A Summary of some Exegetical Views on Verses 16-19 of Surah Qiyamah (1/2)

A Summary of some Exegetical Views on Verses 16-19 of Surah Qiyamah (1/2)


Qur'anic Exegesis

Verses 16-19 of Surah Qiyamah present the scheme of the Almighty regarding the final collection and arrangement of the Qur'an within the lifetime of the Prophet (sws). Imam Hamid al-Din Farahi in his exegesis on Surah Qiyamah has convincingly shown this.[1]

In order to understand how our traditional scholars interpret these verses, presented below is the summary of the above-mentioned verses of Surah Qiyamah by the following exegetes:

1. Abu Ja'far al-Tabari (d. 310 AH)

2. Abu Ja'far al-Tusi (d. 460 AH)

3. Muhammad ibn 'Umar al-Zamakhshari (d. 540 AH)

4. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (d. 606 AH)

5. 'Imad al-Din Muhammad ibn Kathir (d. 774 AH)

1. Abu Ja'far al-Tabari (d. 310 AH)[2]

Following is a verse by verse summary of what al-Tabari has recorded:[3]

Verse 16: لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ

Al-Tabari says that this verse has been interpreted in two different ways.

The First Opinion

When a portion of the Qur'an was revealed to the Prophet (sws), he would show haste in acquiring it as he wanted to memorize it because of his love for the Qur'an. At this, he was told that he should not show haste because the Almighty will have him memorize it.

Al-Tabari records the following narratives in support of this opinion

(1)

حدثنا أبو كريب قال ثنا سفيان بن عيينة عن عمرو بن دينار عن سعيد بن جبير عن بن عباس أن النبي كان إذا نزل عليه القرآن تعجل يريد حفظه فقال الله تعالی ذكره لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به إن علينا جمعه وقرآنه وقال بن عباس هكذا وحرك شفتيه

Ibn 'Abbas reports that when the Qur'an would be revealed to the Prophet, he would show haste intending to memorize it. At this, the Almighty said to him: لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَهُ. Ibn 'Abbas said: "Like this" and he moved his lips.[4]

(2)

حدثني عبيد بن إسماعيل الهباري ويونس قالا ثنا سفيان عن عمرو عن سعيد بن جبير أن النبي كان إذا نزل عليه القرآن تعجل به يريد حفظه وقال يونس يحرك شفتيه ليحفظه فأنزل الله لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به إن علينا جمعه وقرآنه

Sa'id ibn Jubayr said that when the Qur'an would be revealed to the Prophet, he would show haste intending to memorize it. [And Yunus said:] "He would move his lips to memorize it." At this, the Almighty revealed لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَهُ.

(3)

حدثني عبيد بن إسماعيل الهباري قال ثنا سفيان عن بن أبي عائشة سمع سعيد بن جبير عن بن عباس مثله وقال لا تحرك به لسانك قال هكذا وحرك سفيان فاه

Sa'id reported the same words from Ibn 'Abbas as above and Ibn 'Abbas said: "لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ. 'Ubayd ibn Isma'il al-Habbarisaid: 'like this and Sufyan had moved his lips in this manner.'"

(4)

حدثنا سفيان بن وكيع قال ثنا جرير عن موسی بن أبي عائشة عن سعيد بن جبير عن بن عباس في قوله لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به قال كان النبي إذا نزل عليه جبريل بالوحي كان يحرك به لسانه وشفتيه فيشتد عليه فكان يعرف ذلك فيه فأنزل الله هذه الآية في لا أقسم بيوم القيامة لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به إن علينا جمعه وقرآنه

Sa'id ibn Jubayr reports from Ibn 'Abbas regarding لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ who said: "When Gabriel came with a revelation to the Prophet, he would move his tongue and lips and this would distress him and its effects could be seen on him. At this, the Almighty revealed the following verse: لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَهُ in [surah] لَا أُقْسِمُ بِيَوْمِ القِيَامَة."[5]

(5)

حدثنا بن حميد قال ثنا مهران عن سفيان عن موسی بن أبي عائشة عن سعيد بن جبير عن بن عباس قال كان النبي إذا نزل عليه القرآن حرك شفتيه فيعرف بذلك فحاكاه سعيد فقال لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به قال لتعجل بأخذه

Ibn 'Abbas said: "When the Qur'an would be revealed to the Prophet, he would move his lips and its effects could be seen on him." Sa'id imitated this. At this, the Almighty revealed: لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ. Ibn 'Abbas said: "لِتَعْجَلَ بِه means: '[O Prophet!] you show haste in acquiring it.'"[6]

(6)

حدثنا محمد بن بشار قال ثنا عبد الرحمن قال ثنا سفيان عن موسی بن أبي عائشة قال سمعت سعيد بن جبير يقول لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل بهقال كان جبريل عليه السلام ينزل بالقرآن فيحرك به لسانه يستعجل به فقال لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به

Musa ibn Abi 'A'ishah said: "I heard Sa'id ibn Jubayr say [about the verse] لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ: 'When Gabriel would reveal the Qur'an, he [the Prophet] would move his tongue to hastily acquire it. At this, the Almighty said: "لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ".'"

(7)

حدثنا بن المثنی قال ثنا ربعی بن علية قال ثنا داود بن أبي هند عن الشعبي في هذه الآية لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به قال كان إذا نزل عليه الوحي عجل يتكلم به من حبه إياه فنزللا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به إن علينا جمعه وقرآنه

Da'ud ibn Abi Hind reports from al-Sha'bi about the verse لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ. When a revelation came to him, he would hastily repeat it because of his love for it. At this it was revealed: لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِه إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَهُ ِ.

(8)

حدثني يونس قال أخبرنا بن وهب قال قال بن زيد في قوله لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به قال لا تكلم بالذي أوحينا إليك حتی يقضي إليك وحيه فإذا قضينا إليك وحيه فتكلم به

Ibn Zayd said about the verse لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِه: "The Almighty said: 'Do not repeat what is being revealed to you until the revelation is completed to you. When We have completed a revelation, then speak it out.'"[7]

(9)

حدثت عن الحسين قال سمعت أبا معاذ يقول ثنا عبيد قال سمعت الضحاك يقول في قوله لا تحرك به لسانك قال كان نبي إذا نزل عليه الوحي من القرآن حرك به لسانه مخافة أن ينساه

'Ubayd said: "I heard al-Dahhak say about the verse لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ:'When a portion of the Qur'an was revealed to the Prophet, he would move his tongue fearing he might forget it.'"[8]

The Second Opinion

The Prophet (sws) in his routine would generally recite the Qur'an a lot lest he forget it. At this, he was told by the Almighty to not move his tongue to hastily acquire it, for it was His responsibility to collect the Qur'an for him and make him read it in a manner that he would not forget it.

Al-Tabari records the following narratives in support of this view:

(1)

حدثني محمد بن سعد قال ثني أبي قال ثني عمي قال ثني أبي عن أبيه عن بن عباس في قوله لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به قال كان لا يفتر من القرآن مخافة أن ينساه فقال الله لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به إن علينا أن نجمعه لك وقرآنه أن نقرئك فلا تنسی

Ibn 'Abbas says regarding the verse لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ: "The Prophet would continuously recite the Qur'an fearing that he might forget it. At this, the Almighty revealed [to him]: 'لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ.' [The implication of the these words are: so rest assured], it is upon Us to collect it for you and qur'anahu [means]: We will read it to you in a manner that you will not forget it."[9]

(2)

حدثني محمد بن عمرو قال ثنا أبو عاصم قال ثنا عيسی وحدثني الحارث قال ثنا الحسن قال ثنا ورقاء جميعا عن بن أبي نجيح عن مجاهد قوله لا تحرك به لسانك قال كان يستذكر القرآن مخافة النسيان فقال له كفيناكه يا محمد

Mujahid says regarding the verse لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ that he [the Prophet] would keep reciting the Qur'an fearing that he might forget it. The Almighty said to him: "We are sufficient for you regarding it O Muhammad!"

(3)

حدثني يعقوب بن إبراهيم قال ثنا بن علية قال ثنا أبو رجاء عن الحسن في قوله لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به قال كان رسول الله يحرك به لسانه ليستذكره فقال الله لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به إنا سنحفظه عليك

Al-Hasan said about the verse لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ: "The Prophet would move his tongue to keep memorizing the Qur'an. At this, the Almighty said: 'لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ. We will make you memorize it.'"

(4)

حدثنا بشر قال ثنا يزيد قال ثنا سعيد عن قتادة قوله لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به كان نبي الله يحرك به لسانه مخافة النسيان فأنزل الله ما تسمع

Qatadah said about the verse لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ: "The Prophet of God would move his tongue fearing forgetfulness. At this, the Almighty revealed what you hear."

(5)

حدثنا بن عبد الأعلی قال ثنا بن ثور عن معمر عن قتادة لا تحرك به لسانك قال كان رسول الله يقرأ القرآن فيكثر مخافة أن ينسی

Qatadah said about [the verse] لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ: "The Prophet of God would read the Qur'an a lot fearing that he might forget it."

Al-Tabari himself gives preference to the first opinion because in his view the verse clearly mentions that the Prophet (sws) moved his tongue to hastily acquire the revelation before it was collected in his heart. On the other hand, these narratives speak of the Prophet (sws) hastily moving his tongue after it had been collected in his heart whilst reading it in his general routine for fear of forgetting it.

Verse 17: إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَهُ

Al-Tabari records that in the above verse whilst there is no difference of opinion about the word جَمْعَهُ, the word قُرْآنَه has been interpreted in two ways.

The First Opinion

The word وَقُرْآنَه means "reading." Al-Tabari records the following narratives in support of this opinion:

(1)

حدثنا بن حميد قال ثنا مهران عن سفيان عن موسی بن أبي عائشة عن سعيد بن جبير عن بن عباس إن علينا جمعه قال في صدرك وقرآنه قال تقرؤه بعد

Sa'id ibn Jubayr reports from Ibn 'Abbas about the [meaning of the word جَمْعَهُin the verse] إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَه: "collect [this Qur'an] in your heart" and [about the meaning of the word] وَقُرْآنَه"you can read it afterwards."[10]

(2)

حدثني محمد بن سعد قال ثني أبي قال ثني عمي قال ثني أبي عن أبيه عن بن عباس إن علينا جمعه وقرآنه أن نجمعه لك وقرآنه أن نقرئك فلا تنسی

Ibn 'Abbas says about the [meaning of the word جَمْعَهُin the verse] إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَه: "We will collect it for you" and وَقُرْآنَه means: "We will read it out to you so that you will not forget."[11]

(3)

حدثت عن الحسين قال سمعت أبا معاذ يقول ثنا عبيد قال سمعت الضحاك يقول في قوله إن علينا جمعه وقرآنه يقول إن علينا أن نجمعه لك حتینثبته في قلبك

Al-Dahhak says about the verse إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَه: "It is upon Us to collect it for you so that it is etched in your heart."[12]

The Second Opinion

The word وَقُرْآنَه means "arrangement." Al-Tabari says that as per this interpretation, the verse would mean that it is the responsibility of the Almighty to collect the Qur'an in the Prophet's heart so that he is able to memorize it and arrange it.

Following are the narratives he cites in support of this opinion:

(1)

حدثنا بشر قال ثنا يزيد قال ثنا سعيد عن قتادة قوله إن علينا جمعه وقرآنه يقول حفظه وتأليفه

Qatadah says about إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَه that [قرآنه] means its preservation and arrangement.

(2)

حدثنا بن عبد الأعلی قال ثنا بن ثور عن معمر عن قتادة جمعه وقرآنه قال حفظه وتأليفه

Qatadah says about جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَه that [قرآنه] means its preservation and arrangement.

Al-Tabari says Qatadah's opinion is based on the meaning of the word qara'a "merge and combine". It is used in this sense in the following couplet of 'Amr ibn Kulthum:

ذراعي عيطل أدماء بكر

هجان اللون لم تقرأ جنينا

(She would show you two wrists which are like the hands of a she-camel, long-necked, fair-coloured and young whose womb is yet to be amalgamated with a child).

[1]. Hamid al-Din al-Farahi, Tafsir Surah Qiyamah min nizam al-Qur'an wa ta'wil al-Furqan bi al-Furqan, 2nd ed. (Azamgarh: Da'irah hamidiyyah, 1403 AH), 19-28.

[2].It may be noted that generally the isnad of mawquf narratives is evaluated as opposed to the maqtu' ones.

[3]. Al-Tabari, Jami' al-bayan, vol. 29, 222-227.

[4]. As far as this mawquf narrative from Ibn 'Abbas (rta) is concerned, according toAbu Hatim there are some authorities who regard that its mursal form (ie being maqtu' on Sa'id ibn Jubayr) is more correct. See: 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Idris ibn Mihran al-Razi, 'Ilal al-hadith, vol. 2 (Beirut: Dar al-ma'rifah, 1405 AH), 67, (no. 1690).

[5]. About Sufyan ibn Waki' (d. 247 AH), al-Dhahabi records that he is da'if. See: Al-Dhahabi, Al-Kashif, vol. 1, 449. Al-Nasa'i says that he is laysa bi shay'. See: Al-Nasa'i, Al-Du'afa', vol. 1, 55. Abu Zur'ah al-Razi is reported to have said that there are three people towards whom we have no inclination (laysat lahum mahabah 'indana) and he mentioned Sufyan amongst them. See: Ibn 'Adi, Al-Kamil fi al-du'afa', vol. 3, 417. Ibn Hajar records that though he is regarded to be truthful, he was misled by his scribe who made insertions [in his collection]. Even after being told of this, Sufyan did not pay heed and consequently his narratives were no longer held acceptable. See: Ibn Hajar, Taqrib al-tahdhib, 245.

[6]. Al-Dhahabi says that Muhammad ibn Humayd al-Razi (d. 248 AH) is da'if and records the following jarh on him: according to al-Bukhari, he is questionable (fihi nazr). Ya'qub ibn Shaybah says that he has kathir al-manakir. Abu Zur'ah regards him to be a liar (kadhdhabahu). Yusuf ibn Khirash swore by God and declared that Ibn Humayd is a liar and that many people have said that he would steal narratives (kana yasriqu al-hadith). Al-Nasa'i says that he is laysa bi thiqah. Abu 'Ali al-Naysaburi said to Ibn Khuzaymah: "I wish you had taken narratives from Ibn Humayd because Ahmad ibn Hanbal has praised him." He replied: "He does not know him and had he known him the way we know him, he would never have praised him in the first place." Abu Ahmad al-'Assal says that he heard Fadlak al-Razi say: "[Once] when I came to Ibn Hamayd, he was fabricating chains of narration over texts." See: Al-Dhahabi, Mizan al-i'tidal, vol. 6, 126-127. Abu Zur'ah

al-Razi is reported to have said that there are three people towards whom we have no inclination (laysat lahum mahabah 'indana) and he mentioned Ibn Humayd amongst them. See: Ibn 'Adi, Al-Kamil fi al-du'afa', vol. 6, 274. Al-Mizzi records: "Muhammad ibn Shadhan reported from Ishaq ibn Mansur al-Kawsaj: 'Ibn Humayd read out [Ibn Ishaq's] Kitab al-maghazi to us as narrated by Salamah. It chanced by that I went to 'Ali ibn Mihran and saw him reciting Kitab al-maghazi as narrated by Salamah. I said to him: "Ibn Humayd read out [Kitab al-maghazi] to us ie. through Salamah." At this 'Ali ibn Mihran expressed wonder and said that he has heard it from me.'" Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub al-Juzjani says that he is radi al-madhhab ghayru thiqah. Ishaq ibn Mansur swore before God that Ibn Humayd is a liar. Fadlak al-Razi said: "I have fifty thousand of his narratives and in spite of this I do not narrate a single word from him." Salih ibn Muhammad al-Asadi says: "We regard Ibn Humayd to be blameworthy in everything he narrates to us and I have not seen anyone being more impudent to God than him and that he would take narratives of people and interchange their texts and chains of narration. I have not seen anyone more adept in lying than Ibn Humayd and Ibn Shadhkuni." See: Al-Mizzi, Tahdhib al-kamal, vol. 25, 102-104. Ibn Hajar says that he is da'if though Yahya ibn Ma'in has a good opinión about him. See: Ibn Hajar, Taqrib al-tahdhib, 475.

About Mihran ibn Abi 'Umar, al-Mizzi records that though Yahya ibn Ma'in and Abu Hatim al-Razi have regarded him to be trustworthy, al-Nasa'i says that he is laysa bi al-qawi. See: Al-Mizzi, Tahdhib al-kamal, vol. 28, 597. Al-Bukhari says that his narratives have discrepancies (fi hadithihi idtirab). See: Al-Bukhari, Al-Du'afa', vol. 1, 111. Al-Dhahabi records that Ibrahim ibn Musa al-Farra' has regarded him to be da'if. See: Al-Dhahabi, Mizan al-i'tidal, vol. 6, 532. Ibn Hajar records: in the opinión of Abu Ahamad al-Hakim he is laysa bi al-matin 'indahum. See: Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-tahdhib, vol. 10, 291. 'Uqayli records that he narrates from Sufyan al-Thawri (as he does so in this narrative in question) narratives which do not have any corroboration (la yutaba'u 'alayha). See: 'Uqayli, Al-Du'afa' al-kabir, vol. 4, 229.

[7]. 'Abdullah ibn Wahb has not specified it whether he has heard directly from Ibn Zayd or not. It is known that 'Abdullah ibn Wahb is a mudallis. See: Ibn Hajar, Tabaqat al-mudallisin, 22.

[8]. Al-Tabari has not cited his informant from al-Husayn.

[9]. There is a lot of jarh on the personnel found in this chain of narration. Ahmad Muhammad Shakir has also dealt in detail with the flaws in this chain dubbing it as isnaduṇ musalsaluṇ bi al-du'afa' (a chain having continuously weak narrators). See: Al-Tabari, Jami' al-bayan, ed. Mahmud Muhammad Shakir and Ahmad Muhammad Shakir, vol. 1, 262-263. Here are the details.

The above chain can be represented in the following schematic illustration:

Ibn 'Abbas

'Atiyyah ibn Sa'd al-'Awfi

al-Hasan ibn 'Atiyyah

Husayn ibn al-Hasan ibn 'Atiyyah

Sa'd ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn 'Atiyyah

Muhammad ibn Sa'd al-'Awfi

al-Tabari

i. 'Atiyyah ibn Sa'd al-'Awfi (d. 111 AH)

Al-Dhahabi records that Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al-Nasa'i, Abu Hatim and a host of others have regarded him to be da'if. See: Al-Dhahabi, Mizan al-i'tidal, vol. 5, 101. The narrative under discussion contains his 'an'anah and he is also a mudallis. According to Ibn Hajar, he is guilty of al-tadlis al-qabih. See: Ibn Hajar, Tabaqat al-mudallisin, 50. Ibn Hibban has mentioned him in his al-Majruhin. See: Ibn Hibban, al-Majruhin vol. 2, 176.

ii. Al-Hasan ibn 'Atiyyah (d. 181 AH)

Abu Hatim regards him to be da'if al-hadith. See: Ibn Abi Hatim, Al-Jarh wa al-ta'dil, vol. 3, 26. According to al-Bukhari, he is laysa bidhak. See: Al-Bukhari, Al-Tarikh al-kabir, vol. 2, 301. On the other hand, Ibn Sa'd regards him to be trustworthy (kana thiqah insha allah) and says that his narratives are sound (lahu ahadith al-salihah). See: Ibn Sa'd, Al-Tabaqat al-kubra, vol. 6, 304. Ibn Hibban says that his narratives are not clean (laysat bi naqiyyah).See: Ibn Hibban, Al-Thiqat, vol. 6, 170. He further says that he is not sure if the problem in his narratives is from him or from his father Atiyyah ibn Sa'd al-'Awfi (mentioned earlier) or from both because his father is nothing in matters of Hadith and most of his narratives are from his father and for this reason his matter is ambiguous and it is essential that he be forsaken. See: Ibn Hibban, Al-Majruhin, vol. 1, 234. Ibn Hajar says that he is da'if. See: Ibn Hajar, Taqrib al-tahdhib, 162.

iii. Al-Husayn ibn al-Hasan ibn 'Atiyah (d. 211/212 AH)

Abu Hatim regards him to be da'if al-hadith. See: Ibn Abi Hatim, Al-Jarh wa al-ta'dil, vol. 3, 48. According to Ibn Sa'd, he is da'ifaṇ fi al-hadith. See: Ibn Sa'd, Al-Tabaqat al-kubra, vol. 7, 331. Al-Dhahabi records that Yahya ibn Ma'in and al-Nasa'i have regarded him to be da'if and that in Ibn Hibban's opinion, he narrates things which do not have any corroboration (rawa ashya' la yutaba'u 'alayha) and it is not recommended that one adduces things from his narratives (la yajuzu al-ihtijaj bi khabrihi). See: al-Dhahabi, Mizan al-i'tidal, vol. 2, 286-287.

iv. Sa'd ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn 'Atiyyah

According to Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal he is not worthy of being taken narratives from. See: al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 9, 126.

v. Muhammad ibn Sa'd al-'Awfi (d. 277 AH)

According to al-Khatib, he is lenient in matters of Hadith (layyin fi al-hadith) but also records that in the opinion of al-Daraqutni he is la ba'sa bihi. See: al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad,vol. 5, 322.

[10]. The jarh on Muhmmad ibn Humayd and Mihran ibn Abi 'Umar has already been pointed out earlier.

[11]. The jarh on the narrators of this chain has already been mentioned earlier.

[12]. Al-Tabari has not mentioned his informant from al-Husayn.

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