Surah al-Anbiya (1/2)

Surah al-Anbiya (1/2)


Qur'anic Exegesis

بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ

In the name of God, the Most-Gracious, the Ever-Merciful.

اِقۡتَرَبَ لِلنَّاسِ حِسَابُہُمۡ وَہُمۡ فِیۡ غَفۡلَۃٍ مُّعۡرِضُوۡنَ ۚ﴿۱﴾ مَا یَاۡتِیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡ ذِکۡرٍ مِّنۡ رَّبِّہِمۡ مُّحۡدَثٍ اِلَّا اسۡتَمَعُوۡہُ وَ ہُمۡ یَلۡعَبُوۡنَ ۙ﴿۲﴾ لَاہِیَۃً قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ ؕ وَ اَسَرُّوا النَّجۡوَی ٭ۖ الَّذِیۡنَ ظَلَمُوۡا ٭ۖ ہَلۡ ہٰذَاۤ اِلَّا بَشَرٌ مِّثۡلُکُمۡ ۚ اَفَتَاۡتُوۡنَ السِّحۡرَ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ تُبۡصِرُوۡنَ ﴿۳﴾

The time of accountability for people has drawn near[1] and being negligent they continue to show evasion.[2] Whenever a fresh reminder from their Lord comes to them, they listen to it; then engage in amusement. Their hearts are heedless and those unjust silently whisper [to another]: "What is this person; he is just a mortal like you. Then are you mesmerized by his magic with your open eyes."[3] (1-3)

قٰلَ رَبِّیۡ یَعۡلَمُ الۡقَوۡلَ فِی السَّمَآءِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ۫ وَ ہُوَ السَّمِیۡعُ الۡعَلِیۡمُ ﴿۴﴾

[At this,] the messenger said:[4] "[They whisper with one another.] My Lord knows every word that is uttered in the heavens and the earth and He hears and knows all." (4)

بَلۡ قَالُوۡۤا اَضۡغَاثُ اَحۡلَامٍۭ بَلِ افۡتَرٰىہُ بَلۡ ہُوَ شَاعِرٌ ۚۖ فَلۡیَاۡتِنَا بِاٰیَۃٍ کَمَاۤ اُرۡسِلَ الۡاَوَّلُوۡنَ ﴿۵﴾

They do not merely call it magic. In fact, they have also said: "These are wayward dreams." In fact, [also said]: "He has fabricated this Qur'an from himself." In fact, [they further said]: "He is a mere poet."[5] So, [if he is really a messenger, then] let him bring a sign to us the way earlier messengers were sent with signs.[6] (5)

مَاۤ اٰمَنَتۡ قَبۡلَہُمۡ مِّنۡ قَرۡیَۃٍ اَہۡلَکۡنٰہَا ۚ اَفَہُمۡ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۶﴾ وَ مَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡنَا قَبۡلَکَ اِلَّا رِجَالًا نُّوۡحِیۡۤ اِلَیۡہِمۡ فَسۡـَٔلُوۡۤا اَہۡلَ الذِّکۡرِ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۷﴾ وَ مَا جَعَلۡنٰہُمۡ جَسَدًا لَّا یَاۡکُلُوۡنَ الطَّعَامَ وَ مَا کَانُوۡا خٰلِدِیۡنَ ﴿۸﴾ ثُمَّ صَدَقۡنٰہُمُ الۡوَعۡدَ فَاَنۡجَیۡنٰہُمۡ وَ مَنۡ نَّشَآءُ وَ اَہۡلَکۡنَا الۡمُسۡرِفِیۡنَ ﴿۹﴾

Whichever settlements We have destroyed, none before them professed faith [after seeing such a sign;] so, will they profess faith? [They say: "He is a human being like us."] Before you also, whichever messenger We sent, We have sent from among human beings to whom We would send revelations. So, ask the people of the reminder, if you people do not know.[7] We did not make such bodies of those messengers that they would not consume food and they were also not ones who would live forever [in the world].[8] Then see that We fulfilled Our promise with them[9] and saved them and [with them] those We wanted and We destroyed those who exceeded the limits. (6-9)

لَقَدۡ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکُمۡ کِتٰبًا فِیۡہِ ذِکۡرُکُمۡ ؕ اَفَلَا تَعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰﴾ وَ کَمۡ قَصَمۡنَا مِنۡ قَرۡیَۃٍ کَانَتۡ ظَالِمَۃً وَّ اَنۡشَاۡنَا بَعۡدَہَا قَوۡمًا اٰخَرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۱﴾ فَلَمَّاۤ اَحَسُّوۡا بَاۡسَنَاۤ اِذَا ہُمۡ مِّنۡہَا یَرۡکُضُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۱۲﴾ لَا تَرۡکُضُوۡا وَ ارۡجِعُوۡۤا اِلٰی مَاۤ اُتۡرِفۡتُمۡ فِیۡہِ وَ مَسٰکِنِکُمۡ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُسۡـَٔلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳﴾ قَالُوۡا یٰوَیۡلَنَاۤ اِنَّا کُنَّا ظٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴﴾ فَمَا زَالَتۡ تِّلۡکَ دَعۡوٰىہُمۡ حَتّٰی جَعَلۡنٰہُمۡ حَصِیۡدًا خٰمِدِیۡنَ ﴿۱۵﴾

[O People!] We have also revealed a Book to you which has your share of reminder. Then do you not understand?[10] How many a city We decimated which were being unjust to themselves,[11] and after them raised other people.[12] Then when they heard the sound of Our torment, they immediately began running away from there. [We said:] "Do not run away now and return to your resources you were rejoicing in and to your houses which were your places of enjoyment[13] so that you may be questioned."[14] They raised a hue and cry: "It is our misfortune; indeed, it is we who were unjust." So, they kept raising this hue and cry until We mowed them down as if they are ashes.[15] (10-15)

وَ مَا خَلَقۡنَا السَّمَآءَ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ وَ مَا بَیۡنَہُمَا لٰعِبِیۡنَ ﴿۱۶﴾ لَوۡ اَرَدۡنَاۤ اَنۡ نَّتَّخِذَ لَہۡوًا لَّاتَّخَذۡنٰہُ مِنۡ لَّدُنَّاۤ ٭ۖ اِنۡ کُنَّا فٰعِلِیۡنَ ﴿۱۷﴾ بَلۡ نَقۡذِفُ بِالۡحَقِّ عَلَی الۡبَاطِلِ فَیَدۡمَغُہٗ فَاِذَا ہُوَ زَاہِقٌ ؕ وَ لَکُمُ الۡوَیۡلُ مِمَّا تَصِفُوۡنَ ﴿۱۸﴾

We have not created the heavens and the earth and what is between them for amusement.[16] If We wanted amusement, We would have arranged for it around Us, if this was Our intention.[17] [Certainly not!][18] In fact [a day will come[19] that] We will strike falsehood with the truth and it will break its head. Then you will see it annihilated at that very time. Indeed, there is great devastation for you because of the words you say.[20] (16-18)

وَ لَہٗ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ عِنۡدَہٗ لَا یَسۡتَکۡبِرُوۡنَ عَنۡ عِبَادَتِہٖ وَ لَا یَسۡتَحۡسِرُوۡنَ﴿ۚ۱۹﴾ یُسَبِّحُوۡنَ الَّیۡلَ وَ النَّہَارَ لَا یَفۡتُرُوۡنَ ﴿۲۰﴾

To him belong what is in the heavens and the earth and those who are in His presence [who you worship as His offspring,[21]] they do not desist from worshipping Him nor do they get tired. They extol Him day and night, never ceasing. (19-20)

اَمِ اتَّخَذُوۡۤا اٰلِہَۃً مِّنَ الۡاَرۡضِ ہُمۡ یُنۡشِرُوۡنَ ﴿۲۱﴾ لَوۡ کَانَ فِیۡہِمَاۤ اٰلِہَۃٌ اِلَّا اللّٰہُ لَفَسَدَتَا ۚ فَسُبۡحٰنَ اللّٰہِ رَبِّ الۡعَرۡشِ عَمَّا یَصِفُوۡنَ ﴿۲۲﴾ لَا یُسۡـَٔلُ عَمَّا یَفۡعَلُ وَ ہُمۡ یُسۡـَٔلُوۡنَ ﴿۲۳﴾ اَمِ اتَّخَذُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖۤ اٰلِہَۃً ؕ قُلۡ ہَاتُوۡا بُرۡہَانَکُمۡ ۚ ہٰذَا ذِکۡرُ مَنۡ مَّعِیَ وَ ذِکۡرُ مَنۡ قَبۡلِیۡ ؕ بَلۡ اَکۡثَرُہُمۡ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ۙ الۡحَقَّ فَہُمۡ مُّعۡرِضُوۡنَ ﴿۲۴﴾ وَ مَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡنَا مِنۡ قَبۡلِکَ مِنۡ رَّسُوۡلٍ اِلَّا نُوۡحِیۡۤ اِلَیۡہِ اَنَّہٗ لَاۤ اِلٰہَ اِلَّاۤ اَنَا فَاعۡبُدُوۡنِ ﴿۲۵﴾

Have they set up separate deities for the earth which enliven it?[22] Had there been other deities in the heavens and the earth besides God, both would have been devastated.[23] So, God, master of the throne,[24] is exalted from all what they say. Whatever He does, He is not answerable [to anyone] for it and all these are answerable.[25] Have they set up other deities besides God? Tell them: "Bring forth your proof. Here is the reminder of those who are with me and the reminder of those also who were before me."[26] No, none of them has any proof. In fact, most of them do not know the truth. For this reason, they are showing aversion. Whichever messenger We sent before you, We only kept sending him this revelation:[27] "There is no deity except Me; so, worship Me only."[28] (21-25)

وَ قَالُوا اتَّخَذَ الرَّحۡمٰنُ وَلَدًا سُبۡحٰنَہٗ ؕ بَلۡ عِبَادٌ مُّکۡرَمُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۲۶﴾ لَا یَسۡبِقُوۡنَہٗ بِالۡقَوۡلِ وَ ہُمۡ بِاَمۡرِہٖ یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۲۷﴾ یَعۡلَمُ مَا بَیۡنَ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ وَ مَا خَلۡفَہُمۡ وَ لَا یَشۡفَعُوۡنَ ۙ اِلَّا لِمَنِ ارۡتَضٰی وَ ہُمۡ مِّنۡ خَشۡیَتِہٖ مُشۡفِقُوۡنَ ﴿۲۸﴾ وَ مَنۡ یَّقُلۡ مِنۡہُمۡ اِنِّیۡۤ اِلٰہٌ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِہٖ فَذٰلِکَ نَجۡزِیۡہِ جَہَنَّمَ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ نَجۡزِی الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۲۹﴾

They say: "The merciful God has children." He is exalted [from this blame. Angels who these foolish regard to be daughters of God] are not His children. In fact, they are favoured servants.[29] They do not take the initiative in speaking to Him and obey His directive.[30] Whatever is in front of them and behind them is all known to Him. They do not intercede for anyone except for whom God pleases and tremble from His awe. Whoever of them dares say: "I am a deity besides God," We will punish him with Hell. Thus do We punish the unjust.[31] (26-29)

اَوَ لَمۡ یَرَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اَنَّ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ کَانَتَا رَتۡقًا فَفَتَقۡنٰہُمَا ؕ وَ جَعَلۡنَا مِنَ الۡمَآءِ کُلَّ شَیۡءٍ حَیٍّ ؕ اَفَلَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۳۰﴾ وَ جَعَلۡنَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ رَوَاسِیَ اَنۡ تَمِیۡدَ بِہِمۡ ۪ وَ جَعَلۡنَا فِیۡہَا فِجَاجًا سُبُلًا لَّعَلَّہُمۡ یَہۡتَدُوۡنَ ﴿۳۱﴾ وَ جَعَلۡنَا السَّمَآءَ سَقۡفًا مَّحۡفُوۡظًا ۚۖ وَّ ہُمۡ عَنۡ اٰیٰتِہَا مُعۡرِضُوۡنَ ﴿۳۲﴾ وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَ الَّیۡلَ وَ النَّہَارَ وَ الشَّمۡسَ وَ الۡقَمَرَ ؕ کُلٌّ فِیۡ فَلَکٍ یَّسۡبَحُوۡنَ ﴿۳۳﴾

[They ask for signs]. Have these disbelievers not many a time seen that the heavens and the earth both are closed.[32] Then We opened them[33] and We have created every living being with water of the heavens only. Will then they not accept faith? And We have planted mountains in the earth so that it may not tilt away with them[34] and in these mountains made passes as paths so that people may find the way [for them].[35] And We have made the heavens a secure roof[36] and such are these people that they have turned away from its signs. Indeed, it is He Who made the night and the day and created the sun and the moon. Each of them is moving in [its] path.[37] (30-33)

وَ مَا جَعَلۡنَا لِبَشَرٍ مِّنۡ قَبۡلِکَ الۡخُلۡدَ ؕ اَفَا۠ئِنۡ مِّتَّ فَہُمُ الۡخٰلِدُوۡنَ ﴿۳۴﴾ کُلُّ نَفۡسٍ ذَآئِقَۃُ الۡمَوۡتِ ؕ وَ نَبۡلُوۡکُمۡ بِالشَّرِّ وَ الۡخَیۡرِ فِتۡنَۃً ؕ وَ اِلَیۡنَا تُرۡجَعُوۡنَ ﴿۳۵﴾

[They do not believe in you because you will also die one day.] Before you also [O Prophet] We never gave any mortal eternal life. So, if you die, will they live forever?[38] Indeed, each soul has to taste death. And [they should not show pride on their status;] We are trying you people through good and bad circumstances as a test and [one day] you will be returned to Us.[39] (34-35)

وَ اِذَا رَاٰکَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اِنۡ یَّتَّخِذُوۡنَکَ اِلَّا ہُزُوًا ؕ اَہٰذَا الَّذِیۡ یَذۡکُرُ اٰلِہَتَکُمۡ ۚ وَ ہُمۡ بِذِکۡرِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ ہُمۡ کٰفِرُوۡنَ ﴿۳۶﴾

When these disbelievers look at you, they only make fun of you. [They say:[40]] "Alright. Is this the one who degrades your deities?"[41] And as for themselves, they even reject the merciful God's mention.[42] (36)

خُلِقَ الۡاِنۡسَانُ مِنۡ عَجَلٍ ؕ سَاُورِیۡکُمۡ اٰیٰتِیۡ فَلَا تَسۡتَعۡجِلُوۡنِ ﴿۳۷﴾ وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ مَتٰی ہٰذَا الۡوَعۡدُ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۳۸﴾ لَوۡ یَعۡلَمُ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا حِیۡنَ لَا یَکُفُّوۡنَ عَنۡ وُّجُوۡہِہِمُ النَّارَ وَ لَا عَنۡ ظُہُوۡرِہِمۡ وَ لَا ہُمۡ یُنۡصَرُوۡنَ ﴿۳۹﴾ بَلۡ تَاۡتِیۡہِمۡ بَغۡتَۃً فَتَبۡہَتُہُمۡ فَلَا یَسۡتَطِیۡعُوۡنَ رَدَّہَا وَ لَا ہُمۡ یُنۡظَرُوۡنَ ﴿۴۰﴾

[They are showing haste for bringing the torment. In reality,] impatience is the substance a human being is made of. I will soon show you My signs. So, do not show haste to Me. And they say: "When will this promise be fulfilled, if you are truthful?" Would that these disbelievers were aware of the time when they would not be able to shield their faces from the fire of Hell nor from their backs and neither will they be helped from anywhere. This calamity will not come with a warning beforehand.[43] In fact, it will suddenly descend on them and strike awe in them. Then neither will they be able to drive it away nor will they be given any respite. (37-40)

وَ لَقَدِ اسۡتُہۡزِئَ بِرُسُلٍ مِّنۡ قَبۡلِکَ فَحَاقَ بِالَّذِیۡنَ سَخِرُوۡا مِنۡہُمۡ مَّا کَانُوۡا بِہٖ یَسۡتَہۡزِءُوۡنَ ﴿۴۱﴾ قُلۡ مَنۡ یَّکۡلَؤُکُمۡ بِالَّیۡلِ وَ النَّہَارِ مِنَ الرَّحۡمٰنِ ؕ بَلۡ ہُمۡ عَنۡ ذِکۡرِ رَبِّہِمۡ مُّعۡرِضُوۡنَ ﴿۴۲﴾ اَمۡ لَہُمۡ اٰلِہَۃٌ تَمۡنَعُہُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِنَا ؕ لَا یَسۡتَطِیۡعُوۡنَ نَصۡرَ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ وَ لَا ہُمۡ مِّنَّا یُصۡحَبُوۡنَ ﴿۴۳﴾

Before you also [O Prophet!] messengers have been mocked. Then those of them who mocked them were surrounded by that which they had been mocking. Ask them: "[If the same thing surrounds you, then] Who can protect you from the merciful God by the night and day?" No one! In fact, these people have turned away from the reminder of their Lord. Do these people have some other deities besides Us who will save them? [Certainly not!] Neither will they be able to help themselves nor can anyone support them against Us. (41-43)

بَلۡ مَتَّعۡنَا ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ وَ اٰبَآءَہُمۡ حَتّٰی طَالَ عَلَیۡہِمُ الۡعُمُرُ ؕ اَفَلَا یَرَوۡنَ اَنَّا نَاۡتِی الۡاَرۡضَ نَنۡقُصُہَا مِنۡ اَطۡرَافِہَا ؕ اَفَہُمُ الۡغٰلِبُوۡنَ ﴿۴۴﴾

In fact, the real thing is that We provided means and resources to them and to their forefathers until a long period passed over them in this situation.[44] Yet, do they not see that We are moving towards this land by diminishing its borders.[45] So, will they alone remain dominant?[46] (44)

قُلۡ اِنَّمَاۤ اُنۡذِرُکُمۡ بِالۡوَحۡیِ ۫ۖ وَ لَا یَسۡمَعُ الصُّمُّ الدُّعَآءَ اِذَا مَا یُنۡذَرُوۡنَ ﴿۴۵﴾ وَ لَئِنۡ مَّسَّتۡہُمۡ نَفۡحَۃٌ مِّنۡ عَذَابِ رَبِّکَ لَیَقُوۡلُنَّ یٰوَیۡلَنَاۤ اِنَّا کُنَّا ظٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۴۶﴾

Tell them: "I am only warning you through revelation – [but they are deaf and] the deaf do not listen to a call [O Prophet] when they are warned. [At this time, they are making demands while their own situation is that] if indeed any flare of your Lord's torment touches them, they will call out: "Our wretchedness! Indeed, We were the unjust." (45-46)

وَ نَضَعُ الۡمَوَازِیۡنَ الۡقِسۡطَ لِیَوۡمِ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ فَلَا تُظۡلَمُ نَفۡسٌ شَیۡئًا ؕ وَ اِنۡ کَانَ مِثۡقَالَ حَبَّۃٍ مِّنۡ خَرۡدَلٍ اَتَیۡنَا بِہَا ؕ وَ کَفٰی بِنَا حٰسِبِیۡنَ ﴿۴۷﴾

[Tell them:] "On the Day of Judgement, We will place the balance of justice. Then not the slightest injustice will any soul suffer and if a person has [done] a deed of the size of a mustard seed, We will bring it forth.[47] And We are sufficient to take account [of people]." (47)

وَ لَقَدۡ اٰتَیۡنَا مُوۡسٰی وَ ہٰرُوۡنَ الۡفُرۡقَانَ وَ ضِیَآءً وَّ ذِکۡرًا لِّلۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۴۸﴾ الَّذِیۡنَ یَخۡشَوۡنَ رَبَّہُمۡ بِالۡغَیۡبِ وَ ہُمۡ مِّنَ السَّاعَۃِ مُشۡفِقُوۡنَ ﴿۴۹﴾

We had given the Furqan to Moses and to Aaron and a light and a reminder for the God-fearing[48] who fear their Lord without seeing Him and are afraid of the Hereafter.[49] (48-49)

وَ ہٰذَا ذِکۡرٌ مُّبٰرَکٌ اَنۡزَلۡنٰہُ ؕ اَفَاَنۡتُمۡ لَہٗ مُنۡکِرُوۡنَ ﴿۵۰﴾

Similarly, this Qur'an is also a blessed reminder that We have revealed. Then will you people only remain its rejecters? (50)

وَ لَقَدۡ اٰتَیۡنَاۤ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ رُشۡدَہٗ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ وَ کُنَّا بِہٖ عٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۵۱﴾ اِذۡ قَالَ لِاَبِیۡہِ وَ قَوۡمِہٖ مَا ہٰذِہِ التَّمَاثِیۡلُ الَّتِیۡۤ اَنۡتُمۡ لَہَا عٰکِفُوۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾ قَالُوۡا وَجَدۡنَاۤ اٰبَآءَنَا لَہَا عٰبِدِیۡنَ ﴿۵۳﴾ قَالَ لَقَدۡ کُنۡتُمۡ اَنۡتُمۡ وَ اٰبَآؤُکُمۡ فِیۡ ضَلٰلٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿۵۴﴾ قَالُوۡۤا اَجِئۡتَنَا بِالۡحَقِّ اَمۡ اَنۡتَ مِنَ اللّٰعِبِیۡنَ ﴿۵۵﴾ قَالَ بَلۡ رَّبُّکُمۡ رَبُّ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ الَّذِیۡ فَطَرَہُنَّ ۫ۖ وَ اَنَا عَلٰی ذٰلِکُمۡ مِّنَ الشّٰہِدِیۡنَ ﴿۵۶﴾ وَ تَاللّٰہِ لَاَکِیۡدَنَّ اَصۡنَامَکُمۡ بَعۡدَ اَنۡ تُوَلُّوۡا مُدۡبِرِیۡنَ ﴿۵۷﴾ فَجَعَلَہُمۡ جُذٰذًا اِلَّا کَبِیۡرًا لَّہُمۡ لَعَلَّہُمۡ اِلَیۡہِ یَرۡجِعُوۡنَ ﴿۵۸﴾

Before this, We also gave Abraham his share of guidance[50] [that was befitting for him] and We knew him very well.[51] When he said to his father and to the people of his nation: "What are these idols you are so devoted to?"[52] They replied: "We have found our forefathers worshipping them." He said: "Indeed, you and your forefathers both have remained in evident error."[53] They asked: "Have you brought to us something well-thought of or are you just jesting?"[54] He said: "No, in fact, it is your Lord Who is the Lord of the of the heavens and the earth Who has created them and I bear witness to it [before you]"[55] – [Then he said in his heart:] "By God! When you turn and go away, I will certainly play a trick with your idols."[56] Thus [when they went away] Abraham smashed them to pieces except for their one big one so that they turn to it.[57] (51-58)

قَالُوۡا مَنۡ فَعَلَ ہٰذَا بِاٰلِہَتِنَاۤ اِنَّہٗ لَمِنَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۵۹﴾ قَالُوۡا سَمِعۡنَا فَتًی یَّذۡکُرُہُمۡ یُقَالُ لَہٗۤ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمُ ﴿ؕ۶۰﴾ قَالُوۡا فَاۡتُوۡا بِہٖ عَلٰۤی اَعۡیُنِ النَّاسِ لَعَلَّہُمۡ یَشۡہَدُوۡنَ ﴿۶۱﴾ قَالُوۡۤا ءَاَنۡتَ فَعَلۡتَ ہٰذَا بِاٰلِہَتِنَا یٰۤـاِبۡرٰہِیۡمُ ﴿ؕ۶۲﴾ قَالَ بَلۡ فَعَلَہٗ ٭ۖ کَبِیۡرُہُمۡ ہٰذَا فَسۡـَٔلُوۡہُمۡ اِنۡ کَانُوۡا یَنۡطِقُوۡنَ ﴿۶۳﴾ فَرَجَعُوۡۤا اِلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ فَقَالُوۡۤا اِنَّکُمۡ اَنۡتُمُ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۶۴﴾ ثُمَّ نُکِسُوۡا عَلٰی رُءُوۡسِہِمۡ ۚ لَقَدۡ عَلِمۡتَ مَا ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ یَنۡطِقُوۡنَ ﴿۶۵﴾ قَالَ اَفَتَعۡبُدُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ مَا لَا یَنۡفَعُکُمۡ شَیۡئًا وَّ لَا یَضُرُّکُمۡ ﴿ؕ۶۶﴾ اُفٍّ لَّکُمۡ وَ لِمَا تَعۡبُدُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ ؕ اَفَلَا تَعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۶۷﴾

[When they saw this state of their idols,] they said: "Who has done this with our idols?[58] Indeed, he is very oppressive." People said: "We had heard a youngster called Abraham[59] say something bad to them."[60] They said: "Then bring him before everyone so that they too see."[61] [Thus Abraham was brought forth. So,] he was asked: "Abraham! Did you do this to our idols?" Abraham replied: "In fact, this chief of them must have done it. So, ask them, if they can speak."[62] At this, they became a little attentive towards their inner-selves and said to one another: "Indeed, you surely are the oppressors."[63] But then they dropped their heads[64] and said: "You know that they cannot speak."[65] Abraham said: "Then do you worship those instead of God who can neither benefit nor harm you. Shame on you and on those you worship instead of God. Then do you not understand."[66] (59-67)

[1]. Ie., for the Idolaters of Arabia who after conclusive communication of the truth from the Prophet (sws) could face torment any time. This was in accordance with God's established practice. Earlier, at the end of Surah Taha, they were told to wait for it. Here these words mention its proximity. The surah starts with these words without any formal beginning. Since these people had shown aversion to God's reminders, the Almighty has mentioned them by the general word النّاس by actually turning His face away from them.

[2]. Two words are used in the verse: negligence and evasion. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... Negligence which means showing indifference to the realities of life shows a person's misfortune and is a very grave wrong. However, this wrong becomes much more grave when a servant of God is trying his best to jolt them and awaken them from their slumber but people are so deep in their negligence that they are not prepared to listen to him. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 122)

[3]. Here the word magic is precisely in the same meaning as it is in the sentence ie., magic of the words with which the Prophet (sws) mesmerized people. The Arabs used this expression to refer to the extraordinary influence of some composition; it is also found in our own language. By using this word, they wanted to convince their people that the words which are inspiring and impacting them are nothing but eloquence of language; they should not be foolish enough to regard them to have a divine origin and their presenter to be God's messenger. They contended that no doubt the force and majesty of these words conqers hearts but its significance is no more than perfect selection of words for the meaning intended which this person claiming to be a prophet and messenger of God is displaying before them and that they are people of understanding who must not be deceived by him. These last words were obviously meant to incite a sense of superiority among the addressees.

[4]. Ie., said in his heart without addressing them and in this way consigned the matter to God that He will take care of the mischief worked by these people. The words uttered ahead express consigning the matter to God.

[5]. It is evident from this that the addressees of the Qur'an were extremely over-awed by its splendour and majesty but since they did not want to accept it as God's word, sometimes they would regard it to be a product of the Prophet's fancy, sometimes self-fabricated and some times a magic of words in order to lessen its impact on the hearts of people.

[6]. The word بِالآيآتِ after كًمًا أُرْسِلَ الأَوَّلُوْنَ is suppressed in the verse because of concomitant indications. The translation expresses it. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... According to their claim, this strategem was the most effective in opposing the Prophet (sws) because the call of the Qur'an was entirely based on arguments drawn from the world around human beings and that within as well as on human nature and intellect. Instead of showing miracles and signs of punishment, the Qur'an urges people to use their insight and intellect because the natural path that reaches faith is through the heart and intellect. Those who do not use their intellect and insight do not profess faith even after seeing miracles and the faith of those who accept it after seeing a sign of punishment has no significance. This claim of the Qur'an was absolutely true but the opponents would regard it to be an evasion on the part of the Prophet (sws) and lead people astray. They would say that if he was really God's messenger, it would have been very easy to for him to fulfill their demand; however, since he was evading it, so he is falsely claiming to be a prophet of God. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 125)

[7]. These words express a kind of sarcasm on the addressees. The implication is that in spite of being from the progeny of Abraham (sws) and Ishmael (sws) if they do not know this, they should ask the People of the Book to whom a similar reminder was sent before the Qur'an. Even they cannot deny this obvious reality.

[8]. This is an answer to the objecions they raised that this messenger eats and drinks the way they do; so how can he be God's messenger.

[9]. Ie., the promise that God will definitely destroy those who reject them and save them and their followers. This is a mention of the same established practice of God which we have been indicating at many instances in this exegesis.

[10]. Ie., do these people not understand that this is God's reminder and what will be the consequences of rejecting it? Where have they lost their intellect and why are they inviting their doom?

[11]. The word ظالم here means لنفسهظالم . It has been used in the Qur'an at a number of instances in this meaning. The translation gives due regard to this.

[12]. The implication is that if they do not believe, they too will suffer this fate and this will not in any way depopulate God's earth. He will make others inhabit it and this is not at all difficult for Him.

[13]. This sentence is in fact understood to be present here. The indication for this is that the affluent are the addressees here as is evident from the words مَاۤ اُتۡرِفۡتُمۡ فِیۡہِ and these are their houses.

[14]. This sentence expresses sarcasm: ie. they will be called to account.

[15]. The actual words are: حَصِیۡدًا خٰمِدِیۡنَ. They make up a very eloquent metaphor. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... What is concealed in these words is that just as after grass being cut, its dry mounds are set on fire and it becomes a heap of ashes, in a similar way these people will become dust and ashes. The word خَامِدِيْنَ occurs in deference to the entity for which the metaphor is stated (grass in this case) and this is a common style of Arabic. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 129)

[16]. Earlier it had been said that a day of accountability is certain to come. Here an argument in its favour is stated: if there is no reward and punishment as they contend, then this world is just a place of amusement and entertainment of mythical deities; if this is what they contend, then they should know that God has not made this world for enjoyment and pleasure. Each and every object of this world bears witnesss that this world has wisdom in its creation and its creator has made it for a great purpose and objective. Thus a day will definitely come when this purpose manifests itself.

[17]. Ie., in the first place it did not befit God's majesty to do this; however, if it is supposed that He had to do it, then making this world a place of warring demi-gods would have been utter callousness and injustice to amuse Himself from the interplay of congizant human beings. How do they think about the merciful God that He has created this world in which truth and falsehood, right and wrong, guidance and misguidance, oppression and innocence are in a perpetual state of war for His own amusement and pleasure? They should realize that this would be totally against His justice and mercy.

[18]. Ie., this world is certainly not a place of jest and amusement. This view that they hold is totally incorrect.

[19]. Ie., the Day of Judgement when the result of the test that is now going on in this world will be declared: it will be known who trod the path of the truth and who left this world while adhering to evil.

[20]. Ie., the words that this world is a place of pleasure and amusement and if ever there is going to be a Day of Judgement their intercessors would save them from every danger.

[21]. This refers to the angels which the Idolaters of Arabia thought to be daughters of God and since they worshipped them, they thought that they would be saved from God's grasp because of their intercession.

[22]. Ie., give it life and make it lush. A study of the idols found in Arabia shows that they thought that God had deputed some others to manage the affairs of the earth since it was a far off place in His empire while He Himself was aloof from it and only running the affairs of the skies. This statement refutes this false notion.

[23]. This is an argument in favour of monotheism which is called the argument of harmony. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... Its summary is that the continued existence of this universe depends on the harmony between its various elements and components including ones that oppose one onother. If this harmony ceases even for a moment, the whole system of the universe will be wrecked and ruined. This harmony explicitly bears evidence to the fact that only a single being's intention and will prevails in the whole of the universe. Had there been multiple intentions involved, it would have been impossible for the heavens and the earth to remain intact. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 136)

[24]. Ie., He is the master of the universe's throne.

[25]. Hence this thought is very foolish that someone can influence His intentions.

[26]. In order to affirm monotheism and refute polytheism, reminders from prophets are now presented as an argument. The implication is that the Qur'an which was revealed as a reminder for the followers of Muhammad (sws) is present before them as well as the Torah, the Gospels, the Psalms and other scriptures of the prophets. They should see that none of these books teaches polytheism; all of them bear witness to monotheism.

[27]. The actual words are: نُوۡحِیۡۤ اِلَیۡہِ. In them, an incomplete verb is suppressed before the verb نُوۡحِیۡۤ in accordance with linguistic principles of Arabic.

[28]. This is a further explanation of the reminder of the previous prophets mentioned earlier.

[29]. This is because they are exalted from polytheism, have a true comprehension of God and fulfil the duty of worshipping Him with full sincerity. The reward for this is nearness to God and not forceful cajoling and potent pursuasion through which these angels, according to their claim, will acquire from Him whatever they want.

[30]. The implication is that it is mere foolishness to regard those who have this status before God to have so much influence on Him that they will save those who believe in them from God's grasp.

[31]. This entire speech is a further explanation of what was stated earlier: if it is believed that someone has the power to have criminals released by interceding for them, then belief in the Hereafter becomes absolutely meaningless and it becomes impossible to believe that God is someone just and wise Who can be trusted regarding His promises.

[32]. Ie., did it not rain from the heavens and did not vegetation sprout from the earth? These aspects are expressed in the verse by the word رَتْق ie., "to be closed."

[33]. Ie., God opened the sky and started to pour down rain. As a result, the earth also opened up and began to cast out its treasures. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has explained the facts to which this observation bears witness. He writes:

A very clear argument in favour of monotheism is present in this. If the sky and the earth had deities of their own, what need was there for the sky to rain down its treasures of water to make the earth lush green. This harmony between the sky and the earth – as if they are members of a pair that complement one another – shows that both have the same creator and master and both are controlled by Him.

A second argument found in it is regarding the Hereafter: when the earth after it is dry and desolate and in other words: dead becomes live and lush, then why should being raised to life after death be regarded as far-fetched?

The third argument found in it is regarding the accountability of human beings: when God has made all this elaborate arrangement to nurture and nourish human beings that He has put into their diligent service the sky and the earth, the sun and the moon, the air and the clouds, how is it possible that He will let them go scot free and not appoint a day of accountability. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 141)

[34].In all probability, this is it what is called "Isostasy" in science. This statement of the Qur'an seems to ratify the theory about the mountains that they have emerged from the surface of the earth to balance the dense matter found below the seas. Had this not been the case, the earth would have kept wobbling the way it does during an earthquake. The words used for this in the Qur'an shows that before اَنۡ the causative lam (ل) is understood to be present in accordance with linguistic considerations. The translation keeps this aspect in mind. This style is the same as: هذا دواء للحمی.

[35]. Ie., the path to travel and as well as to reach the Almighty Whose power, greatness and wisdom become evident by the existence of these paths. Deliberation shows that this eloquent sentence very nicely refers to both these meanings.

[36]. Ie., made such a roof of which the vastness has no bounds, but it neither grows old nor do any fissures appear in it. It is so firm and solid that onlookers are misled to think that it was always there and will be there forever. Not only this, it is now known that such is its composition that it saves us from dangerous radiation from the sun and also protects us from the 100 billion meteors which on average fall towards the earth every day. Moreoever, its creator has embellished it with such lamps of which the beauty and benevolence exceeds all estimation.

[37]. Here attention is directed to the fact that none of these strikes the other but continues to stay in its orbit precisely according to the law appointed for it by the Being Who controls it and makes it subservient for the collective good of the universe.

[38]. The implication is that when these people themselves are mortals, why do they want the messenger to be immortal?

[39]. Ie., they must not think that they are entitled to their good circumstances and for this reason prophethood should be given to them only therefore do not regard someone less affluent to be an envoy of God. In fact, they should think that in this world poverty and affluence, sorrow and happiness all are meant for trial. None of these is because of personal entitlement.

[40]. Ie., remark sarcastically.

[41]. The actual words are: يَذْكُرُ آلِهَتَكُمْ. In them, the pronoun of address is meant to incite people. Otherwise, in accordance with the occasion of the discourse, the words should have been يذكر آلهتنا. Also, here ذكر means to mention someone in bad words. This style shows that after يَذْكُرُ آلِهَتَكُمْ they would suppress the word بالسوء in deference to the respect and honour they had for their deities. In the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi, they did not even want to bring a bad word for their deities to their tongues even to cite it is an opinion.

[42]. Ie., have such honour and respect for the deities they have chosen but are not even prepared to mention the real God.

[43]. Ie., the calamity of the Day of Judgement whose mention is apparent from the previous sentence.

[44]. Here the real reason of their evasion and arrogance has been exposed: because of spending a long period of time in the inebriation of their status and political authority, they regard themselves to be very superior and it is this conceit that has made them indifferent to God's messenger.

[45]. Ie., the land of Makkah. This is a referenec to the conquests reaped by the Islamic message in the whereabouts of Makkah. The Almighty has regarded it to be His move. The implication is that if they want to see a sign why do they not see the sign appearing before their eyes: the influence of the islamic message is spreading to the nearby tribes and it was very evident that one day this city too will be conquered by the onslaught.

[46]. Ie., even after witnessing the signs of the conquest of the truth, do they think that they will remain dominant.

[47]. The actual words are: وَ اِنۡ کَانَ مِثۡقَالَ حَبَّۃٍ مِّنۡ خَرۡدَلٍ اَتَیۡنَا بِہَا. In my opinion, the noun of كَانَ is suppressed in them because of concomitant indications and the feminine pronoun in بِهَا is in deference to حَبَّة.

[48]. Ie., the Torah which was a yardstick to differentiate between good and evil, through which the light of guidance would be obtained in the darkness of thoughts and deeds and through which all those facts are reminded of which were under discussion at that time.

[49]. This is because only such people can benefit from the guidance revealed through the prophets of God. If a person does not fear God and also does not fear the fate he will meet he cannot profit from this guidance. These benefits are only for those people who listen to the prodding of their innate guidance regarding God and the Hereafter and keep seriously deliberating on them.

[50]. The actual word is رُشْدَهُ. The annexation (idafat) found in it incorporates a special distinction in its meaning: ie, Abraham (sws) was given that guidance and cognizance from God which is given to a person of his calibre and status only.

[51]. The implication is that whatever was given by God was not given without any reason: it was given after the Almighty had fully tried and tested Abraham (sws) and was bestowed to him in accordance with God's knowledge about him. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... This sentence has an element of sarcasm in it for those who did not even have the strength in them to even follow the smallest of Abrahamic sunnahs but claimed to have association with him, and on the basis of this association regarded themselves to be worthy of the highest status in this world and in the next. It is stated that there is no possibility of God granting His favour to someone unworthy of it. To whomever He bestows His comprehension, He does so after seeing that person's stature and courage. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 158)

[52]. This incident that took place when Abraham (sws) was a young man is a manifestation of the guidance and comprehension that he was blessed with. His nation was given to idol worshipping and his father was the chief priest of the idol temple. Yet what is stated ahead shows how, even in the initial period of his life, sure and convinced he was of monotheism. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

The humiliation and disgrace found for the idols in this sentence and the sarcasm concealed in the word عَاكِفُوْنَ forhis father's and his nations foolishness and their stagnantion is evident to every person having a literary taste.At that tender age and in such an environment only one who has been blessed by God through His special favour can make such a declaration of truth and the majesty and splendour of whose faith has no regards for any fear or greed. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 158)

[53]. The implication is that misguided views do not become right just because they have become a tradition that is being carried on from the past. It is the indubitable verdict of knowledge and intellect that whatever they are doing is an open deviation from the truth.

[54]. This question shows that they were not convinced that such a statement can be given after giving it much thought.

[55]. Ie., Abraham (sws) is declaring this and also inviting them to it. The word شهادة in the verse means "to declare" and "to bear witness" and this word is used thus in the Qur'an at many instances.

[56]. It is evident from this that Abraham (sws) invited them to this messageon the occasion of some gathering within the idol temple. Precisely at the same time, he had also decided to practically show them the meaninglessness of the idols. The scheme that he had mentally prepared for this is called كَيْدin this verse.

[57]. Ie., if Abraham (sws) was inquired about this, he is able to tell them to ask the big idol why he did this to the others. At the same, they are left with no option except to either ask him or confess that those who they have made their deities cannot even ward off a calamity that visits them and are also unable to tell who caused it. Abraham (sws) adopted this way not for the purpose of fulfilling the responsibility of stopping people from evil but for his special style of reasoning upon which no objection can be raised.

[58]. Ie., first they asked this question in amazement and anxiety and then said what is stated in the next sentence: whoever has done this is a very big oppressor.

[59]. It is evident from the style of this sentence that by that time Abraham (sws) had not become so well known that every person knew him. His words had definitely reached their ears but people had not directed their attention to him. Whatever he said in the idol temple at the time of the gathering was said openly; however, it is quite clear that people regarded it to be a product of his youthful boisterousness and audacity and did not take any measure to protect their idols as a result. They must have thought that he had said those words but did not have the courage to do anything beyond giving that statement.

[60]. The actual words are: يَذْكُرُهُمْ. After them the word بالسوء is suppressed in precisely the same way as it is in verse 36. Its eloquence has been explained earlier.

[61]. The implication is that if they declare a verdict or take some action against him, then those called should bear witness that they have actually punished a criminal and that his punishment should be exemplary. In those times, punishments of such crimes would generally be declared by religious leaders; in fact, in most cases they had the authority to even implement those punishments themselves.

[62]. This sentence neither has any trace of fear nor can it be regarded a lie. Those who have regarded it to be so need to pay attention to the subtle nuances of the language. If it is to be understood, then in the words of ImamAmin Ahsan Islahi, it is a subtle sarcasm, a meaningful mockery and sagacious style of reasoning. In reality, this one sentence equals a thousand speeches. Whatever Abraham (sws) wanted to say he practically did in a symbolic form: people should see the helplessness of the beings they have regarded to be their deities and also see that if there are many deities in the universe, then how tyrannical the biggest of them can be when he smashes them to pieces if they angry him. It is difficult to find any parallel in history of this sagacious style of reasoning and derision of polytheism and its perpetrators.

[63]. The implication of what they said to one another was that they regarded the breaker of idols to be an oppressor; however, the fact to which this young man has directed their attention to shows that he is not an oppressor; in fact, it is they themselves who are the oppressors by making these dumb and deaf entities their deities.

[64]. Ie., for some time they did realize their folly but immediately afterwards the sentiments of tribal bias arose and they were overcome with such emotions that their intellect was lulled to sleep.

[65]. This was the place where Abraham (sws) wanted to bring his opponents. Thus he succeeded while they were forced to confess their failure.

[66]. Whatever Abraham did was to preach this reality. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... This speech obviously could have been so effective only after exposing the helplessness of the idols in this way and not without it. If this sermon was given without this display, they could have made a hundred excuses in respone. However, how could the worshippers of the idols say something with their idols lying smashed to pieces before them and by their existence narrating a story of their helplessness and meaninglessness? (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 164)

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