A Critical Evaluation of Variations found in the ‘Uthmānic Copies (Part 4/4)

A Critical Evaluation of Variations found in the ‘Uthmānic Copies (Part 4/4)


Mq1(e) ) والجَارِ ذَا القُربَى والجَار الجُنُبْ (4: 36

وفي النساء قال الكسائي والفرَّاء في بعض مصاحف اهل الكوفة وَالجَار ِذالقُربَي

Al-Kasā'ī and al-Farrā' said: "In some of the masāhif of Kūfah it was written وَالجَار ِذالقُربَي in Sūrah Nisā'."[1]

'Alī ibn Hamzah al-Kasā'ī, a reciter of Kūfah, died in 189 AH.[2] Yahyā ibn Ziyād al-Farrā', who belonged to Kūfah and was a famous authority on syntax, died in 207 AH.[3]

The jarh on al-Kasā'ī has been presented earlier.

Mq1(f) ) مَنْ يَرْتَدِدْ (5: 54

قال ابو عبيد و كذا رأيتها في الإمام بدالين

Abū 'Ubayd said: "I saw it written [as مَنْ يَرْتَدِدْ] with two dāls in the imām."[4]

Abū 'Ubayd died in 224 AH.[5]

Mq1(g)

قال ابو عبيد و كذالك رأيت ذالك في الإمام

Abū 'Ubayd said: "In the imām of 'Uthmān too, it was written as (23: 85،87،89) لله ، لله ، لله."[6]

Abū 'Ubayd died in 224 AH.[7]

Mq1(h))قَالَ كَمْ لَبِثْتُمْ(23: 112/ )قَالَ إِنْ لَبِثْتُمْ(23: 114

وينبغي ان يكون الحرف الاول في مصاحف اهل مكة بغير الف والثاني بالالف لان قراءتهم فيهما كذلك ولا خبر عندنا في ذلك عن مصاحفهم الاّ ما رويناه عن ابي عبيد انه قال ولا اعلم مصاحف اهل مكة الا عليها يعني على اثبات الالف في الحرفين.

And it is appropriate that in masāhif of the people of Makkah, in the first of these recitals (ie. 23:112) it should be without alif(ie. قُلْ كَمْ لَبِثْتُمْ) and in the second of these recitals (ie. 23:114) it should be with alif(ie. قَالَ إِنْ لَبِثْتُمْ) because this what their reading was in these two recitals; however, we do not have this information about their masāhif except what has been narrated to us from Abū 'Ubayd who said: "I do not know of the masāhif of the people of Makkah except that they read both recitals with alif ie. قَالَ كَمْ لَبِثْتُمْand قَالَ إِنْ لَبِثْتُمْ."[8]

Abū 'Ubayd died in 224 AH.[9]

Mq1(i)(26: 40) أَوْ أَنْ يُظْهِرَ

وروى هرون عن صخر بن جويرية وبشار الناقط عن اسيد ان ذلك كذلك في الامام مصحف عثمان ابن عفان رضي الله عنه وفي سائر المصاحف وَأَنْ يُظْهِرَ بغير الف.…

Sakhr ibn Jawayriyyah and Bashshār al-Nāqit report from Usayd that in the imām mushaf of 'Uthmān it was written asأَوْ أَنْ يُظْهِرَwhile in all the other masāhif it was written without alif asوَ أَنْ يُظْهِرَ.[10]

Nojarhor ta'dīl is available on Bashshār ibn Ayyūb al-Nāqitand Usayd ibn Yazīd al-Madīnī.

Mq1(j) )يَا عِبَادِي لاَ خُوْفٌ عَلَيْكُمْ (43: 68

وكذا ينبغي ان يكون في مصاحف اهل مكة لانَّ قراءتهم فيه كذلك ولا نص عندنا في ذلك عن مصاحفهم الا ما حكاه ابن مجاهد ان ذلك في مصاحفهم بغير ياء ورأيت بعض شيوخنا يقول ان ذلك في مصاحفهم بالياء واحسبه اخذ ذلك من قول ابي عمرو اذ حكى انه رأى الياء في ذلك ثابتة في مصاحف اهل الحجاز ومكة من الحجاز والله اعلم. وحدثنا محمد بن علي قال حدثنا محمد بن قطن قال حدثنا سليمان بن خلاد قال حدثنا اليزيدي قال قال ابو عمرو "يعبادي" رأيتها في مصاحف اهل المدينة والحجاز بالياء.

Al-Dānī said: "And it is appropriate that it should be thus [ie. يَا عِبَادِي لاَخُوْفٌعَلَيْكُمْ] in the masāhif of the people of Makkah because this is what their reading is and we do not have any explicit source of this in this regard about their masāhif except what has been reported by Ibn Mujāhid that it was written in their masāhif without ياء[ie. يَا عِبَادِ لاَخُوْفٌعَلَيْكُمْ]. And I have seen some of our teachers say that it was written in their masāhif with ياء. I think that this has been taken from what Abū 'Amr has said when he reported that he saw ياءwritten in the masāhif of the people of Hijāz and Makkah from among Hijāz. And Muhammad ibn 'Alī narrated to us from Muhammad ibn Qutan who narrated from Sulaymān ibn Khallād who narrated from al-Yazīdī that Abū 'Amr said: 'I saw it with ياءin the masāhif of the people of Madīnah and H~ijāz.'"[11]

Abū 'Amr here refers to Abū 'Amr ibn al-'Ulā (d. 154 AH). This is evident from the fact that Yahyā ibn Mubārak al-Yazīdī recited the Qur'ān before Abū 'Amr ibn al-'Ulā who recited before Mujāhid who recited before 'Abdullāh ibn 'Abbās (rta).[12]

It may be noted thataccording to Abū Khaythamah Zuhayr ibn Harb, Abū 'Amr ibn al-'Ulā did not have a good memory.[13]

Mq1(k) (43: 71) فِيهَا مَا تَشْتَهِيهِ الْأَنفُسُ)

قال ابو عبيد وبهاء ين رأيته في الامام

Abū 'Ubayd said: "I saw the word تَشْتَهِيهِwith ha at two places in the imām."[14]

Abū 'Ubayd died in 224 AH.[15]

Mq1(l) ) أَن تَأْتِهِمْ بَغْتَةً (18:47

وفي القتال قال خلف بن هشام البزار في مصاحف اهل مكة. و الكوفيون

وقال الكسائي ذلك كذلك في مصاحف اهل مكة خاصة قال خلف بن هشام ولا نعلم احدا منهم قرأ به ، حدثنا الخاقاني قال حدثنا احمد قال حدثنا علي قال حدثنا القاسم قال قال الكسائي في مصاحف اهل مكة "ان تأتهم" بالكسر مع الجزم.

Khalf ibn Hishāmsaid that in the masāhif of the people of Makkah and Kūfah it was writtenأَن تَأْتِهِمْ بَغْتَةًin Sūrah Qitāl. Al-Kasā'ī said: "It was like this in the masāhif of the people of Makkah specially." Khalf ibn Hishām said: "I do not know anyone among them who read it." Al-Kasā'ī said: "In the the masāhif of the people of Makkah it was written أَن تَأْتِهِمْ بَغْتَةً.[16]

Khalf ibn Hishām, a reciter of Baghdād, died in 229 AH.[17]

'Alī ibn H~amzah al-Kasā'ī, a reciter of Kūfah, died in 189 AH.[18]The jarh on al-Kasā'ī has already been presented earlier.

No info is available on Khalf ibn Khāqān al-Misrī.Ahmad ibn Muhmmmad ibn Abī al-Mawt al-Makkī (261-351 AH) is da'īfun qalīlan.[19]

Mq1(m) ( وَالْحَبُّ ذُو الْعَصْفِ (12:55

قال أبو عبيد و كذلك رأيتها في الذي يقال له الامام مصحف عثمن رضي الله عنه

Abū 'Ubaydsaid: "This is what I saw in what is called the imām of 'Uthmān."[20]

Abū 'Ubayd died in 224 AH.[21]

Mq2(a)

حدثنا خلف بن ابراهيم قال حدثنا احمد بن محمد قال حدثنا علي ابن عبد العزيز قال حدثنا القاسم بن سلام قال حدثنا اسمعيل بن جعفر المدني ان اهل الحجاز واهل العراق اختلفت مصاحفهم في هذه الحروف قال القاسم وهي اثنا عشر حرفا …

Ismā'īl ibn Ja'farreported that the masāhif of the people of Hijāz and Irāq differed in these recitals. Qāsim ibn Sallām said that they are twelve in number …[22]

Ismā'īl ibn Ja'far ibn Abī Kathīr died in 180 AH.[23] Moreover, according to al-Dhahabī, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Makkī is a little weak (da'īfun qalīlan).[24]

Mq2(b)

حدثنا احمد بن عمر قال حدثنا محمد بن احمد قال حدثنا عبد الله بن عيسى قال حدثنا قالون عن نافع ان الحروف المذكورة في مصاحف اهل المدينة على ما ذكر اسمعيل سواء …

Nāfi' reports that these recitals are memtioned in the masāhif of the people of Madīnah as mentioned in the previous narrative by Ismā'īl ibn Kathīr…[25]

The full names of the above narrators can be gathered from the following two sources of al-Dānī.

فاما رواية قالون عنه فحدثنا بها أحمد بن عمر بن محمد الجيزى قال حدثنا محمد بن أحمد بن منير قال حدثنا عبد الله بن عيسى المدنى قال حدثنا قالون عن نافع[26]

حدثنا أحمد بن عمر القاضي قال نا محمد بن منير قال حدثنا عبد الله بن عيسى قال نا قالون أن في مصاحف اهل المدينة ما كان من حرف مشدد فعليه دال وفتحه الدال فوق قال وإن كان يرجع الى الكسر فمن تحت الحرف قال أبو عمرو ولم يذكر قالون الضم[27]

The first two narrators are:

Ahmad ibn 'Umar ibn Muhammad al-Jīzī (d. 399 AH).[28]

Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Munir (d. 339 AH).[29]

No jarh or ta'dīl is available on al-Jīzī.

Al-Dhahabī has recorded that according to Ibn Yūnus Abdullāh ibn 'Īsā (195-282 AH)would narrate manākīr.[30]

Mq3

حدثنا محمد بن علي قال حدثنا ابن مجاهد قال في مصاحف اهل مكة…

Ibn Mujāhid said: " It is found in the masāhif of the people of Makkah …"[31]

If we combine the info in the following two notes we find that Abū Muslim al-Kātib and Muhammad ibn 'Alī al-Kātib are the same person.

ابن مجاهد: وحدث عنه ابن شاهين والدارقطني وأبو بكر بن شاذان وأبو حفص الكتاني وأبو مسلم الكاتب وعدة[32]

حدثنا محمد بن علي الكاتب قال نا أبو بكر بن مجاهد قال قال خلف يعني ابن هشام البزار كنت أحضر بين يدي الكسائي وهو يقرأ على الناس وينقطون مصاحفهم بقراءته عليهم[33]

It is evident from Lisān al-mizān that the full name of Abū Muslim al-Kātib is Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn 'Alī[34] and he is a student of Abū Bakr ibn Mujāhid.

This narrator has been regarded as da'īf.[35]

Abū Bakr ibn Mujāhid (Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn al-'Abbās ibn Mujāhid) died in 324 AH.[36]

Mq4

وحدثنا ابن غلبون قال حدثنا عبد الله بن احمد قال حدثنا احمد ابن انس قال حدثنا هشام بن عمار قال حدثنا سويد بن عبد العزيز و ايوب بن تميم عن يحيى بن الحارث عن عبد الله بن عامر (ح) وحدثنا الخاقاني قال حدثنا احمد قال حدثنا علي قال حدثنا ابو عبيد قال حدثنا هشام بن عمار عن ايوب بن تميم عن يحيى بن الحارث عن عبد الله بن عامر قال ابو عبيد و اللفظ له قال هشام (ح) وحدثنا سويد بن عبد العزيز ايضاً عن الحسن بن عمران عن عطية بن قيس عن ام الدردا عن ابي الدرداء ان هذه الحروف في مصاحف اهل الشام وهي ثمانيةوعشرون حرفا في مصاحف أهل الشام…

'Abdullāh ibn 'Āmir and Abū al-Dardā' report that these are the readings of the masāhif of the people of Syria. And these are twenty eight recitals in the masāhif of the people of Syria …[37]

Isnād1

The first narrator is Abū al-H~asān Tāhir ibn Ghalbūn.[38] The second narrator is: Abū Ahmad 'Abdullāh ibn Ahmad famous by the name Ibn al-Mufassir.[39]Both are reliable.

The jarh on Suwayd ibn 'Abd al-'Azīz has already been presented earlier.

Ahmad ibn Anas ibn Mālik al-Muqrī al-Dimashqīis one of the shuyūkh of al-Tabarānī (260-360 AH). Hishām died in 245 AH and it is known that in his last years he had been afflicted with a bad memory. It seems from this data that in all probability Ahmad ibn Anas heard from Hishām in his old age. If this is so, then the narrative becomes even from unreliable, as here are the details about Hishām in his old age as recroded by al-Mizzī:[40] Abū Dā'ūd says that Hishām has narrated four hundred narratives supported by isnād which have no basis; Abū H~ātim says that when he grew old he was afflicted with a bad memory and would pass on everything that was given to him and every time he was suggested something, he would accept it without investigation (kullamā luqqina talaqqana).

Isnād2

No info is available on Khalf ibn Khāqān al-Misrī.

One can gather from al-Dānī's al-Bayān[41]that 'Alī (in al-Muqni') is actually 'Alī ibn 'Abd al-'Azīz.

Ahmad ibn Muhmmmad ibn Abī al-Mawt al-Makkī (261-351 AH) is da'īfun qalīlan.[42]

Isnād3

The jarh on Suwayd ibn 'Abd al-'Azīz has already been presented earlier.

In the opinion of Ibn H~ajar,[43] H~asan ibn al-'Imrān is layyin al-hadīth. According to al-Tabarī, he is majhūl.[44]

Mq5

حدثنا الخاقاني قال حدثنا احمد قال حدثنا علي قال قال ابو عبيد اختلفت مصاحف اهل العراق و الكوفة والبصرة في خمسة احرف

Abū 'Ubayd said: "The masāhif of the people of Irāq and Kūfah and Basrah differed in five readings …"[45]

No info is available on Khalf ibn Khāqān al-Misrī.

Ahmad ibn Muhmmmad ibn Abī al-Mawt al-Makkī (261-351 AH) is da'īfun qalīlan.[46]

Abū 'Ubayd died in 224 AH.

Mq6

قال ابو عمرو وروي لنا عن ابن القاسم واشهب وابن وهب انهم رأوا في مصحف جدّ مالك بن انس الذي كتبه حين كتب عثمن بن عفان رضي الله عنه المصاحف اخرجه اليهم مالك …

Abū 'Amr said: "And it was narrated to us from Ibn al-Qāsim and Ashhab and Ibn Wahb that they saw in the mushaf of the grandfather of Mālik ibn Anas which he wrote at the time when 'Uthmān wrote out the masāhif – this mushaf was shown to them by Mālik ibn Anas …"[47]

The narrative is broken as Abū 'Amr al-Dānī has not indicated the complete isnād from which he received this narrative.

'Abd al-Rahmān ibn al-Qāsim al-Misrī died in 191 AH.[48]

Ashhab ibn 'Abd al-'Azīz died in 204 at the age of 64.[49]

'Abdullāh ibn Wahb died in 197 AH.[50]

Mq7

وقال ابو حاتم في مصحف اهل المدينة في يوسف …و في مصحف أهل حمص الذي بعث به عثمان إلى الشام في الأعراف …

Abū H~ātim said: "In the mushaf of the people of Madīnah in Sūrah Yūsuf it was written … and the mushaf of the people of H~ims which 'Uthmān sent to Syria, in Sūrah A'rāf, it was written …"[51]

Abū H~ātim al-Sajistānī (Sahl ibn Muhammad ibn 'Uthmān) died in 255 AH.[52]

Mq8

وروى الكسائي عن أبي حيوة الشامي أن في المصحف الذي بعث به عثمان إلى الشام

Al-Kasā'ī reports from Abū H~aywah Shurayh ibn Yazīd al-Shāmī that in the mushaf which 'Uthmān sent to Syria …[53]

The chain of narration is broken. The jarh on al-Kasā'ī has already been presented earlier.

Abū H~aywah Shurayh ibn Yazīd died in 203 AH.[54]

__________

The above anaylsis can be summarized in the following brief survey which depicts the weaknesses in these narratives with regard to the three books in which they are reported:

1. Kitāb al-Masāhif (Ma)

Ma1, Ma2, Ma3, Ma4, Ma5, Ma6, Ma7, Ma17, Ma19 and Ma20 have weak chains of narration.

The weakness in Ma9, Ma10, Ma11, Ma14 and Ma16 is that not only they have weak chains of narration, they are also reported by narrators belonging to the second or third century; the weakness in Ma12, Ma13, Ma15 and Ma18 is that they are reported by narrators belonging to the third century.[55]

It may be noted that Ma 8 does not relate to variations.

2. Fadā'il al-Qur'ān (Fd)

Fd2 has a weak chain of narration; Fd3 has no chain of narration.

The weakness in Fd1 is that it is reported by a narrator belonging to the second century.[56]

3. Al-Muqni' (Mq)

Mq1(a), Mq1(i), Mq1(j), Mq2(b), Mq3, Mq4 and Mq6 have weak chains of narration.

The weakness in Mq1(c), Mq1(e), Mq1(l), Mq2(a), Mq5 and Mq8 is that they not only have weak chains of narrations, they are also reported by narrators belonging to the second or third century; the weakness in Mq1(b), Mq1(d), Mq1(f) and Mq7 is that they are reported by narrators belonging to the third century.[57]

It may be noted that Mq1(g), Mq1(h), Mq1(k) and Mq1(m) do not reflect any variation and only depict what was found in the imām of 'Uthmān (rta). All these narratives depict readings of the imām that are being read even today in Madīnah – the place of origin of the imām.

VI. Conclusion

The narratives which report variations in the copies of the 'Uthmānic codices are subject to many objections and questions both with regard to their text and chains of narration. They have been discussed in detail in this article.

Besides other objections, it has been shown that contradictions are found in entry nos 1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 19, 21, 23, 24, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34, 37, 39, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47 and 60. On the basis of these contradictions, the readings found at these entries cannot be established at the places they were allegedly supposed to have been read. It has also been shown that entry nos 3, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 26, 27, 32, 33, 35, 36, 38, 42, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58 and 59 present readings which have strangely vanished from the areas they were read (Makkah, Madīnah, Kūfah, Basrah and Syria); no historical record exists which shows that they were revoked at some time and replaced by the reading which is currently found in these areas – which incidentally is the same in all these areas.

In other words, there is some issue or the other with all the entries.[58]

In the wake of all this, these narratives cannot be regarded as reliable reports of the content they mention.

However, if there is some truth in the existence of these variations in the 'Uthmānic copies, then their most plausible explanation keeping in view their trivial nature is that they represent scribal or aural errors – with one of the variations representing the true reading and other(s) its defectively transmitted form.

_______________




Articles by this author


Humanity burnt at the Stake*

Mu’atta’ Imam Malik (9)

A Summary of some Exegetical Views on Verses 16-19 of Surah Qiyamah (2/2)

A Summary of some Exegetical Views on Verses 16-19 of Surah Qiyamah (1/2)

Some Remedies for Jealousy

Four Steps to Selflessness

The Five Essentials of Constructive Criticism

An Introduction to Ghamidi’s Mizan

How to overcome Selfishness

Your Question Answered

Explanation of Some Qur’anic Words

Anger Management

Some Suggestions for Married Couples

God’s Domain

Let us Light up our Prayers!

Successful Parents

The “Successful Spouse” Test

Let us Value what We have

Dear Husbands … If I may say!

The “Blind Drill”

Life goes on all the same!

Prayers can Move Mountains!

Two types of “Junk Food”

Reforming Our Conduct

Supplications from the Hadith

Supplications from the Qur’an

A Small Act of Kindness

Respecting the Privacy of our Mature Children

Explanation of Some Jarh Terms

Selections from Hadith

Your Questions Answered

Two Tough Trials

Benefiting from Criticism

Your Questions Answered

The Cause of Truth

Your Questions Answered

Selections from Hadith

Restraining our Wounded Pride

Selections from Hadith

The Power of One

Preparing for the Inevitable!

Selections from Hadith

Let us Refuse to Lose!

The Sound of Silence

Selections from Hadith

Let us Enjoy every Moment of our Lives

Lets be Just, Come what May!

Selections from Hadith

Beware of the three C’s: Cynicism, Criticism and Complaint

Never Give Up!

Do We have a Spiritual Part of the Day?

Tears of Old Parents … for their Children

Life goes on all the same!

The Decorum of Criticizing Others

Tears that would not stop!

Selections from Hadith

Hobbies we must have!

Death in Innocence

“Thank you” Culture

Visit to an Old Home

We Owe it to Our Society

Experiencing God

Discovering our Inner Talent

The Battle for Honesty Continues!

Saintly Sinners

Secret to Inner Peace

Your Questions Answered

Small Acts of Kindness

Illness can be a Boon!

Philosophy of Animal Sacrifice on ‘Id

Tears of Gratitude!

Lookout to Leap for Others!

Charity

Turning Foes into Friends

Let us then Live for Others!

SPECIAL ISSUE

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (1/4)

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (2/4)

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (3/4)

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (4/4)

Abdus Sattar Ghauri (The Father Figure of Al-Mawrid!)

Brief Profile

Special Issue

Charity: Points to Ponder

Your Question Answered

“Dignity in Hard Labour Lies!”

Forgiveness

Never Lose Hope!

The Trials of Life

Anger Management

Handling Mature Children

Let us Promise…

An Introduction to Ghāmidī’s Mīzān

Visit to a Graveyard

Are We Ready to Die?

A Shame to Humanity[1]!

A Critical Evaluation of Variations found in the ‘Uthmānic Copies (Part 4/4)

A Critical Evaluation of Variations found in the ‘Uthmānic Copies (Part 3/4)

A Critical Evaluation of Variations found in the ‘Uthmānic Copies (Part 2/4)

A Critical Evaluation of Variations found in the ‘Uthmānic Copies (Part 1/4)

The Key to Successful Marriage

Taming the Tongue

Sexual Intimacy between Husband and Wife

Pretension and Pomposity

The Cause of Truth

Narrative on the Changes made in the Qur’ān by al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf

Sūrah Mā’idah (64-89)

Sympathy

A Man of Steel

Critical Evaluation of Ustuwānah al-Mushaf Narratives

Humility

Fasting in Extreme Conditions

How to overcome Selfishness

Nothing but the Truth, Please!

Narratives on the Collection of the Qur’ān by ‘Alī(rta) (part 1/3)

Narratives on the Collection of the Qur’ān by ‘Alī(rta) (part 2/3)

Narratives on the Collection of the Qur’ān by ‘Alī(rta) (part 3/3)

A Tribute to Brig (retd.) Noor Ahmed Husain (Quaid e Azam’s Last Military ADC)

Courage

Appendix C: A Brief Biographical Sketch of Hamīd al-Dīn al-Farāhī (1863-1930) [1]

Appendix B:  A Brief Summary of the Views of Traditional and Radical Western Scholars

Appendix A:  A Summary of the View of Traditional Muslim Scholars

A Critical Evaluation of Farahī’s View on the Collection of the Qur’ān

A Citizen of Paradise (Written on the Martyrdom of Dr Habib ur Rahman)

Forgiveness

Gratitude

Your Questions Answered

Reason and Revelation

Your Questions Answered

Explanation of Some Qur’ānic Words

Explanation of Some Jarh Terms

The Warrior who became a Martyr

A Narrative on the Placement of Sūrah Anfāl (8) and…

A Critical Analysis of the Narratives on the… (Part 1/2)

A Critical Analysis of the Narratives on the… (Part 2/2)

Your Questions Answered

Travelling Alone!

A Narrative on the Schematic Arrangement of the Qur’ān (Part 2/2)

A Narrative on the Schematic Arrangement of the Qur’ān (Part 1/2)

The Word Rusul in the Qur’ān

Your Questions Answered

Mustafā A‘zamī’s Critique on “The Dishonest Scribe” Narratives

A Passionate Preacher of the Qur’an passes away!

Animal Sacrifice

… And the List is Unending!

English Translation of the first volume of Tadabbur-i Qur’ān

Sūrah Ghāshiyah

Your Questions Answered

Jihād in the Qur’ān

Your Questions Answered