A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (3/4)

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (3/4)


Even this primacy ascribed to Yahyā by Hārūn ibn Mūsā (d. before 200 AH) is weakened due to the fact that many books which mention biographical notes on Yahyā are devoid of ascribing this accomplishment to him. They include:

i. Al-Tabaqāt al-kubrāby Ibn Sa'd (d. 230 AH)

Ibn Sa'd records that Yahyā was a grammarian and scholar of Arabic and the Qur'ān.[1]

ii. Marātib al-nahwiyyīn by Abū al-Tayyib 'Abd al-Wāhid (d. 351 AH)

Abū al-Tayyib records the statement of Qatādah that the first person to formulate the rules of Arabic grammar after Abū al-Aswad was Yahyā ibn Ya'mar.[2]

iii. Mashāhīr 'ulamā al-amsār by Ibn Hibbān (d. 354 AH)

Ibn Hibbān says that Yahyāwas a qādī of Marw and from among the most eloquent people of his times, a very profound scholar of Arabic and a pious person.[3]

iv. Akhbār al-nahwiyyīnal-basriyyīn by al-Sayrāfī (d. 368 AH)

Al-Sayrāfī records that Yahyā added chapters to the book of arabic grammar forumulated by Abū al-Aswad. He also records a dialogue of his with al-Hajjāj involving lahn.[4]

iv. Tabaqāt al-nahwiyyīn wa lughwiyyīn by al-Zubaydī (d. 379 AH)

Al-Zubaydī records that Yahyā learnt Arabic grammar from Abū al-Aswad. He also records on the authority of Khālid al-Hadhdhā' that Ibn Sīrīn had a manqūt mushaf on which nuqat were put by Yahyā.[5]

v. Nuzhah al-alibbā' by Abū al-Barkāt ibn al-Anbārī (d. 577 AH)

Abū al-Barkāt records that Yahyā was a scholar of Arabic and Hadīth, and would use a lot of gharīb words in his works. He also records his dialogue with al-Hajjāj involving lahn.[6]

vi. Al-Muntazim by Ibn al-Jawzī (d. 597 AH)

Ibn al-Jawzīrecords that Yahyā was a scholar of Arabic and the Qur'ān.[7]

vii. Inbā' al-ruwāt by al-Qiftī (d. 624 AH)

Al-Qiftī records many of the details already alluded to by his predecessors. He mentions that he was one of the qurrā' of Basrah. He was a qādī of Marw and was a scholar of the Qur'ān, Arabic grammar and the dialects of the Arabs. He had an argument with al-Hajjāj regarding an issue relating to lahn.[8]

viii. Mu'jam al-udabā'by Yāqūt al-Hamawī (d. 626 AH)

Yāqūtmentions that Yahyā was a scholar of qirā'ah, Hadīth, Fiqh, Arabic and dialects of Arabia.[9]

ix. Wafayāt al-a'yān by Ibn Khallikān (d. 681 AH)

Ibn Khallikān mentions that Yahyā was a scholar of the Qur'ān, Arabic grammar and the dialects of Arabia, and that he had learnt Arabic grammar from Abū al-Aswad. He also records a dialogue of his with al-Hajjāj involving lahn.[10]

x. Bughyah al-wu'ātby al-Suyūtī(d. 911 AH)

Al-Suyūtīrecords that Yahya learnt Arabic grammar from Abū al-Aswad and was appointed the qādī of Khurasan by Qutaybah ibn Muslim.[11]

The above referred to books not only do not accord any primacy of nuqat to him, they do not even mention that Yahyā had any role in inseting nuqaton the masāhif or that Yahyā was summoned by al-Hajjāj for this purpose even though as referred to earlier some of them record a dialogue between Yahyā and al-Hajjāj about lahn.[12] This is indeed quite strange that such early biographical works on his personality have nothing to record about him about this alleged endeavour.

3. Ibn Atiyah (d. 543 AH),[13]al-Qurtubī (d. 671 AH),[14]Ibn al-Jazzī Kalbī (d. 757 AH)[15]and Ibn Kathīr (d. 774 AH)[16]mention that al-Hajjāj had deputed al-Hasan al-Basrī (d. 110 AH) as well for putting nuqat on the masāhif together with Yahyā ibn Ya'mar.

The following books contain biographical accounts of al-Hasan ibn al-Hasan al-Basrī but do not mention that he had any role in putting nuqat on the masāhif.

i. Al-Tabaqāt[17]by Ibn Sa'd (d. 230 AH)

ii. Al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr[18] by al-Bukhārī d. (256 AH)

iii. Tārīkh Wāsit[19] by Aslam ibn Sahl al-Wāsitī (d. 264 AH)

iv. Al-Ma'ārif[20]by Ibn Qutaybah (d. 276 AH)

v. Al-Ma'rifah wa al-tārīkh[21]by al-Fasawī (d. 277 AH)

vi. Akhbār al-qudāt[22]by Muhammad ibn Khalaf ibn Hayyān (d. 306 AH)

vii. Al-Muntazim[23] by Ibn al-Jawzī (d. 597 AH)

viii. Wafayāt al-a'yan[24]byIbn Khallikān (d. 681 AH)

ix. Tahdhīb al-kamāl[25] by al-Mizzī (d. 743 AH)

x. Siyar a'lām al-nubalā'[26]by al-Dhahabī (d. 748 AH)

xi. Al-Wāfī bi al-wafayāt[27] by al-Safadī (764 AH)

It may be of further interest to note contradictory reports ascribed to al-Hasan: some say that al-Hasan approved of putting nuqat on the masāhif, while others report the opposite.[28]

4. Hamzah ibn al-Hasan al-Asbahānī (d. 360 AH)[29] and Abū Ahmad al-'Askarī (d. 380 AH)[30]who are the earliest to record the diacritics phase mention that it was al-Hajjāj who was primarily responsible for carrying out the remedial measures for stopping tashīf. Similarly, Ibn Atiyah (d. 543 AH),[31]al-Qurtubī (d. 671 AH),[32]Ibn al-Jazzī Kalbī (d. 757 AH)[33]and Ibn Kathīr (d. 774 AH)[34]also mention al-Hajjāj was deputed for this task and further mention that 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, the then caliph of the Muslims deputed him for this purpose. They say that he had asked al-Hajjāj to put nuqat and shakl on the masāhif.

Now it is known that both al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf and 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān are two celebrated personalities of the Umayyad caliphate. Their achievements and feats have been recorded in detail by all historians. It is quite strange that a vast majority of historians do not record any such achievement by either of them.

Following is a brief survey of both these personalities in early and medieval history works:

I 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān

i. Al-Tabaqāt[35] by Ibn Sa'd (d. 230 AH)

ii. Al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr[36] by al-Bukhārī d. (256 AH)

iii. Tārīkh Wāsit[37] by Aslam ibn Sahl al-Wāsitī (d. 264 AH)

iv. Al-Ma'ārif.[38] by Ibn Qutaybah (276 AH)

v. Tārīkh[39]by al-Ya'qūbī (d. 292 AH)

vi. Al-'Iqd al-farīd[40]by Ibn 'Abd Rabbih (d. 328 AH)

vii. Kitāb al-wuzarā wa al-kuttāb[41]by Al-Jahshiyarī (d. 331AH)

viii. Al-Bad' wa al-tārīkh[42]by al-Maqdisī(d. 355 AH)

ix. Tārīkh Baghdād[43]by al-Khatīb al-Baghdādī (d. 463 AH)

x. Tārīkh Madīnah Dimashq[44]by Ibn 'Asākir (d. 571 AH)

xi. Al-Muntazim[45]by Ibn al-Jawzī (d. 597 AH)

xii. Tahdhīb al-kamāl[46]by al-Mizzī (d. 742 AH)

xiii. Siyar a'lām al-nubalā'[47]by al-Dhahabī (d. 748 AH)

xiv. Al-Wāfī bi al-wafayāt[48] by al-Safadī (764 AH)

xv. Al-Bidāyah wa al-nihāyah[49] by Ibn Kathīr (d. 772 AH)

xvi. Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb[50]by Ibn Hajar (d. 852 AH)

II Al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf al-Thaqafī

i. Tārīkh Wāsit[51] by Aslam ibn Sahl al-Wāsitī (d. 264 AH)

ii. Al-Ma'ārif[52] by Ibn Qutaybah (276 AH)

iii. Kitāb al-wuzarā wa al-kuttāb[53] by Al-Jahshiyarī (d. 331AH)

iv. Al-Bad' wa al-tārīkh[54]by by al-Maqdisī (d. 355 AH)

v. Tārīkh Madīnah Dimashq[55]by Ibn 'Asākir (d. 571 AH)

vi. Al-Muntazim[56] by Ibn al-Jawzī (d. 597 AH)

vii. Al-Kāmil fī al-tārīkh[57]by Ibn Athīr (d. 630 AH)

viii.Tahdhīb al-kamāl.[58]by al-Mizzī (d. 742 AH)

It may be noted that perhaps the first historian to say that al-Hajjāj was responsible for this endavour is Ibn Khallikān (d. 681 AH).[59]However, his source is the text of Abū Ahmad al-'Askarī already referred to above. Similarly, al-Safadī (764 AH)[60] also refers to this on the basis of Abū Ahmad al-'Askarī. Ibn Kathīr (d. 772 AH)[61] does say that during the days of al-Hajjāj, the nuqat were put on the masāhifand does not mention any source of this statement.

5. The texts of Hamzah ibn al-Hasan al-Asbahānī (d. 360 AH)[62] and Abū Ahmad al-'Askarī (d. 380 AH)[63]say that Nasr ibn 'Āsim was the originator of diacritics on similar letters. This contradicts the following information.

Ibn 'Abbās is reported to have said:

أول من كتب بالعربية ثلاثة رجال من بولان وهي قبيلة سكنوا الأنباروأنهم اجتمعوا فوضعوا حروفا مقطعة وموصولة وهم مرار بن مرة وأسلم بن سدرة وعامر بن جدرة ويقال مروة وجدلة فأما مرامر فوضع الصور وأما أسلم ففصل ووصل وأما عامر فوضع الإعجام

The first ones to write Arabic were three men from Būlān which is a tribe that lived at al-Anbār; they got together and coined the letters – both in their connected and disconnected forms. These three were: Marāmir ibn Murrah, Aslām ibn Sidrah and 'Āmir ibn Jadrah (also: Marwah / Jadalah). As for Marāmir, he conceived the forms (suwar)) of the letters, Aslam their separations and linkages (fasl and wasl) while 'Āmir invented the diacritics (i'jām).[64]

Al-Qalqashandī[65]says that the diacritics were invented at the time of the letters because it is very unlikely that letters which resemble one another should be devoid of them. Al-Kurdī,[66]Jumu'ah[67]and Hifnī[68]also say that they were invented at the time of the letters themselves. Salāh al-Dīn Munajjid[69]and 'Abd al-Sabūr Shahīn[70]surmise that it was not that Nasr and Yahyā originated them because their existence is found in earlier writings.

Thus the earliest dated Arabic document (recently re-deciphered by Healy and Smith) corresponding to 267 AD shows dots on dhāl, rā and shīn.[71]

'Alī ibn Ibrāhīm Ghabbān in an article (translated from Arabic by Robert Hoyland) has given tracings of the following writings which depict the use of diacritical dots on various letters in the first century.[72]Among them, the following are clearly well before the time dots were allegedly invented by Nasr.

i. Papyrus of Ahnus housed in Vienna National Library (22 AH). Diacritical dots appear on the letters: sha, za, dha, kha, ja and na.

ii. Zuhayr inscription in Saudi Arabia (24 AH). Diacritical dots appear on the letters: nūn (on three occasions), za (on two occasions), dha, ta, fa and sha.

iii. Al-Khanaq dam inscription near Madīnah (40-60 AH). A diacritical dot appears on the letter ta.

iv. Wadi Sabil inscription near Najran (46 AH). A diacritical dot appears on the letter ba.

v. Mu'āwiyah dam inscription near Tā'if (58 AH). Diacritical dots appear on the letters: ba (on four occasions), na (on four occasions), ya (on four occasions), tha (on two occasions), ta (on two occasions)

Mirza,[73]in a recent PhD dissertation has shown the existence of a diacritical dot on the letter na (occurring twice) in the Prophet's letter (6 / 8 AH) to al-Mundhir ibn al-Sāwā, governor of Bahrayn. As such, this is perhaps the earliest occurrence of a diacritical dot on documents discovered so far.

Gruendler has also pointed out many early texts which have diacritical dots. The following are clearly before the period of the alleged invention of diacritics by Nasr:

i. Entagion (P. Colt no 60). This consists of thirteen papyri and most of them are entagia (announcements of taxes owed by a local community). As specified by her, it is written by Abū Sa'īd and dates 54 AH/ 674 CE and several diacritics appear on ba, ta, za and qāf.[74]

ii. Tax Receipt (57 AH) confirming payment of an amount of 108 dīnār and 19 qīrāt for land tax. Diacritics appear on ba, na and some other letters.[75]

iii. Receipt for delivery of wheat dated to the second half of the first Islamic century (643-670 CE). Diacritical dots are visible on za, qāf and na.[76]

iv. Letter from 'Abd al-'Azīz ibn Marwān (governor of Egypt 65-85 AH) to the inhabitants of Ihnās (Herakleopolis). Diacritics appear on za, ba, dha, na.[77]

Thus while referring to this established information that diacritics were invented with the letters, here is some further corroboratory evidence:

It is recorded by al-Farrā' (d. 206 AH):

حدثنا محمد بن الجهم ، قال حدثنا الفراء ، قال حدثنى سفيان بن عُيَيْنة رفعه إلى زيد ابن ثابت قال : كُتِب فى حَجَر سرها ولم نس وانظر إلي زيد بن ثابت فنقط على الشين والزاى أربعا وكتب (يتسنه) بالهاء

Sufyān ibn 'Uyaynah reports while connecting the chain of narration to Zayd ibn Thābit: Zayd wrote on stone the following words: سرهاandولم نسandوانظر إلي. He put four dots on shīn and zā and wrote the word يتسنwith a hā [ie.] يتسنه.[78]

Al-Khatīb al-Baghdādī (d. 463 AH) records:

انا محمد بن علي بن الفتح الحربي نا عمر بن احمد الواعظ نا محمد ابن مخلد بن حفص العطار نا رجاء بن سهل الصاغاني نا ابو مسهر عن سعيد ابن عبد العزيز التنوخي عن قيس بن عباد عن محمد بن عبيد بن اوس الغساني كاتب معاوية قال حدثني ابي قال كتبت بين يدي معاوية كتابا فقال لي يا عبيد ارقش كتابك فإني كتبت بين يدي رسول الله كتابا رقشته قال قلت وما رقشة يا امير المؤمنين قال اعط كل حرف ما ينوبه من النقط

'Ubayd ibn Aws al-Ghassānī said: "I wrote a letter in the presence of Mu'āwiyah. He said to me: 'O 'Ubayd adorn your letter because I wrote a letter in the presence of the Messenger of God (sws) which I had adorned [raqashtuhū.'] I asked: 'What does raqshatun mean O leader of the believers!' He replied: 'Give to each letter the dots it deserves.'"[79]

C. The Second Vocalization Phase

The following questions arise on the traditional account viz a viz this phase.

1. In the second vocalization phase, to al-Khalīl ibn Ahmad al-Farāhīdī (d. 170 AH) is attributed vocalization marks which were the forerunners to the vocalization dashes we find today.

None of his students narrate this feat from him. According to al-Mizzī,[80] his students are: Ayyūb ibn al-Mutawakkil al-Basrī (d. 200 AH), Badal ibn al-Muhabbar, Hammād ibn Zayd (d. 179 AH), Dā'ūd ibn al-Muhabbar (d. 207 AH), Sībawayh ('Amr ibn 'Uthmān ibn Qanbar) (d. 194 AH), 'Abd al-Malik ibn Qarīb al-Asma'ī (d. 216 AH), 'Alī ibn Nasr al-Jahdamī (d. 250 AH), 'Awn ibn 'Umārah (d. 212 AH), al-Mu'arrij ibn 'Amr al-Sadūsī (d. 195 AH), Mūsā ibn Ayyūb, al-Nadr ibn Shumayl (d. 203 AH), Hārūn ibn Mūsā al-A'war (before 200 AH), Wahb ibn Jarīr ibn Hāzim (206 AH) and Yazīd ibn Murrah (d.

This poses a question mark on the ascription of this feat to al-Khalīl.

2. The following biographical accounts in Muslim history books are devoid of any such feat by al-Khalīl ibn Ahmad al-Farāhīdī (d. 170 AH) in spite of the fact that many of them record him as the inventor of the discipline of 'urūd (Arabic prosody) and the first person to compile a dictionary of Arabic (Kitāb al-'ayn):

i. Tabaqāt fuhūl al-shu'arā'[81]byMuhammad ibn Sallām al-Jumahī (d. 230 AH)

ii. Al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr[82] by al-Bukhārī d. (256 AH)

iii. Al-Ma'ārif[83]by Ibn Qutaybah (276 AH)

iv. Al-'Iqd al-farīd[84]by Ibn 'Abd Rabbih (d. 328 AH)

v. Marātib al-nahwiyyīn[85]by Abū al-Tayyib 'Abd al-Wāhid (d. 351 AH)

vi. Akhbār al-nahwiyyīn al-basriyyīn[86]by Sa'īd al-Sayrafī (d. 368 AH)

vii. Tabaqāt al-nahwiyyīn[87] by al-Zubaydī (d. 379 AH)

viii. Al-Fihrist[88] by Ibn Nadīm (d. 380 AH)

ix. Nuzhah al-alibbā'[89] by Abū al-Barkāt ibn al-Anbārī (d. 577 AH)

x. Al-Muntazim[90]by Ibn al-Jawzī (d. 597 AH)

xi. Inbā' al-ruwāt[91]byJamāl al-Dīn al-Qiftī (d. 624 AH)

xii. Mu'jam al-udabā'[92] by Yāqūt al-Hamawī (626 AH)

xiii. Tahdhīb al-asmā' wa al-lughāt[93]by al-Nawawī (d. 676 AH)

xiv. Wafayāt al-a'yan[94]byIbn Khallikān (d. 681 AH)

xv. Tahdhīb al-kamāl[95]by al-Mizzī (d. 742 AH)

xvi. Tārīkh al-Islām[96] by al-Dhahabī (d. 748 AH)

xvii. Siyar a'lām al-nubalā'[97]by al-Dhahabī (d. 748 AH)

xviii.Al-'Ibar fī khabar-i man ghabar[98] by al-Dhahabī

xix. Al-Wāfī bi al-wafayāt[99]by al-Safadī (764 AH)

xx. Mir'āt al-jinān[100]by Abū Muhammad al-Yafi'ī (d. 768 AH)

xxi. Al-Bidāyah wa al-nihāyah[101]by Ibn Kathīr (d. 772 AH)

xxii. Subh al-a'shā [102]by al-Qalqashandī (d. 791 AH)

xxiii. Muqaddimahby Ibn Khaldūn[103](d. 808 AH)

xxiv. Bulghah[104] by al-Fayrūzābādī (d. 810 AH)

xxv. Ghāyah al-nihāyah[105]by Ibn al-Jazarī (d. 833 AH)

xxvi Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb[106]by Ibn Hajar (d. 852 AH)

xxvii. Bughyah al-wu'āt[107] by al-Suyūtī (d. 911 AH)

xxviii. Shadharat al-dhahab[108]by 'Abd al-Hayy al-Hanbalī (d. 1089 AH)

xxix. Tanqīh al-maqāl[109]by al-Maqāmānī (d. 1351 AH)

xxx. Al-A'lām[110] by al-Zarkalī (d. 1396 AH)

________

[1]. Ibn Sa'd,Al-Tabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, 368.

[2]. Abū al-Tayyib 'Abd al-Wāhid ibn 'Alī, Marātib al-nahwiyyīn, 13.

[3]. Abū Hātim Muhammad ibn Hibbān al-Bustī,Mashāhīr 'ulamā al-amsār(Beirut: Dār al-kutub al-'ilmiyyah, 1959), 126.

[4]. Abū Sa'īd al-Sayrāfī, Akhbār al-nahwiyyīn al-basriyyīn, 17-18.

[5]. Al-Zubaydī, Tabaqāt al-nahwiyyīn wa lughwiyyīn, 27-29.

[6]. Abū al-Barkāt ibn al-Anbārī, Nuzhah al-alibbā', 24-26.

[7]. Ibn al-Jawzī, Al-Muntazam, vol. 6, 292-293.

[8]. Al-Qiftī, Inbā' al-ruwāt, vol. 4, 24-27.

[9]. Yaqūt al-Hamawī, Mu'jam al-udabā', vol. 5, 638-639.

[10].Ibn Khallikān, Wafayāt al-a'yan, vol. 6, 173-176.

[11]. Al-Suyūtī, Bughyah al-wu'āt, vol. 2, 345.

[12]. See, for eample: Abū Sa'īd al-Sayrāfī, Akhbār al-nahwiyyīn al-basriyyīn, 17-18; Abū al-Barkāt ibn al-Anbārī, Nuzhah al-alibbā', 25-26; al-Qiftī, Inbā' al-ruwāt, vol. 4, 26.

[13]. Ibn Atiyah, (ed.) Arthur Jeffery, Muqaddimah tafsīr, 276.

[14]. Al-Qurtubī, Jāmi' al-ahkām al-qur'ān, vol. 1, 63.

[15]. Ibn Jazzī al-Kalbī, Al-Tashīl li 'ulūm al-tanzīl, vol. 1, 6.

[16]. Ibn Kathīr, Fadā'il al-Qur'ān, 90.

[17]. Ibn Sa'd,Al-Tabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, 166-177.

[18]. Abū 'Abdullāh Muhammad ibn Ismā'īl al-Bukhārī,Al-Tārīkh al-kabīr, 1st ed., vol. 2 (Beirut: Dār al-kutub al-'ilmiyyah, 2001), 272-274.

[19]. Aslam ibn Sahl al-Wāsitī, Tarīkh Wāsit, 1st ed., Beirut: 'Ālam al-kitāb, 1406 AH.This is in spite of the glaring fact that it was in this city of Wāsit that 'Abd al-Malik is alleged to have deputed al-Hajjāj for this task and al-Hajjāj had called upon Yahyā ibn Ya'mar and al-Hasan al-Basrī to carry out this task. See: Ibn Atiyah, (ed.) Arthur Jeffery, Muqaddimah Tafsīr, 276. See also: Al-Qurtubī, Jāmi' al-ahkām al-Qur'ān, vol. 1, 63; Ibn Kathīr, Fadā'il al-Qur'ān, 90; Muhammad ibn Jazzī al-Kalbī, Al-Tashīl li 'ulūm al-tanzīl, vol. 1, 6.

[20]. Ibn Qutaybah, Al-Ma'ārif, 250-251.

[21]. Abū Yūsuf Ya'qūb ibn Sufyānal-Fasawī, Al-Ma'rifah wa al-tārīkh, vol. 2 (Beirut: Dār-al-kutub al-'ilmiyyah, 1999), 20-34.

[22].Muhammad ibn Khalf ibn Hayyān, Akhbār al-qudāt,vol. 2 (Beirut: 'Ālim al-kitāb, n.d.), 3-5.

[23]. Ibn al-Jawzī, Al-Muntazam, vol. 7, 136-138.

[24].Ibn Khallikān, Wafayāt al-a'yan, vol. 2, 68-73.

[25]. Al-Mizzī,Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 32, 54. He attributes this view to Hārūn ibn Mūsā (d. 248 AH).

[26].Al-Dhahabī, Siyar a'lām al-nubalā', vol. 4, 563-588.

[27]. Al-Safadī, Al-Wāfī bi al-wafayāt, vol. 12, 190-191.

[28]. See, for example: Al-Dānī, Al-Muhkam, 16-17.

[29]. Hamzah ibn al-Hasan al-Asbahānī, Kitāb al-tanbīh 'alā hudūth al-tashīf, 27-28.

[30]. Abū Ahmad al-'Askarī, Sharh mā yaqa'u fīhī al-tashīf wa al-tahrīf, 13.

[31]. Ibn Atiyah, (ed.) Arthur Jeffery, Muqaddimah tafsīr, 276.

[32]. Al-Qurtubī, Jāmi' al-ahkām al-Qur'ān, vol. 1, 63.

[33]. Ibn Jazzī al-Kalbī, Al-Tashīl li 'ulūm al-tanzīl, vol. 1, 6.

[34]. Ibn Kathīr, Fadā'il al-Qur'ān, 90.

[35]. Ibn Sa'd elaborately covers all the details and important events of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān's rule but does not mention him summoning al-Hajjāj for the purpose of insertion of nuqat. See:Ibn Sa'd,Al-Tabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 5, 223-235.

[36]. Al-Bukhārī gives a short biographical account of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān but does not mention anything on his role under discussion.See: Al-Bukhārī,Al-Tārīkh al-kabīr, vol. 5, 271.

[37]. It is known thatit was in this city of Wāsit that 'Abd al-Malik is alleged (See, for example: Ibn Kathīr, Fadā'il al-Qur'ān, 90) to have deputed al-Hajjāj for this task. Yet, it does not mention any such thing. See: Aslam ibn Sahl al-Wāsitī, Tarīkh Wāsit, 1st ed., Beirut: 'Ālam al-kitāb, 1406 AH.

[38]. Ibn Qutaybah gives a short biographical entry on 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān. The entry does not contain any mention of his role in nuqat. See: Ibn Qutaybah, Al-Ma'ārif, 200-203.

[39]. Al-Ya'qūbī gives a detailed treatment of the rule of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān but has nothing on nuqat. See: Ahmad ibn Abī Ya'qūb ibn Ja'far ibn Wahb ibn Wādih al-Ya'qūbī, Tārīkh, 2nd ed. vol. 2 (Beirut: Dār al-kutub al-'ilmiyyah, 2003), 188-197.

[40]. Ibn 'Abd Rabbih gives quite a detailed account of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān. Nothing is found regarding his role in nuqat. See: Ibn'Abdi Rabbih, Al-'Iqd al-farīd, vol, 4, 372-392.

[41]. Al-Jahshiyarī gives a detailed treatment of the scribes who wrote for 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān. If he had any role in inserting nuqat,it should have found mention here. See: Al-Jahshiyārī, Kitāb al-wuzarā' wa al-kuttāb, 34-46.

[42]. Al-Maqdisī gives a detailed treatment of the rule of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān. It does not refer to his role on insertion of nuqat. See: Muttahhir ibn Tāhir al-Maqdisī, Al-Bad' wa al-tārīkh, vol. 6, 26-50.

[43]. Al-Khatīb al-Baghdādī gives a reasonably detailed treatment of the rule of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān. It does not allude to his role on insertion of nuqat. See: Al-Khatīb al-Baghdādī, Tārīkh Baghdād, vol. 10, 388.

[44]. Ibn 'Asākir gives a very detailed account of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān and his rule with many details – but with no mention of his deputing al-Hajjāj to this task. See: Ibn 'Asākir, Tārīkh Madīnah Dimashq, vol. 37, 110-167.

[45]. Ibn al-Jawzī perhaps gives the most extensive acount of the rule of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān. Nothing is found on his role in this whole exercize. It does not refer to his role on insertion of nuqat. See: Ibn al-Jawzī, Al-Muntazam, vol. 6, 39-267.

[46]. Al-Mizzī biographical note on 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān is also devoid of any mention of nuqat. It does not refer to his role on insertion of nuqat. See: Al-Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 18, 408-414.

[47].Al-Dhahabī gives a reasonably detailed treatment of the person of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān.It does not refer to his role on insertion of nuqat. See: Al-Dhahabī, Siyar a'lām al-nubalā', vol. 4, 246-249.

[48]. Al-Safadī gives a note on the person of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān. There is no mention of nuqat. See: Al-Safadī, Al-Wāfī bi al-wafayāt, vol. 19, 140-141.

[49]. Ibn Kathīr gives a reasonably detailed treatment of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān. There is no mention of nuqat. See: IbnKathīr, Al-Bidāyah wa al-nihāyah, vol. 9, 61-69.

[50]. Ibn Hajar gives a biographical note on 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān which does not refer to his role in the insertion of nuqat. See: Ibn Hajar, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 6, 373-374.

[51]. It may be noted that it was in this city of Wāsit that 'Abd al-Malik is alleged to have deputed al-Hajjāj for this task. The book mentions a detailed history of the city of Wāsit but has nothing about his endeavour on nuqat. See: Aslam ibn Sahl al-Wāsitī, Tarīkh Wāsit, 1st ed., Beirut: 'Ālam al-kitāb, 1406 AH.

[52]. Ibn Qutaybah gives a short biographical entry on al-Hajjāj. There is nothing in it on nuqat. See: Ibn Qutaybah, Al-Ma'ārif, 222-224.

[53]. This is in spite of the fact that Al-Jahshiyarī gives a detailed acount of how al-Hajjāj converted the official records of Kufa, Basrah and Syria from Persian and Roman into Arabic. If al-Hajjāj had done something with regard to the masāhif, this was the most appropriate place for its mention.See: Al-Jahshiyārī, Kitāb al-wuzarā' wa al-kuttāb, 38-43.

[54]. Al-Maqdisī gives a reasonably detailed treatment of the rule of al-Hajjāj in Iraq. However, there is no mention of nuqat. See: Al-Maqdisī, Al-Bad' wa al-tārīkh, vol. 6, 29-36.

[55]. Ibn 'Asākirgives perhaps the most detailed account of al-Hajjāj but with no mention of al-Hajjāj undertaking this task. See: Ibn 'Asākir, Tārīkh Madīnah Dimashq, vol. 12, 113-202.

[56]. Ibn al-Jawzī gives a reasonably detailed treatment of the rule of al-Hajjāj and mentions such details as that he would read a fourth of the Qur'ān each night.The account is devoid of his role in nuqat. See: Ibn al-Jawzī, Al-Muntazam, vol. 6, 336-343; Ibid., vol. 7, 3-5.

[57]. Ibn Athīr gives a reasonably detailed account of al-Hajjāj's rule in Irāq but does not mention anything about nuqat. See: Ibn al-Athīr, Al-Kāmil fī al-tārīkh, vol. 4 138-149.

[58]. Al-Mizzī gives a detailed biographical note on al-Hajjājbut does not mention anything on his role on nuqat. See: Al-Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 5, 466-468.

[59]. Ibn Khallikān, Wafayāt al-a'yān, vol. 2, 32.

[60]. Al-Safadī, Al-Wāfī bi al-wafayāt, vol. 11, 239.

[61]. IbnKathīr, Al-Bidāyah wa al-nihāyah, vol. 9, 118.

[62]. Hamzah ibn al-Hasan al-Asbahānī, Kitāb al-tanbīh 'alā hudūth al-tashīf, 27-28.

[63]. Abū Ahmad al-'Askarī, Sharh mā yaqa'u fīhī al-tashīf wa al-tahrīf, 13.

[64]. Ibn Nadīm, Al-Fihrist, 12.

[65]. Al-Qalqashandī, Subh al-a'shā, vol. 3, 149.

[66]. Muhammad Tāhir ibn 'Abd al-Qādir al-Kurdī, Tārīkh al-khat al-'arabī wa adābuhū, 1st ed. (n.p.: Al-Matba'ah al-tujāriyyah al-hadīthah, 1939), 83.

[67]. Ibrāhīm Jumu'ah, Qissah al-kitābah al-'arabiyyah (Cairo, Dār al-ma'ārif, 1947), 50.

[68]. Hifnī Nāsif, Hayāt al-lughah al-'arabiyyah, 88.

[69]. Salāh al-Dīn Munajjid, Tārīkh al-khatt al-'arabī, 126.

[70]. 'Abd al-Sabūr Shāhīn. Tārīkh al-Qur'ān, 112-114.

[71]. See: JF Healy and GR Smith, Jausen Savignac 17 – The Earliest Dated Arabic Document (AD 276), al-Atlāl (The Journal of South Arabia Archeology), vol. xii, 1989, 77.

[72]. 'Alī ibn Ibrāhīm Ghabbān, The inscription of Zuhayr, the oldest Islamic inscription (24AH /AD 644-645), the rise of the Arabic script and the nature of the early Islamic state, tr. Robert Hoyland, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Volume 19, Number 2, November 2008, 212-226.

[73]. Sarah Zubair Mirza, Oral Tradition and Scribal Conventions in the Documents attributed to the Prophet Muhammad, PhD thesis, University of Michigan, 2010, page 196. Image of this letter can be accessed at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/75782188N00/1957697061/

[74]. Beatrice Gruendler, The Development of the Arabic Scripts from the Nabatean Era to the First Islamic Century according to Dated Texts (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1993), 22-23; Ibid., 157.

[75]. Ibid., 23, 157.

[76]. Ibid., 23.

[77]. Ibid., 23, 157.

[78]. Abū Zakariyyā Yahyā ibn Ziyād ibn 'Abdullāh al-Farrā', Ma'āni al-Qur'ān, 3rd, vol. 1 (Beirut: 'Ālim al-kitāb, 1983), 172-173.

[79]. Abū Bakr Ahmad ibn 'Alī ibn Thābit a-Khatīb al-Baghdādī, Al-Jāmi' li akhlāq al-rāwī wa ādāb al-sāmi', vol. 1 (Riyad: Maktabah al-ma'ārif, 1403 AH), 269, (no. 560). See also: Abū Sa'd 'Abd al-Karīm ibn Muhammad ibn Mansūr al-Sam'ānī, Ādāb al-imlā wa istimlā', 1st ed. (Beirut: Dār al-kutub al-'ilmiyyah, 1981), 171; Ibn 'Asākir, Tārīkh Madīnah Dimashq, vol. 38, 169; Shams al-Dīn Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahmān al-Sakhāwī, Fath al-mugīth, 1st ed., vol. 2 (Beirut: Dār al-kutub al-'ilmiyyah, 1403 AH.), 165; Jalāl al-Dīn 'Abd al-Rahmān ibn Kamāl al-Dīn Abī Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Sābiq al-Dīn al-Suyūtī, Tadrīb al-rāwī, vol. 2 (Riyād: Maktabah al-riyād al-hadīthah, n.d.), 71.

[80]. Al-Mizzī,Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 8, 326-327.

[81]. Muhammad ibn Sallām al-Jumahī, Tabaqāt fuhūl al-shu'arā', vol. 1, 22; Ibid., vol. 1, 70.

[82]. Al-Bukhārī,Al-Tārīkh al-kabīr, vol. 3, 176-177.

[83]. Ibn Qutaybah, Al-Ma'ārif, 301.

[84]. Scattered througout this six volume treatiseby Ibn 'Abd Rabbih are various reports and anecdotes about al-Khalīl – but there is no mention of his endavour regarding his innovation in vocalizating the Qur'ān. See: Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn'Abdi Rabbih, Al-'Iqd al-farīd, 3rd ed., 6 vols., Beirut: Dār ihyā' al-turāth al-arabī, 1999.

[85]. Abū al-Tayyib 'Abd al-Wāhid, Marātib al-nahwiyyīn, 27-41.

[86]. Abū Sa'īd al-Sayrāfī, Akhbār al-nahwiyyīn al-basriyyīn, 30-31.

[87]. Al-Zubaydī, Tabaqāt al-nahwiyyīn wa lughwiyyīn, 47-51.

[88]. Ibn Nadīm,Al-Fihrist, 67-68.

[89]. Abū al-Barkāt ibn al-Anbārī, Nuzhah al-alibbā', 45-47.

[90]. Ibn al-Jawzī, Al-Muntazam, vol. 7, 279-281.

[91]. Al-Qiftī, Inbā' al-ruwāt, vol. 1, 376-382.

[92]. Yaqūt al-Hamawī, Mu'jam al-udabā', vol. 3, 300-303.

[93]. Al-Nawawī, Tahdhīb al-asmā' wa al-lughāt, vol. 1, 178-179.

[94].Ibn Khallikān, Wafayāt al-a'yan, vol. 2, 244-248.

[95]. Al-Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 8, 326-333.

[96].Al-Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 10, 169-174.

[97].Al-Dhahabī, Siyar a'lām al-nubalā', vol. 7, 429-431.

[98].Shams al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn 'Uthmān al-Dhahabī, Al-'Ibar fī khabar-i man ghabar, 2nd ed.,vol. 1 (Kuwait: Matba'ah hukūmat-i kuwait, 1984), 268.

[99]. Al-Safadī, Al-Wāfī bi al-wafayāt, vol. 13, 240-244. In fact, he records that earlier authorities accord three distinctions to al-Khalīl which have no parallel. They are:

i. His solid guidance given to his pupil Sibawayah in writing his book on grammar.

ii. His invention of the Arabic prosody ('urūd).

iii. His magnum opus: Kitāb al-'Ayn.

Strangely, there is no mention of his alleged contribution to this development in orthography which surely was an unparalleled feat.

[100]. Abū Muhammad 'Abullāh ibn As'ad ibn 'Alī ibn Sulaymān al-Yāfi'ī, Mir'āt al-jinān wa 'ibrah al-yaqzān, vol. 1 (Cairo: Dār al-kitāb al-islāmī, 1413 AH), 362-367.

[101]. IbnKathīr, Al-Bidāyah wa al-nihāyah, vol. 10, 161-162.

[102]. 'Al-Qalqashandī, Subh al-a'shā, vol, 2, 345; Ibid., vol. 3, 155; Ibid., vol. 3, 163. He even mentions that al-Khalīl was the originator of hamz, tashdīd, rawm and ishmām. See: Al-Qalqashandī, Subh al-a'shā, vol. 3, 155.

[103]. IbnKhaldūn, Muqaddimah, 547-548.

[104]. Muhammad ibn Ya'qūb al-Fayrūzābādī, Al-Bulghah fī tarājim a'immah al-nahw wa al-lughah, 1st ed. (Kuwait: Jamī'ah ihyā al-turāth al-islāmī, 1407 AH), 99.

[105]. Ibn al-Jazarī, Ghāyah al-nihāyah, vol. 1, 275.

[106]. Ibn Hajar, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 3, 141.

[107]. Al-Suyūtī, Bughyah al-wu'āt, vol. 1, 557-560.

[108]. 'Abd al-Hayy ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-'Ikrī, Shadharat al-dhahab fī akhbār man dhahab, 1st ed., vol. 1 (Damascus: Dār Ibn Kathīr, 1406 AH), 275-277.

[109]. Shaykh 'Abdullāh al-Maqāmānī, Tanqīh al-maqāl fī 'ilm al-rijāl, vol. 1 (n.p: n.d,), 402-403.

[110]. Al-Zarkalī, Al-A'lām, vol. 2, 14.

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