With Surah Qaf begins the sixth group of the Qur'an. The central theme of this group is the Hereafter.
In this particular surah, various arguments are cited to prove that the Day of Judgement is certain to come. The surah can be distinctly divided into the following seven sections:
The grandeur and magnificence of the Qur'an bear witness that it is the word of Allah. Those who are regarding it as the work of a poet or a soothsayer are merely doing so as an excuse to deny the Day of Judgement. They are actually confounded by the fact that someone from amongst themselves is warning them that after they die and become dust they will be returned to life again. This according to them is very unlikely. Actually pride and vanity have led them to reject the Qur'an and owing to this reason they are calling it a work of poetry and soothsaying. Their denial is baseless and since they have denied the truth, they are in an acute state of mental confusion and obvious contradiction. They should be aware that even what the earth consumes of their bodies is in the knowledge of Allah and with Him is a register which records all what they say and do.
A reference is made to the signs of the heavens and the earth which bear evidence to the Day of Judgement and to the reward and punishment that will be given to men on that Day as well as to the belief of Tawhid (monotheism). These signs testify to the power and wisdom of the Almighty and to the various means of sustenance He has created for mankind. These signs are meant to remind and caution man.
The Quraysh are warned that they should not deny the truth because of pride and prejudice. Many nations before them who were guilty of this crime were totally destroyed, and if they continue with this attitude, their fate will be no different.
The Almighty's attributes of Knowledge and Creativity which prove the certainty of the Day of Judgement are alluded to and a reference is also made to the arrangement He has made for the security and protection of the records of all the deeds and utterances of mankind.
A vivid description of the Day of Judgement is drawn: The details of the dreadful fate the disbelievers will encounter and the good fate the believers will meet are highlighted.
The Quraysh are warned that they must not be overcome by the pride of the power they possess and must not vainly reckon that their glory and grandeur are eternal: Many other nations, who had much more power and splendour were destroyed at the very height of their dominance and authority; they could not even find any room in the vastness of the earth to hide from the ruthless law of retribution. Indeed, in the account of these nations is a lesson for people who are sensitive and who earnestly give ear.
The Prophet (sws) is urged to persevere and to persist in the cause of truth, and seek perseverance from Allah with the help of prayers. He is told to defer the matter of the disbelievers to the Day of Judgement, which is certain to come; when the Almighty Himself will take account of their deeds. Furthermore, he is assured that his only responsibility is to warn them of this Day; to make them accept faith is not his responsibility. He should only admonish those who fear Allah through this Qur'an, and to leave the matter of those who make of fun it to the Almighty.
This surah is the dual counterpart of the previous surah: Qaf. It can be distinctly divided into the following six sections:
By referring to the diverse manifestations of the winds and the clouds, people who make fun of the Day of Reward and Punishment by mockingly questioning about its time of arrival are severely reprimanded for their behaviour. They are warned that the doom that will descend upon them if they deny the Prophet (sws) as well as the Day of Reckoning about which they are being warned; both are certain to come. Only those who have lost their senses are daring to doubt their certainty. Those who are seeking to hasten them will be told that those were precisely what they had sought to hasten.
In contrast with the disbelievers, a mention is made of the reward the righteous will receive who had spent their lives while remaining fearful of the Day, who slept but little at night and in the early hours of dawn sought their Lord's forgiveness and in whose wealth the deprived had a share.
The signs in the heavens and the earth, as well as in the human soul, which testify to the Day of Judgement are alluded to. It is then claimedthat creating mankind a second time is as easy for the Almighty as is for a person to utter a word.
Evidence from history which further substantiates the imminence of the Day of Judgement is presented by referring to the tales of Abraham (sws) and Lot (sws). The same angels who had brought glad tidings to Abraham (sws) about being blessed with a son had unleashed a storming wind and showered stones on the people who had denied the Prophet Lot (sws), and had saved those who had professed faith in him. These events bear witness historically that the Creator of this Universe takes account of what nations do: the people of Lot (sws) were punished in retribution of their own misdeeds. There is a lesson for those who are fearful of the Almighty in this episode -- for the remains of their cities have been preserved by Him.
A brief mention is made of the tales of the Pharaoh and the people of `Aad and Thamud, and folks of Noah who were caught in the ruthless law of retribution of nations when they rejected the message of their respective prophets. They were totally destroyed by the Almighty who just ordered the winds and the clouds to unleash their terror on them.
In this concluding section, the whole theme of the surah is summed up: It is not difficult for the Almighty, who is the Creator of the heavens and the earth and who has created everything in pairs, to create this world a second time: If the Day of Reckoning is certain to come, then people should turn to the Almighty and seek His nearness. The Prophet (sws) is assured that all the other prophets before him received no different a treatment at the hands of their people. He is advised to leave these rebellious people to themselves and to remind only those who are paying heed to the Message of Allah. He is further consoled by the Almighty that men and jinn folk have been created by Him, only to worship Him. He has not imposed any responsibility on them to feed others nor does He Himself seek sustenance from them. Indeed, He Himself is the Provider of all, Lord of Might and Power. He will sustain and provide all those who, irrespective of the circumstances, set out to befittingly worship Him. He will help them in their endeavours as well and no one will be able to harm them. As far as the wrongdoers are concerned, they will get in this world what has been ordained for them. In spite of all their outcries to the Almighty to hasten the Day of Judgement, they will be given the respite needed so that the truth is unveiled to them in its ultimate form after which they can have no excuse to deny. Finally, when this period is over, as deemed by the Almighty, they will encounter the Day about which they are being warned.
The surah can be divided into the following three sections:
This section forms the introductory part of the surah. The headstrong and obstinate people of Quraysh are severely warned through certain historical and universal facts as evidence that the punishment about which they have been informed is certain to come. They should not hasten it and if they will not change their attitude, it will definitely alight and no one will be able to avert it. The next few verses draw a vivid picture of the Day of Judgement, with a brief description of the dreadful fate of those who had denied it.
A portrayal of the favours of the life of bliss the believers will be blessed with in contrast with that of the unbelievers is made. A special favour which is highlighted here is that the Almighty will unite those who brought up their children according to the teachings of Islam with their children even if these children are not entitled to this high level as regards their own deeds. For this union, those who deserve a high rank and level will not be demoted; instead people deserving a lower rank will be promoted to higher ones. Basically, the fate of a person will be decided according to his deeds; therefore, neither a reduction will take place in a person's deeds nor a faithless person will be able to enter Paradise; indeed, the Almighty's blessings will be for the believers.
In the concluding part of the surah, the Prophet (sws) is comforted that he should not pay any heed to the excuse the disbelievers are `inventing' to deny his Prophethood. Ignoring their attitude, he should keep on discharging his duty of reminding people of the truth so that those who are mindful are able to adopt the right path and those who insist on remaining on the wrong path have no excuse but defiance to remain so.
In the twelfth verse, the attitude of the adversaries of indulging in pleasantries and toying with the truth was referred to. Here they are dealt with in detail and silenced on this behaviour.
Rebellious people are warned that very soon the time will come when all their schemes will be shattered, and before the torment of the Final Day they will encounter another torment in this world also.
The Prophet (sws) is comforted that he should patiently await his Lord's decision, and should be aware that he is under His direct protection.
He should augment this patience through prayers, especially the night and early morning ones.
Surah Najmis the dual counterpart of Surah Tur, the previous surah. It can be divided into the following five sections:
In this introductory part, it is elaborated that the Qur'an is not the work of a soothsayer or a fortune-teller, as its disbelievers are alleging; the Almighty Himself has revealed it on the Prophet (sws) through his most trusted and dependable angel. All its verses are based on truth and what is stated in them is inevitable; there is not the slightest element of falsehood in them. No one should have the misconception that the observations and experiences the Prophet (sws) is presenting about revelation and Gabriel are mere illusions or hallucinations. These observations are absolutely true and it is in the well-being of its opponents to profess faith in the Prophet (sws) instead of showing malice and hostility.
The idolaters of Makkah are warned that their idols are nothing but a creation of their fancy and have no reality. They are but names which they have invented; neither has the Almighty ever sanctioned their existence nor can sense and reason, instinct and intellect accept them. These are merely vain conjectures that they are following, even though there has come to them a manifest guidance from their Lord; they must bear in mind that conjectures and suppositions cannot take the place of truth, and false wishes and desires have no basis. They will not encounter what they desire and will only encounter the facts about which they are being warned. Hence, they must prepare themselves to face them. They must remember that all the matters of this world and the Hereafter are under the control of the Almighty and no one can interfere in them. There are many angels in the heavens but none whosoever can benefit from their intercession. The Almighty alone will give permission to intercede to whom He wants and for whom He chooses. Therefore, the myth of regarding the angels as the daughters of Allah and seeking refuge from the law of retribution and accountability in the Hereafter by baselessly supposing that they will intercede for them is mere fanciful thinking on their part and will certainly not be of any benefit to them.
The Prophet (sws) is solaced that he should turn away from those who are showing indifference to the Message of Allah and that he should leave them to themselves. This is the farthest limit of their knowledge and they have no awareness of the Hereafter. He best knows those who have strayed from His path and those who are rightly guided and He will give each person his due. Whatever is in the heavens and the earth is under the sole jurisdiction of Allah and no one whosoever can save the evildoers from His punishment nor deprive the righteous of their reward. Only those will be rewarded who abstained from heinous sins and open indecencies save those occasional but minor sins to which they were induced, but they never became brave on them -- because indeed the Almighty is vast in mercy; He will forgive them. As far as those proud and rebellious people are concerned who on the basis of their race and creed and on the false pretext of intercession reckon that they will be granted a high place in the Hereafter, they must not be misled; the Almighty has knowledge of all their stages of creation and is also aware of their deeds.
People who do not even have the spirit to spend in the way of the Almighty or make sacrifices and who vainly reckon that since they are the progeny of two great prophets -- Abraham and Moses -- they are by birth entitled to paradise are severely condemned on this attitude. Their attention is directed to the teachings and sacrifices of these Prophets that their high rank and status are because of the unprecedented sacrifices they gave in the way of Allah and nobecause of their race or creed. A person's own deeds only will benefit him and they will be of no use to others.
In this regard, it is also emphatically explained that Allah alone gives comfort and pain, life and death, daughter and son, wealth and opulence; therefore, one should always attach himself to the Almighty. Nations who remain indifferent to the Message of Allah and get deeply involved in worldly pleasures, in spite of their wealth and grandeur, meet the fate similar to the one met by the Aad and the Thamud. Their remains still exist and everyone should learn a lesson from them.
This concluding section of the surah refers to what is stated in the beginning: the Qur'an is not the work of fortune-tellers or soothsayers but like previous heavenly scriptures is another Reminder. Now the threatened hour is nigh and it is giving its opponents a timely warning. If they still do not take heed, no one will be able to save them from Allah. They should not express surprise and wonder at the reality about which this Reminder is warning them. They should not laugh at it; in fact, its consequences are so grave that they should take it very seriously. They must pay heed and prostrate themselves in front of the Almighty.
The surah can be divided into the following three sections:
The Prophet (sws) is comforted that he should not pay any heed to the stubborn and obstinate people who are demanding to see the doom they have been promised. The greatest of signs will not induce them to accept faith because they do not follow the norms of sense and reason; instead they are the followers of their whims and desires. The tales of various nations should be a big lesson for them, but alas! they do not have the ability to learn from history. The Prophet (sws) is further consoled that they will not pay heed to his Message; he should leave their matter to the summoner who, on the Day of Judgement will be summoning them not to the Qur'anbut to Hell. They will respond to his call, emerging from their graves like locusts scattered about.
The Quraysh are directed to learn a lesson from the fate of the people of Noah, Aad, Thamud, Lot and Pharaoh. These people, like the Quraysh, rejected their respective prophets, and if the Quraysh also follow their footsteps, they will meet a similar fate. They must bear in mind that the Almighty has revealed the Qur'an to warn them of this danger beforehand by making it very appropriate for admonition. Instead of acknowledging this favour of the Almighty and benefiting from it, alas! it is their extreme misfortune that they are asking for punishment.
The Quraysh are cautioned that when in the past the Almighty has never spared the unbelievers, they should not consider themselves an exception to this rule. Do they reckon that the Almighty has written a directive of acquittal for them in the Hereafter in the heavenly scriptures, and do they think that they will be able to defend themselves against Allah in the Hereafter? If they have such foolish ideas, they must remember that the Almighty will never treat the unbelievers and the righteous equally. The unbelievers will encounter the raging fire of Hell and the righteous will dwell in the eternal bliss of paradise.
The nazm of this surah is very evident. It begins with the declaration that the Qur'an is a manifestation of the Graciousness of the Almighty. The Almighty created man and specially blessed him with the power of speech and comprehension. These abilities require that man should be taught and educated with the most grand heavenly work -- the Qur'an-- and not through torment and punishment. It is the extreme misfortune of the disbelievers who instead of seeking guidance from it are demanding to see the promised doom.
After this, various signs in the heavens and in the earth and in the universal norms of human intellect are pointed at and two of the Almighty's creations -- men and jinn-folk -- are urged and exhorted to reflect on them and rebuked upon denying so many signs.
These signs are mentioned in the following sequence:
First and foremost are mentioned those signs and manifestations which point to the fact that the Almighty greatly cherishes justice and does not approve anything contrary to justice and equity at all in the world He has created.
These are followed by those which indicate that the tremendous and extremely vast system of sustenance which the Almighty has established on the earth strongly indicates that man will not be left unaccountable; in fact, one day he will definitely be held accountable for the profound blessings he has been given. Those who deserve to be rewarded will be rewarded by Allah and those who deserve to be punished will be punished by Him.
A reference is then made to the fact that it is the Almighty who has created men and jinn-folk from clay and fire and He can easily create them a second time. There is no difficulty for Him in this regard. This whole Universe is under His control; He is the Lord of the East and the West. Whatever rises, rises with His permission and whatever sets, sets with His permission.
After this, it is asserted that the conflicting elements in the Universe are in harmony with one another to fulfil a greater purpose which is over and above their creation. This bears witness to the fact that a sovereign will is dominant over these elements which creates harmony between them and uses them for the collective welfare of the universe. If this were not so, the universe would have been destroyed by a clash between its conflicting elements. That it is surviving is an ample testimony to the fact that a single supreme and omnipotent power controls it.
A mention is then made of the fact that Allah alone is immortal and all the rest are mortal.
Next it is expressed that all except the Almighty are needy and He is the only one who fulfils their needs. The foolish who ask from others actually receive from Him as well.
An affirmation is then made of the fact that the Day wherein accountability of deeds takes place is certain to come and on that Day no one -- men as well as the jinn-folk -- will be able to run away from the Almighty's grasp. On that Day, no evidence will be needed to convict a criminal as his forehead will bear witness to his sins. He will then be grabbed by his forehead and feet and flung into Hell.
At the end, features and characteristics of the paradise which the muqarrabin (the near ones) will receive are delineated, followed by the features and characteristics of the paradise which the Ashabu'l Yamin (Companions of the Right Hand) will be blessed with.
Thesurahcan be divided into the following six sections:
The surah begins with the assertion that the Day of Judgement is certain to come. The Day will evaluate a person according to his faith and deeds; it will upgrade many a people and downgrade many of them. As a result of this assessment, people will be divided into three categories: theashabu'l yamin, the ashabu'l shimal and thesabiqunu'l awwalun.
Those nearest to the Almighty will be thesabiqunu'l awwalun. The details of the gifts and favours of their Lord which they will receive in paradise are recounted together with the qualities of the sabiqunu'l awwalun which actually entitled them to these favours.
The second place will be occupied by the ashabu'l yamin. A delineation is made of the bounties and rewards which they will be blessed with in paradise and of their personal high character which made them worthy of this life of bliss.
The horrible fate of the ashabu'l shimal is depicted and a reference is made to a few of their grave sins which led them to this terrible punishment.
TheQuraysh are directly addressed and warned that they would end up with the same fate as that of the ashabu'l shimal if they persist in their attitude of denying the Prophet (sws). In this regard, a reference is made to certain self-evident arguments bear evidence to the Day of Reward and Punishment. Such is the nature of these arguments that no excuse but stubbornness on their part can deny them.
An indication is made to the exalted status of the Qur'an and the fact that it is above and beyond the reach of Satan and his agents. The Quraysh are again cautioned not to turn a deaf ear towards this sublime message and thus invite their doom. The fate which this Book is informing them about is a reality. Fortunate are they who today strive to attain a place among the ashabu'l yamin and the sabiqunu'l awwalun; those who will not do so, will end up among the ashabu'l shimal and will face a grievous penalty.
The surah can be distinctly divided into the following nine sections:
In the introductory part of the surah, a reference is made to the attributes of Wisdom, Power, Knowledge, Authority, Origination and Planning of the Almighty in order to highlight that someone possessing these attributes is the one towards whom every one will turn on the Day of Judgement; therefore, it is befitting that only He should be thanked and glorified. Everything within this Universe is glorifying Him and this act of theirs invites men to worship Him only and not associate others with Him.
A warning is sounded to the Muslims in general and those among them having a weak faith in particular that they should fulfil the requisites of the covenant of `to listen and obey' they had pledged at the hands of the Prophet (sws) with all the spirit and determination they can muster. It is the requirement of their faith to respond positively to the Jihad and Infaq the Prophet (sws) is today calling them to. It is this attitude which will bring them towards light from darkness. Those who spend and fight in the way of Allah will have a higher status than those who will do so after the conquest of Makkah, though they too will be rewarded by the Almighty.
Those who spend in the way of Allah with purity of purpose will find that their spending has manifested itself into a radiant light which guides them to paradise. Those who do not spend in the way of Allah because of hypocrisy will be deprived of this light. These people will ask the believers to let them also benefit from its radiance. The believers will reply that they have lost the opportunity to do so by their behaviour in the previous world and they will not receive it now whatsoever. After this exchange of dialogue, a wall will be erected between the two, on one side of which will be the blessings of Allah and on the other side will be His torment.
The hypocrites are warned that even after seeing such manifest signs of the supremacy of Islam, if they show hesitation and refrain from spending in the way of Allah, they will become hardhearted like the Jews before them and meet a similar fate. They are reminded that the Day of Reckoning is certain to come; neither should they become indifferent to its reward nor unafraid of its punishment.
Those who spend in the way of Allah and fight for His cause should rest assured that the Almighty will honour their sacrifices; in fact, they will be rewarded many times for each sacrifice they make. It is Infaq and Jihad which entitles them to become shuhada and siddiqin and they will also be rewarded the radiant light of which the hypocrites will remain deprived.
Sorrow is expressed over the timid and unenterprising attitude of the people who have given their hearts to the transitory pleasures of this world and have forgotten the mercy of their Lord as well as the paradise which is as vast as the vastness of the heavens and the earth.
A reminder is sounded that a person's opulence or poverty does not depend on his own schemes and plans but on the fate which has been divinely ordained for him. The correct attitude, therefore, is that a person whether he is in ease or in difficulty, should surrender to the will of the Almighty. If he has been blessed with wealth, he should not hesitate to spend it in the way of Allah. He should be aware that just as the Almighty can bless a person with something, He can also deprive him of it whenever He wants.
A refutation is made of the claim of the people who on the basis of the concept of Rahbaniyyah (ascetism) regard Jihad and Infaq as mundane activities and condemn the spirit of Jihad of the Muslims. By referring to history, it is shown that Jihad has remained the Sunnah of the Prophets and Rahbaniyyah is a religious innovation of the Christians; it is the result of their transgressing the bounds of their religion. The Prophet Jesus (sws) never taught it.
Muslims are urged to selflessly answer the call of Jihad made by the Prophet (sws) and spend magnanimously for this cause. They are told not to pay heed to the evil suggestions of the wicked among the People of the Book who regard Jihad as a mundane undertaking. The Prophets have always undertaken Jihad to establish justice and equity and the Muslims must follow the path of the Prophets. The Rahbaniyyah invented by the Christians is something which the Prophet Jesus (sws) never preached. They are just showing their malice towards the Muslims -- but against their wishes, the Almighty will reward the Muslims according to the fate He has destined for them.
The surah can be divided into the following six sections:
A reference is made to an incident in which a pious woman had to face severe difficulty regarding a religious issue; instead of becoming frustrated and showing distrust in the Almighty, she presented her case before Him and His Prophet (sws) with all the confidence and purity of intention she could muster. The Almighty resolved her difficulty and set her forth as an example in the Qur'an: the example of a person who adopted the correct attitude when troubles came her way. This was in sharp contrast with the attitude of the Hypocrites who would show hostility and raise a propaganda against the Almighty and His Prophet (sws) when a particular directive of the Shari`ah proved adverse to their desires and wishes.
Disgust is expressed at the attitude of the people who instead of showing trust in the Almighty and His Prophet (sws) were busy whispering evil suggestions to others and maligning the cause of Islam. They were showing disrespect to the Prophet (sws) and were presenting the lenience, the Almighty was showing them by not punishing them, as proof of their correct attitude. They are warned that they will not only be humiliated in this world as history testifies, but will also face a grievous torment in the Hereafter.
Muslims are forbidden from whispering evil suggestions and directed that their secret conversations should not be against the Prophet (sws); their intimate discourses should be clean and pious. They should ignore the assault of 'evil-whispering' which the hypocrites have launched against them, for such whispering cannot harm anyone unless the Almighty wants. It is befitting for them to trust their Lord and to be rest assured instead of worrying and being aggrieved by such insinuations. The Almighty will protect them from the evil of the evil-doers.
The believers are directed to follow certain manners when they are in the company of the Prophet (sws), and forbidden to carry out clandestine conversation when they are gathered around him. Certain emergency directives are given to impede the campaign of evil-whispering launched by the Hypocrites.
After the achievement of the desired results, the emergency directives are repealed and the believers are directed to establish those forms of worship which will put an end to this malady of evil-whispering; these forms are spelled out for them.
An indication is made of the fact that the Hypocrites are actually the agents of the Jews who have incurred the wrath of the Almighty; their real allegiance rests with them. Their glibness and their trait of during conversation effectively conceals their reality and they are able to outwardly show themselves as Muslims. Their allegiance is actually with the enemies of Islam; they are overwhelmed by the love of wealth. Satan has made them unmindful of Allah and they have joined his party to impair and obstruct the Prophet's mission; ultimately their efforts will fizzle out, for it is the absolute judgement of the Almighty that only He and His Prophets shall always prevail. True believers are those who sever their ties of relationship from the enemies of Allah and the Prophet (sws) even if they are their fathers, sons, brothers and tribesmen. The Almighty will only be happy with such people; they are the people of His party and only they shall attain salvation.
The surah can be divided into the following four sections:
A reference is made to the exile of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nudayr. They had been ordered to vacate their territory because they had broken their covenant and had plotted to kill the Prophet (sws). At first, they agreed to this punishment, but later on when some of their allies offered their assistance to them, they changed their minds. Ultimately, the Prophet (sws) had to launch an attack on them in the 4th year of Hijrah, after which they were forced to go to the land of Khaybar. They were given the permission to take as much as they could upon their camels. Consequently, they took away what they could and whatever remained came into the possession of the Muslims. By citing their example, the Hypocrites are admonished to seek a lesson from this event. It is pointed out to them that they had wrongly thought that the Banu Nudayr could not be banished from their land, whereas, as time proved, they had to leave their land and that too in a manner in which they had to ruin and ravage the houses they had built by their own hands; the foes of the Prophet (sws) always meet this fate; if they seek the support of these Jews, they too will meet a similar fate.
In a parenthetical sentence, certain objections raised by the Jews and the Hypocrites are answered. These objections pertained to the ruining of the orchards of Banu Nudayr by the Muslims and to the distribution of fay. The attitude of contentment shown on this distribution by the `Ansar and the Muhajirin, in sharp contrast with that of the Hypocrites, is praised.
An indication is made to another mischievous deed of the Hypocrites. After the exile of the Banu Nudayr, they had started inducing the tribe of Banu Qurayzah to break their covenant as well; they told them that they would also fight by their side if they were attacked and if they were exiled, they would also accompany them. It is pointed out to them that they are saying something which they can never do; neither will they offer their support nor will they accompany them. They are only doing what Satan does: after a person commits a sin on his incitement, he withdraws by proclaiming acquittal from him. The Banu Qurayzah are warned that if they also break the covenant due to the backing of the Hypocrites, their fate will be no different from that of the Banu Nudayr.
Section IV ( 18-24)
In this concluding section of the surah, the believers in general and the Hypocrites in particular are warned to always keep in mind the Day of Judgement. They should not become like those who had forgotten the Almighty and as a result forgot their purpose of existence and the fate they would come across; there is a great difference between those who will dwell in paradise and those who will abide in Hell; this difference should not be ignored by belittling it; only the dwellers of paradise will attain real success. It should be kept in consideration that they have been revealed the truth in its ultimate form after which no excuse but stubbornness on their part can deny it. Had the Qur'an been revealed on a mountain, it would have been shattered to pieces due to the dread and awe of Allah. If their hearts are not being influenced by its message, then it is not the fault of the Qur'an; rather it is due to their own hardheartedness which is alienating them from this Divine Call.
In the end, a reference is made to certain attributes of the Almighty to inculcate the qualities of submission and trust in the believers who have a strong faith and to cultivate the qualities of determination and confidence in those among them who have a weak faith, while in the Hypocrites they are meant to create a fear of the Almighty. The surah finally ends on the note it began with.