Punishment for Apostates

Punishment for Apostates


Hadīth

روي أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: من بدل دينه فاقتلوه.

It is narrated that the Prophet (sws) said: "[From among the Banū Ishma'il,] whoever changes his religion, kill him."[1]

Notes on the Text of the Narrative

This narrative or a part of it with some variations has been reported in Bukhārī (Nos. 2854, 6524 and 6525), Muslim (No. 1733),Mu'attā of Imām Mālik (No. 1413), Ibn Hibbān (Nos. 4475 and 5606), Abū Dā'ūd (Nos. 4351 and 4354), Tirmidhī (No. 1458), Nasā'ī (Nos. 4059, 4060, 4061, 4062, 4063, 4064, 4065 and 4066), Ibn Mājah (No. 2535), Nasā'ī's al-Sunan al-Kubrā (Nos. 3522, 3523, 3524, 3525, 3526, 3527, 3528 and 3529), Bayhaqī (Nos. 16597, 16598, 16599, 16635, 16636, 16637, 16654, 16658 and 17841), Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Nos. 1871, 2551, 2552, 2968, 19681 and 22068), Abū Ya'lā (Nos. 2532 and 2533), Humaydī (No. 533), 'Abd al-Razzāq (Nos. 9413, 18705 and 18706), Ibn Abī Shaybah (Nos. 28992, 29006, 32728, 33143 and 36491). The preferred text is reported in Bukhārī's No. 2854.

In some narratives, as in Ahmad ibn Hanbal's No. 22068, the words من بدل دينه (whoever changes his religion) have been reported as من رجع عن دينه (whoever returns back to his previous religion, turning away from his present religion); in some narratives, as in Mu'attā Imām Mālik's No. 1413, these words have been reported as من غير دينه (whoever changes his religion); in 'Abd al-Razzāq's No. 18706, these words have been replaced with من بدل عن دينه(whoever changes [his religion] turning away from his present religion).

In some narratives, as in Mu'attā Imām Mālik's No. 1413, the word فاقتلوه (kill him) have been replaced with a synonymous phrase فاضربوا عنقه (break his neck).

In some other narratives, as for instance in Bukhārī's No. 6525, the Prophet's directive under consideration is implied but its words have not been expressly cited.

(This write-up is prepared by the Hadith Cell of Javed Ahmad Ghamidi)




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