بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ
الٓـمّٓصٓ ۚ﴿۱﴾ کِتٰبٌ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡکَ فَلَا یَکُنۡ فِیۡ صَدۡرِکَ حَرَجٌ مِّنۡہُ لِتُنۡذِرَ بِہٖ وَ ذِکۡرٰی لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۲﴾ اِتَّبِعُوۡا مَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡکُمۡ مِّنۡ رَّبِّکُمۡ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖۤ اَوۡلِیَآءَ ؕ قَلِیۡلًا مَّا تَذَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۳﴾ وَ کَمۡ مِّنۡ قَرۡیَۃٍ اَہۡلَکۡنٰہَا فَجَآئَہَا بَاۡسُنَا بَیَاتًا اَوۡ ہُمۡ قَآئِلُوۡنَ ﴿۴﴾ فَمَا کَانَ دَعۡوٰىہُمۡ اِذۡ جَآئَہُمۡ بَاۡسُنَاۤ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ قَالُوۡۤا اِنَّا کُنَّا ظٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۵﴾ فَلَنَسۡـَٔلَنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ اُرۡسِلَ اِلَیۡہِمۡ وَ لَنَسۡـَٔلَنَّ الۡمُرۡسَلِیۡنَ ۙ﴿۶﴾ فَلَنَقُصَّنَّ عَلَیۡہِمۡ بِعِلۡمٍ وَّ مَا کُنَّا غَآئِبِیۡنَ ﴿۷﴾ وَ الۡوَزۡنُ یَوۡمَئِذِ ۣالۡحَقُّ ۚ فَمَنۡ ثَقُلَتۡ مَوَازِیۡنُہٗ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۸﴾ وَ مَنۡ خَفَّتۡ مَوَازِیۡنُہٗ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ خَسِرُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ بِمَا کَانُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا یَظۡلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۹﴾
In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.
This is Alif Lam Mim Su'ad. It is this Book which has been revealed to you. So [O Prophet!] let not there be any anxiety in your heart because of it. It has been revealed so that you can warn [people] through it and the believers are reminded [through it. People!] follow whatever has been revealed to you from your Lord and do not follow other patrons leaving aside Him. [Alas!] seldom do you pay heed. [Before this,] how many cities have We destroyed; so, Our scourge descended on them suddenly at night or visited them right in the day when they were resting. When Our scourge fell on them, they could not say anything but cried out: "Indeed, we were unjust." So, this is bound to happen that We will ask those to whom messengers were sent and ask from the messengers themselves as well [about the answer they received when they communicated Our message.] Then with full knowledge, We will narrate the whole account before them. For We were never away from them. And only the truth on that day will have weight. Then those whose scales are heavy shall only succeed and those whose scales are light are the ones who put themselves in loss because they denied Our revelations and were unjust to their souls. (1-9)
وَ لَقَدۡ مَکَّنّٰکُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ جَعَلۡنَا لَکُمۡ فِیۡہَا مَعَایِشَ ؕ قَلِیۡلًا مَّا تَشۡکُرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰﴾
وَ لَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنٰکُمۡ ثُمَّ صَوَّرۡنٰکُمۡ ثُمَّ قُلۡنَا لِلۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ اسۡجُدُوۡا لِاٰدَمَ ٭ۖ فَسَجَدُوۡۤا اِلَّاۤ اِبۡلِیۡسَ ؕ لَمۡ یَکُنۡ مِّنَ السّٰجِدِیۡنَ ﴿۱۱﴾ قَالَ مَا مَنَعَکَ اَلَّا تَسۡجُدَ اِذۡ اَمَرۡتُکَ ؕ قَالَ اَنَا خَیۡرٌ مِّنۡہُ ۚ خَلَقۡتَنِیۡ مِنۡ نَّارٍ وَّ خَلَقۡتَہٗ مِنۡ طِیۡنٍ ﴿۱۲﴾ قَالَ فَاہۡبِطۡ مِنۡہَا فَمَا یَکُوۡنُ لَکَ اَنۡ تَتَکَبَّرَ فِیۡہَا فَاخۡرُجۡ اِنَّکَ مِنَ الصّٰغِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳﴾ قَالَ اَنۡظِرۡنِیۡۤ اِلٰی یَوۡمِ یُبۡعَثُوۡنَ ﴿۱۴﴾ قَالَ اِنَّکَ مِنَ الۡمُنۡظَرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۵﴾ قَالَ فَبِمَاۤ اَغۡوَیۡتَنِیۡ لَاَقۡعُدَنَّ لَہُمۡ صِرَاطَکَ الۡمُسۡتَقِیۡمَ﴿ۙ۱۶﴾ ثُمَّ لَاٰتِیَنَّہُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَیۡنِ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ وَمِنۡ خَلۡفِہِمۡ وَ عَنۡ اَیۡمَانِہِمۡ وَ عَنۡ شَمَآئِلِہِمۡ ؕ وَ لَا تَجِدُ اَکۡثَرَہُمۡ شٰکِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۷﴾ قَالَ اخۡرُجۡ مِنۡہَا مَذۡءُوۡمًا مَّدۡحُوۡرًا ؕ لَمَنۡ تَبِعَکَ مِنۡہُمۡ لَاَمۡلَـَٔنَّ جَہَنَّمَ مِنۡکُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿۱۸﴾
[Your tale is that] We created you and gave you form. Then We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves before Adam." So, except Satan all prostrated. He was not among those who prostrated. God said: "What stopped you from prostrating when I had ordered you?" He replied: "I am better than him. You created me from fire and created him from clay." He said: "Get you down from here. You do not have the right to show arrogance here. So, away with you! Indeed, you are mean." He replied: "Give me respite till the Day people are raised up." God said: "You have this respite." He replied: "So you have led me astray;" so, I will surely lie in ambush at Your straight path to waylay the progeny of Adam. Them I will pounce upon them from their front and behind, from their right and left – from all sides. And You will find most of them to be ungrateful to You." God said: "Go away from here, disgraced and accursed. [Remember:] those of them who follow you, I will fill Hell with you all." (11-18)
وَ یٰۤاٰدَمُ اسۡکُنۡاَنۡتَ وَ زَوۡجُکَ الۡجَنَّۃَ فَکُلَا مِنۡ حَیۡثُ شِئۡتُمَا وَ لَا تَقۡرَبَا ہٰذِہِ الشَّجَرَۃَ فَتَکُوۡنَا مِنَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹﴾فَوَسۡوَسَ لَہُمَا الشَّیۡطٰنُ لِیُبۡدِیَ لَہُمَا مَا وٗرِیَ عَنۡہُمَا مِنۡ سَوۡاٰتِہِمَا وَ قَالَ مَا نَہٰکُمَا رَبُّکُمَا عَنۡ ہٰذِہِ الشَّجَرَۃِ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ تَکُوۡنَا مَلَکَیۡنِ اَوۡ تَکُوۡنَا مِنَ الۡخٰلِدِیۡنَ ﴿۲۰﴾ وَ قَاسَمَہُمَاۤ اِنِّیۡ لَکُمَا لَمِنَالنّٰصِحِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۲۱﴾ فَدَلّٰىہُمَا بِغُرُوۡرٍ ۚفَلَمَّا ذَاقَا الشَّجَرَۃَبَدَتۡ لَہُمَا سَوۡاٰتُہُمَا وَ طَفِقَا یَخۡصِفٰنِ عَلَیۡہِمَا مِنۡ وَّرَقِ الۡجَنَّۃِ ؕ وَ نَادٰىہُمَا رَبُّہُمَاۤ اَلَمۡ اَنۡہَکُمَا عَنۡ تِلۡکُمَا الشَّجَرَۃِ وَ اَقُلۡ لَّکُمَاۤ اِنَّ الشَّیۡطٰنَ لَکُمَا عَدُوٌّ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۲۲﴾ قَالَا رَبَّنَا ظَلَمۡنَاۤ اَنۡفُسَنَا ٜ وَ اِنۡ لَّمۡ تَغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَ تَرۡحَمۡنَا لَنَکُوۡنَنَّ مِنَ الۡخٰسِرِیۡنَ ﴿۲۳﴾ قَالَ اہۡبِطُوۡا بَعۡضُکُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۚ وَ لَکُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مُسۡتَقَرٌّ وَّمَتَاعٌ اِلٰی حِیۡنٍ ﴿۲۴﴾ قَالَ فِیۡہَا تَحۡیَوۡنَ وَ فِیۡہَا تَمُوۡتُوۡنَ وَ مِنۡہَا تُخۡرَجُوۡنَ ﴿۲۵﴾
O Adam! Dwell with your wife in this orchard and eat in it from where you want. But do not go near this tree otherwise you both will become oppressors. Then Satan lured them so as to open to them what was hidden to them from their private parts. He said: "Your Lord has stopped you from this tree lest you become angels or that you may acquire immortality." Then he swore to them many times and said: "I am your true well-wisher." By deceiving them in this way, he gradually enticed both of them. Then when they tasted the fruit of the tree, their private parts became evident to them and they began covering themselves with the leaves of that orchard. [At that time,] their Lord called them: "Did I not stop you from that tree and not told you that Satan is your open enemy?" Both replied: "Lord! We have been unjust to our souls. If you now do not forgive us and have mercy on us, we will definitely be among the losers." He said: "Get down [from here]; you are enemies of one another and you will have to stay in the earth till an appointed time and live there. He said: "You will live and die in it and also be raised up from it." (19-25)
(Translated by Dr Shehzad Saleem)
. According to linguistic principles, the inchoative (mubtada') is suppressed in this sentence. If this suppression is accounted for, the sentence would be: الٓـمّٓصٓ هَذِهِ. In religious parlance, these isolated letters are called huruf-i muqatta'at. They occur in the beginning of the surahs as their names. I have already presented my view about them in detail while explaining verse 2 of Surah al-Baqarah.
. The verse begins with the words: کِتٰبٌ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡکَ. Here too the inchoative (mubtada') is suppressed. The implication is that this Book has not been revealed to the Prophet (sws) at his request; on the contrary, it has been revealed to him without any desire on his part and is a decision of the Almighty; hence if these people do not accept it, he is not responsible for them and should therefore not be anxious; He who has revealed it will arrange for the completion of its dissemination and will provide the Prophet (sws) with all the means and resources that are needed to bring it to completion. Precisely the same assurance has been sounded in verse 1 of Surah Taha: مَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ القُرْآنَ لِتَشْقي (this Qur'an has not been revealed to put you in difficulty).
. Ie., they should warn people about the consequences in this world and in the next of denying the messenger of God.
. The actual words are: وَ ذِکۡرٰی لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ. They are co-ordinated to: لِتُنۡذِرَ بِہٖ .The word ذِکۡرٰی is a noun meaning تذكير and is in declined in the accusative from a suppressed verb: تذكر. The implied construction would be: لِتنذر به و تذكر تذكيرا.
. The implication is that this scourge visited them in the darkness of the night or in the bright day whenever God wanted. Neither could anyone stop it nor could anyone protect himself from it.
. Mentioned earlier is the scourge that is meted out to people after they deny the truth conclusively conveyed to them by messengers of God. It is a sign of God's worldly retribution. While adducing from it, it is said that when that scourge arrived the wrongdoers had no option but to confess to their wrongdoings. Similarly the Day of Judgement is bound to come. It will be a day on which people will be held accountable and the messengers too shall be asked about the response they got from people regarding the message they delivered to them.
. Ie., evil will carry no weight on that day. At other places, it is pointed out that on the Day of Judgement only those deeds will carry weight which were for God and were done with the intention and desire to earn His pleasure in the Hereafter. All other deeds besides these will carry no weight.
. The actual words are: بِمَا کَانُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا یَظۡلِمُوۡنَ.There exists a tadmin (suppression of meaning) because the verb and the preposition do not collocate. If this is revealed, the verse should be to the effect: بِمَا کَانُوۡا يَكْفُرُونَ بِاٰیٰتِنَا وَ یَظۡلِمُوۡنَ أنْفُسَهُمْ. The advantage of this tadmin is that a comprehensive meaning can be espoused in a few words.
. Ie., the land of the Haram where the Quryash held power and authority. The surah begins with them since they are its addressees.
. This refers to the opportunities which opened up for them as a result of the invocations of Abraham (sws) and Ishmael (sws) and because of being the custodians of the House of God.
. The details of this are evident from other verses of the Qur'an thus: First the animal being of man was created in the womb of the earth. Then his progeny was given the ability to reproduce and then his body was perfected. Two of the creatures that were born thus were selected. Then spirit was blown into them as a result of which a new creation in the form Adam and Eve came into existence. They had the ability to speak and analyze and had intellect and cognizance. These are the phases that elapsed in the development of the species of human beings and it is possible that each phase consisted of thousands of years. This history is becoming evident to the scientists when they study the fossils and skeletal remains of ancient creatures. It has nothing to do with the theory of evolution which Darwin presented.
. This prostration was meant to show respect and was done at the behest of God. Thus it does not have any element of polytheism in it. This test of obedience by the angels given by God had certain reasons behind it. Firstly, He wanted it to make it evident to the progeny of Adam (sws) that real success does not hinge upon being created from light or fire; it actually lies in being obedient to God. Hence they should always submit to the truth disregarding egotism. Secondly, they should understand that when God has given them the status that angels have prostrated before Him, then it is not worthy of them in any situation to worship the highest of God's creations by regarding them to be His associates. Servitude and worship are the rights of God alone. If they associate anyone in these rights of God, they not only show disrespect to God but also to their own selves.
. The word اِبۡلِیۡسَ on the pattern of اِفعيلِ is the title of the jinn who had refused to prostrate before Adam (sws). The word ابلس means "to lose hope and to be sad." Some people regard him to be an angel but the Qur'an has specified that he was from among the jinn.
. It is evident from this that since the jinn are not far off from the angels as far as their substance of creation is concerned so when the latter were asked to prostrate, the jinn too were subsumed in this directive. Such a style is called: علي سبيل التغليب(addressing the dominant element and implying the less dominant ones as well).
. The actual words are: مَا مَنَعَکَ اَلَّا تَسۡجُدَ. There was no need to bring a لاafter مَا مَنَعَکَ because this expression itself has the meaning of لاin it. However, bringing it has increased the intensity of negation. This style is present in most languages of the world.
. The implication is that since God had ordered him to prostrate, this prostration was in fact to Him and not Adam (sws); yet in spite of this why did he show rebelliousness instead of submitting to His command?
. It is evident that regarding one's status to be based on lineage and race is a philosophy invented by Satan. Those who show arrogance because of this and regard others to be inferior are in fact the followers of Satan.
. This is a directive to leave the presence of God where the angels and the jinn were in conversation with Him.
. The implication is that there is no place for arrogance and rebelliousness when present before God. If Satan committed this crime, then its punishment is eternal humiliation. He was to leave God's presence and live in this humiliation. He has no place now in God's assembly.
. Ie., the respite that Satan can prove to God that human beings are not worthy of the status granted to them by the Almighty.
. This means that the Almighty has granted Satan and his progeny the respite to do whatever they can to entice and lure human beings. As a result, the verdict about the status of people was deferred to the Day of Judgement. It is now on that Day that it will be known who won and who lost. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
… It is this juncture at which the life of a person enters the battle field of trials and tests. Satan spends all his efforts in planning to prove human beings to be unworthy and failed creatures. On the other hand, the success and triumph of human beings hinges on the fact that they prove that they are in fact worthy individuals. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 232)
. Satan's implication is that he did not go astray himself; God made him go astray; it was because God gave him a directive which was not possible for him to obey; thus it is God who was responsible for this because Satan was compelled to disobey Him. It is evident from succeeding verses that God did not comment on this statement of Satan. The reason is that it was a blatantly foolish statement that needed no response.
. This refers to the path of monotheism and Satan has challenged the Almighty that he will abort His scheme of choosing the righteous – scheme which was the objective of God in creating mankind. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
… There is a direct connection between God and the nature on which human beings are created. If human nature is not afflicted with unnatural distortions, a person cannot adopt any path but the path of monotheism. For this reason, the Qur'an and other divine scriptures called monotheism to be صراط مستقيم (the straight path). As long as a person keeps treading this path, he walks towards his destination even if he walks slowly and tiredly. It may take him long but he will still reach his destination. On the contrary, if a person turns to a crossing that leads to polytheism, he will deviate from his destination and the further he goes the more he goes astray. It is due to this secret that Satan is not able to lead a person astray totally unless he is able to divert him from the wide path of monotheism to the narrow path of polytheism. Thus in his challenge to God, he openly stated that he will sit on the path of monotheism in ambush for mankind and will try to make it lose its way. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 232)
.From these statements can be gauged the extent of determination, authority and arrogance with which Satan challenged the Almighty. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
... This is an expression of the power, extent and comprehensive nature of Satan's onslaught from his own tongue. He will attack mankind from every direction, every aspect and every place. He will try to get the better of their observations, emotions, feelings, desires and all other ways that he can access them. He will try to poison their thought, ideology and knowledge and every thing that he can get hold of. He will try to inject his venom into their research, critiques, writings, literature and art and will try to create disorder in their culture, civilization, society, economic undertakings, fashion, politics and religion. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 233)
.The exact meaning of this sentence is: "You will not be able to make the majority of them adhere to monotheism." The reason for this is that when they will not remain thankful to God for His favours and blessings, they will show this gratitude to others and start worshipping them after making them into deities.
.This statement by God isananswer to the challenge of Satan and is given with aloofness and the grandeur of greatness. It also expresses His categorical decision which will be implemented without any concession.
.This probably refers to an orchard of this world where Adam and Eve were lodged. It became evident to them through the trial they were put into while being in this orchard what exactly will be the area where Satan will attack them.
.In verse 120 of Surah Taha it is called: شَجَرَةُ الخُلْدِ. It is evident that the word الشَّجَرَة is used here metaphorically. The meaning evident from the expression شَجَرَةُ الخُلْدِ and the effects which manifest themselves after eating it as we mention ahead – both indicate that it refers to the tree of procreation consuming the fruit of which lets the generations of mankindexist in this world. However, even today the greatest trial for them is the trial of this tree. It will become evident from the verses ahead that it is Satan's greatest weapon to lure mankind. God has regarded the husband and wife to be an apparel of one another and has permitted them to taste the fruit of this tree while wearing this apparel. However, Satan always induces them to eat this fruit without this apparel.
.Ie., sexual pleasure which Adam and Eve were not yet aware of.
.Satan had lured Adam and Eve by informing them of what they would lose by not eating the fruit. Thus, being overwhelmed by the extraordinary state which gets the better of a person when he eats this fruit, they were caught in the web woven by Satan and ate the forbidden fruit. Deliberation shows that there is some truth in the claim of Satan that it it by eating it mankind sustains itself in this world. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has directed our attention to another aspect in this regard. He writes:
... It is evident from this that in spite of the prostration of the angels before him, Adam regarded them to be of higher status than him. Moreover, he knew that the life that had been given was not eternal. Were this the case, Satan would never have used both these premises to entice him. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 235)
. The actual word is: قَاسَمَہُمَاۤ . Intead of using the word قسم, this word has been used to imply multiplicity and exaggeration. It means that Satan repeatedly swore to assure them. In the Arabic language, just as in the form افعال the addition of letters changes meanings, it also adds stress, multiplicity and exaggeration in the meaning.
. The actual words are: فَلَمَّا ذَاقَا الشَّجَرَۃَ. The governing noun (mudaf) is suppressed in them in accordance with linguistic principles. It has been revealed in the translation.
. Ie., it became evident to them that the private parts were not merely meant to relieve calls of nature but concealed in them was another thing which only becomes known once its fruits are tasted.
. It is evident from this incident that the feeling of modesty and bashfulness with regard to sex and sexual organs is innately found in human nature. This feeling is neither known through external sources nor engendered artificially through the evolvement of society and culture. It is something which God has ingrained in a human being. As soon as one is aware of one's sexuality, it becomes evident automatically. Thus human beings want to hide these limbs which become a means of sexual pleasure.
. This is a reference to the warnings that are mentioned earlier in verses 17-19.
. This is the best example of the repentance mentioned in verse 17 of Surah al-Nisa' about which the Almighty has said that He always accepts it.
. The actual word is: اہۡبِطُوۡا. Here the word "get down" has the same meaning as it has in verse 61 of Surah al-Baqarah (مصراً اہۡبِطُوۡا): (O Adam and Eve and O Satan move from this orchard and enter the earth).
. Ie., Satan is your enemy and you are the enemy of Satan. The natural relationship between you is that of enmity. Hence you should always regard him to be your enemy.
. The incident of Adam and Satan ends here. Following are some of the aspects which are meant to be conveyed through it to its addressees:
1. The greatest sin for God is rebelliousness and arrogance. A person who perpetrates these will be doomed forever. Satan perpetrated it. Angels were superior to Adam with regard to their creation but they regarded the directive of God to be more superior and submitted to it without any hesitation. This is the right attitude which all creatures of God must adopt. Wealth, fame and status are a gift from God. If a person shows rebelliousness and arrogance because of them, it will become for him a means of eternal loss.
2. Satan wants human beings to reach the same fate as he has reached. It is to achieve this objective that he had asked the Almighty to give him respite. His primary target is belief in monotheism. He knows that there is no place for Idolaters in God's Paradise. He wants to prove that the being before whom he was directed to prostrate is not even worthy of worshipping the Almighty with a true comprehension of His person and attributes.
3. The greatest weakness of human beings is their sexual instinct. Satan knows that the easiest way to lure them is to convince them to break the restrictions God has imposed on sex. He attacked Adam and Eve through this way. He is ready to play any trick or weave every kind of web of deception to achieve his objective. He is able to lure people to evil ways in the very manner he had lured Adam by enticing them with immortality. This is the weakest point of defence that he has spotted in his targets since the very first day.
4. Satan as well as Adam and Eve made mistakes, yet there is a difference between the two mistakes. When Satan was told about his fault he became arrogant and turning away from God's worship took to rebelliousness. Yet Adam and Eve did not do this. When they realized their mistake, they turned to God, being ashamed of what they did, and asked for His forgiveness by seeking refuge in His mercy. Hence Satan has been eternally expelled from God's presence while the doors of Paradise are still open for Adam and Eve. Whenever they want they can begin their journey towards it by travelling with the provisions of virtue, piety and repentance.