّصِيبَةٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ (30:42) 10.
Uthmān's Mushaf (Ma1, Ma2, Ma11, Mq 6); Kūfah and Basrah (Ma9); Irāq(Fd1, Ma12, Ma14, Ma16, Mq2(a)); All except Madīnah and Syria (Mq1)) مَا تَشْتَهِي الْأَنفُسُ Madīnah (Fd1, Ma1, Ma2,Ma9, Ma11, Ma12, Ma14, Mq1, Mq2(a), Mq2(b)); Syria (Ma12, Ma13,Ma16, Mq1);H~ijāz(Ma16); Uthmān's Mushaf ((Mq1(k)) فِيهَا مَا تَشْتَهِيهِ الْأَنفُسُ (71:43) 11.
Uthmān's Mushaf (Ma1, Ma2, Ma11, Mq 6); Kūfah and Basrah (Ma9); Irāq(Fd1, Fd2, Ma12, Ma14, Ma16, Mq2(a)); All except Madīnah and Syria (Mq1) فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَمِيدُ Madīnah (Fd1, Ma1, Ma2,Ma9, Ma11, Ma12, Ma14, Mq1, Mq2(a), Mq2(b)); Syria (Fd2, Ma12, Ma13,Ma16, Mq1, Mq4);H~ijāz(Ma16) فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَمِيدُ (24:57) 12.
Uthmān's Mushaf (Ma1, Ma2, Ma11, Mq 6); Kūfah and Basrah (Ma9); Irāq(Fd1, Fd2., Ma12, Ma14, Ma16, Mq2(a)); All except Madīnah and Syria (Mq1) وَلَا يَخَافُ Madīnah (Fd1, Ma1, Ma2,Ma9, Ma11, Ma12, Ma14, Mq1, Mq2(a), Mq2(b)); Syria (Fd2, Ma12, Ma13,Ma16, Mq1, Mq4);H~ijāz(Ma16) فَلَا يَخَافُ عُقْبَاهَا (15:91) 13.
Kūfah (Fd3, Ma9, Ma18, Ma19, Mq1 Mq5) قَالَ رَبِّي يَعْلَمُ Madīnah and Basrah(Ma9, Ma19); Basrah (Fd3, Ma18, Mq5); All except Kūfah (Mq1) قُلْ رَبِّي يَعْلَمُ (4:21) 14.
No city specified[8](Ma9, Ma19) قَالَ إِنَّمَا أَدْعُو رَبِّي No city specified[9](Ma9, Ma19) قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَدْعُو رَبِّي (72: 20) 15.
Basrah(Ma9, Ma19, Mq1); Irāq (Ma14, Ma16, Fd2) لله ، الله ، الله Uthmān's Mushaf(Ma3, Mq1(g)) Madīnah and Kūfah (Ma9, Ma19); Kufah (Ma18: الله ، لله ، لله)Madīnah(Ma14); Syria and H~ijāz(Ma16); Syria (Fd2, Mq4); All except Basrah (Mq1) لله ، لله ، لله(23: 85،87،89) 16.
Madīnah and Basrah(Ma9, Ma19);Basrah (Fd3, Ma18, Mq5); All except Kūfah(Mq1) وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ ِحُسْنًا Kūfah (Fd3, Ma9,Ma18, Mq1, Mq5);Kūfah and Basrah (Ma19) وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ إِحْسَانًا (15:46) 17.
Madīnah and Basrah(Ma9, Ma19); Basrah(Ma18); All except Kūfah(Mq1) وَمَا عَمِلَتْهُ أَيْدِيهِمْ Kūfah (Ma9, Ma18, Ma19, Mq1) وَمَا عَمِلَتْ (35:36) 18.
Madīnah and Basrah(Ma9, Ma19) أَن تَأْتِيَهُم Makkah and Kūfah (Ma9, Ma20, Mq1(l)); Kūfah (Ma19) فَهَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا السَّاعَةَ أَن تَأْتِهِمْ بَغْتَةً (18:47) 19.
Irāq(Ma14) وَسَيَعْلَمُ الْكُفَّارُ Madīnah (Ma14) وَسَيَعْلَمُ الْكَافِرُ (42:13) 20.
Irāq(Ma16, Fd2); Syria (Mq1(c), Mq1(d): وَبالذُّبُر);All except Syria (Mq1) وَالزُّبُر ِوَالكِتَابِ Syriaand H~ijāz (Ma16);Syria (Fd2, Mq1, Mq1(a), Mq1(b), Mq4) وَبالذُّبُرِ وَبِالكِتَابِ (184:3) 21.
Irāq(Ma16, Fd2); All except Syria (Mq1) مَا فَعَلُوهُ إِلاَّ قَلِيلٌ Syria(Fd2, Ma16, Mq1, Mq4) مَا فَعَلُوهُ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً ( 66:4) 22.
Irāq(Ma16, Fd2); All except Syria (Mq1) زَيَّنَ لِكَثِيرٍ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ قَتْلَ أَوْلاَدِهِمْ شُرَكَآؤُهُمْ Syriaand H~ijāz(Ma16); Syria (Fd2, Mq1, Mq4) زُيّنَ لِكَثِيرٍ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ قَتْلُ أَوْلاَدَهُمْ شُرَكَآئِهِمْ (137:6) 23.
Irāq(Ma16); All except Syria (Mq1) وَإِذْ أَنجَيْنَاكُم Syriaand H~ijāz(Ma16); Syria(Fd2, Mq1, Mq4) وَإِذْ أَنجَاكُم مِّنْ آلِ فِرْعَونَ (141:7) 24.
Irāq(Ma16) ثُمَّ كِيدُونِ Syriaand H~ijāz(Ma16); Syria (Mq7, Mq8) ثُمَّ كِيدُونِي فَلاَ تُنظِرُونِ (195:7) 25.
Irāq(Ma16) مَا كَانَ لِنَبِيٍّ Syria (Ma15, Ma16, Mq7, Mq8) مَا كَانَ للِنَبِيٍّ (67:8) 26.
Irāq(Ma16, Fd2); All except Syria (Mq1) هُوَ الَّذِي يُسَيِّرُكُمْ Syria (Fd2, Ma16, Mq1, Mq4) هُوَ الَّذِي يُنْشِرُكُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ (22:10) 27.
Irāq(Ma16, Fd2); All except Syria (Mq1) كَانُوا هُمْ أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ Syriaand H~ijāz (Ma16); Syria(Fd2, Mq1, Mq4) كَانُوا هُمْ أَشَدَّ مِنْكم (21:40) 28.
Irāq(Ma16); All except Syria (Mq1); 'Uthmān's Mushaf (Mq1(m)) وَالْحَبُّ ذُو الْعَصْفِ Syriaand H~ijāz (Ma16); Syria(Fd2, Mq1, Mq4) وَالْحَبُّ ذَا الْعَصْفِ (12:55) 29.
Irāq(Ma16, Fd2); All except Syria (Mq1) ذِي الْجَلَالِ Syriaand H~ijāz (Ma16); Syria(Fd2, Mq1, Mq4) تَبَارَكَ اسْمُ رَبِّكَ ذُوْ الْجَلَالِ (55: 78) 30.
Irāq(Ma16); All except Syria (Mq1) وَكُلًّا وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْحُسْنَى Syriaand H~ijāz (Ma16); SyriaMq1) وَكُلًّ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْحُسْنَى (10:57) 31.
Basrah (Ma18) فَآمِنُواْ بِاللّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ Makkah (Ma18) فَآمِنُواْ بِاللّهِ وَرَسُوْلِهِ (171:4) 32.
Basrah (Ma18); All except Makkah (Mq1) تَجْرِي تَحْتَهَا الأَنْهَارُ Makkah (Ma18, Mq1 Mq3) تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتَهَا الأَنْهَارُ (100:9) 33.
Kūfah(Ma19); H~amzah Zayyāt(Ma10) والجَارِ ذِي القُربَى والجَارِ الجُنُبْ Some Copies of Kūfah(Ma9, Mq1(e)) والجَارِ ذَا القُربَى والجَار الجُنُبْ (4: 36) 34.
Kūfah(Fd3, Mq1, Mq5);No City specified;[10] (Ma9, M19); قُلْ كَمْ لَبِثْتُمْ Basrah(Fd3, Mq5);No City specified[11] (Ma9, M19); All except Kūfah (Mq1); Makkah (Mq1(h)) قَالَ كَمْ لَبِثْتُمْ(23: 112) 35.
Kūfah(Fd3, Mq1, Mq5) قُلْ إِنْ لَبِثْتُمْ Basrah(Fd3, Mq5); All except Kūfah (Mq1); Makkah (Mq1(h)) قَالَ إِنْ لَبِثْتُمْ(23: 114) 36.
No Cityspecified[12] (Ma9, Ma19); All except Syria and Makkah (Mq1);Basrah (Ma18); Irāq (Fd2) قُلْ سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي No Cityspecified[13] (Ma9, Ma19); Syria(Fd2, Mq1, Mq4); Makkah (Mq1, Mq3); Kūfah (Ma18) قَالَ سُبْحَنَ رَبِّي (93:17) 37.
Basrah(Ma18) قُلْ رَبِّ احْكُم بِالْحَقِّ Kūfah(Ma18) قَالَ رَبِّ احْكُم بِالْحَقِّ (112:21) 38.
Basrah(Ma9, Ma19); Irāq (Ma14); Madīnah (M20) قَوَارِيْرَا قَوَارِيْرَ Madīnah and Kūfah(Ma9);Madīnah (Ma14); Kūfah (Ma19) قَوَارِيْرَا قَوَارِيْرَا (76:15-16) 39.
Basrah(Ma9, Ma19); Madīnah and Kūfah (Ma9, Ma19) وَلُؤْلُؤًا (22: 23) 40.




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SPECIAL ISSUE

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (1/4)

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (2/4)

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (3/4)

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (4/4)

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