Surah al-Furqan

Surah al-Furqan


Trans. Dr Shehzad Saleem بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ In the name of God, the Most-Gracious, the Ever-Merciful. تَبٰرَکَ الَّذِیۡ نَزَّلَ الۡفُرۡقَانَ عَلٰی عَبۡدِہٖ لِیَکُوۡنَ لِلۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ نَذِیۡرَا ۙ﴿۱﴾ ۣالَّذِیۡ لَہٗ مُلۡکُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لَمۡ یَتَّخِذۡ وَلَدًا وَّ لَمۡ یَکُنۡ لَّہٗ شَرِیۡکٌ فِی الۡمُلۡکِ وَ خَلَقَ کُلَّ شَیۡءٍ فَقَدَّرَہٗ تَقۡدِیۡرًا ﴿۲﴾ وَ اتَّخَذُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖۤ اٰلِہَۃً لَّا یَخۡلُقُوۡنَ شَیۡئًا وَّ ہُمۡ یُخۡلَقُوۡنَ وَ لَا یَمۡلِکُوۡنَ لِاَنۡفُسِہِمۡ ضَرًّا وَّ لَا نَفۡعًا وَّ لَا یَمۡلِکُوۡنَ مَوۡتًا وَّ لَا حَیٰوۃً وَّ لَا نُشُوۡرًا ﴿۳﴾ Very exalted and benevolent is the being who has revealed this Furqan[1] to His servant so that it can warn the people of the world.[2] He for Whom is the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth;[3] He has not made any children for Himself.[4] No one shares His sovereignty. He has created everything and prescribed a due measure for it.[5] But such are people that they have fashioned other deities besides Him who do not create anything; they themselves are created and also do not have any authority to benefit or harm themselves. They neither have any authority over death nor life. And also do not have the authority to raise the dead.[6] (1-3) وَ قَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اِنۡ ہٰذَاۤ اِلَّاۤ اِفۡکُۨ افۡتَرٰىہُ وَ اَعَانَہٗ عَلَیۡہِ قَوۡمٌ اٰخَرُوۡنَ ۚۛ فَقَدۡ جَآءُوۡ ظُلۡمًا وَّ زُوۡرًا ۚ﴿ۛ۴﴾ وَ قَالُوۡۤا اَسَاطِیۡرُ الۡاَوَّلِیۡنَ اکۡتَتَبَہَا فَہِیَ تُمۡلٰی عَلَیۡہِ بُکۡرَۃً وَّ اَصِیۡلًا ﴿۵﴾ قُلۡاَنۡزَلَہُ الَّذِیۡ یَعۡلَمُ السِّرَّ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِیۡمًا ﴿۶﴾ [Its] disbelievers say: "This Qur'an is mere falsehood fabricated by this person[7] and some other people have helped him in this task."[8] By saying this they are guilty of a great injustice and lie.[9] They say: "These are fables of the past which he has had written [from someone]. Thus, now they are recited to him morning and evening so that they can be written down in this Book."[10] Tell them: "[Every word of this Book bears witness that] it has been revealed by the [Lord] Who knows the secrets of the heavens and the earth.[11] [For such rebellious people as your selves, He could have sent down torment as well, but] in reality He is very forgiving, ever-merciful. (4-6) وَ قَالُوۡا مَالِ ہٰذَا الرَّسُوۡلِ یَاۡکُلُ الطَّعَامَ وَ یَمۡشِیۡ فِی الۡاَسۡوَاقِ ؕ لَوۡ لَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡہِ مَلَکٌ فَیَکُوۡنَ مَعَہٗ نَذِیۡرًا ۙ﴿۷﴾ اَوۡ یُلۡقٰۤی اِلَیۡہِ کَنۡزٌ اَوۡ تَکُوۡنُ لَہٗ جَنَّۃٌ یَّاۡکُلُ مِنۡہَا ؕ وَ قَالَ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ اِنۡ تَتَّبِعُوۡنَ اِلَّا رَجُلًا مَّسۡحُوۡرًا ﴿۸﴾ اُنۡظُرۡ کَیۡفَ ضَرَبُوۡا لَکَ الۡاَمۡثَالَ فَضَلُّوۡا فَلَا یَسۡتَطِیۡعُوۡنَ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۹﴾ They say: "What kind of a messenger is he? He eats food [like us] and roams around in markets [to fulfill his needs]! Why was not an angel sent to him that he may have accompanied him to warn [those who do not believe?][12] or some treasure was sent down to him or [if not more,] he had an orchard from where he could have eaten"[13] – these disbelievers say: "You are following a person who is under a magical spell." See [O Prophet!] what kind of things they say about you. So, they are completely lost; now they are not being able to find any way.[14] (7-9) تَبٰرَکَ الَّذِیۡۤ اِنۡ شَآءَ جَعَلَ لَکَ خَیۡرًا مِّنۡ ذٰلِکَ جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ ۙ وَ یَجۡعَلۡ لَّکَ قُصُوۡرًا ﴿۱۰﴾ بَلۡ کَذَّبُوۡا بِالسَّاعَۃِ ۟ وَ اَعۡتَدۡنَا لِمَنۡ کَذَّبَ بِالسَّاعَۃِ سَعِیۡرًا ﴿ۚ۱۱﴾ اِذَا رَاَتۡہُمۡ مِّنۡ مَّکَانٍۭ بَعِیۡدٍ سَمِعُوۡا لَہَا تَغَیُّظًا وَّ زَفِیۡرًا ﴿۱۲﴾ وَ اِذَاۤ اُلۡقُوۡا مِنۡہَا مَکَانًا ضَیِّقًا مُّقَرَّنِیۡنَ دَعَوۡا ہُنَالِکَ ثُبُوۡرًا ﴿ؕ۱۳﴾ لَا تَدۡعُوا الۡیَوۡمَ ثُبُوۡرًا وَّاحِدًا وَّ ادۡعُوۡا ثُبُوۡرًا کَثِیۡرًا ﴿۱۴﴾ قُلۡ اَذٰلِکَ خَیۡرٌ اَمۡ جَنَّۃُ الۡخُلۡدِ الَّتِیۡ وُعِدَ الۡمُتَّقُوۡنَ ؕ کَانَتۡ لَہُمۡ جَزَآءً وَّ مَصِیۡرًا ﴿۱۵﴾ لَہُمۡ فِیۡہَا مَا یَشَآءُوۡنَ خٰلِدِیۡنَ ؕ کَانَ عَلٰی رَبِّکَ وَعۡدًا مَّسۡـُٔوۡلًا ﴿۱۶﴾ Very benevolent and extremely exalted is the Being who can bless you if He wants with much better things than this – [not one] but many orchards below which streams flow and make palaces for you in them.[15] No, this is not the case.[16] In fact, they have denied the Day of Judgement and for those who deny the Day of Judgement, We have prepared Hell. When it will see them from a distance [it will get enraged as soon as it sees them and] they will hear its rage and roar and when they will be cast into some narrow place in it while being tied up, they will call for death at that time[17] – Today, do not call for one death but call for many deaths.[18] Ask them: "Is this better or the eternal Paradise which has been promised for those who fear God." It will be a reward for their deeds and their abode. Whatever they wish there will be present for them. They will live in it forever. This is a promise for which your Lord is responsible which He will fulfill come what may.[19] (10-16) وَ یَوۡمَ یَحۡشُرُہُمۡ وَ مَا یَعۡبُدُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ فَیَقُوۡلُ ءَاَنۡتُمۡ اَضۡلَلۡتُمۡ عِبَادِیۡ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ اَمۡ ہُمۡ ضَلُّوا السَّبِیۡلَ ﴿ؕ۱۷﴾ قَالُوۡا سُبۡحٰنَکَ مَا کَانَ یَنۡۢبَغِیۡ لَنَاۤ اَنۡ نَّتَّخِذَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِکَ مِنۡ اَوۡلِیَآءَ وَلٰکِنۡ مَّتَّعۡتَہُمۡ وَ اٰبَآءَہُمۡ حَتّٰی نَسُوا الذِّکۡرَ ۚ وَ کَانُوۡا قَوۡمًۢا بُوۡرًا ﴿۱۸﴾ فَقَدۡ کَذَّبُوۡکُمۡ بِمَا تَقُوۡلُوۡنَ ۙ فَمَا تَسۡتَطِیۡعُوۡنَ صَرۡفًا وَّ لَا نَصۡرًا ۚ وَ مَنۡ یَّظۡلِمۡ مِّنۡکُمۡ نُذِقۡہُ عَذَابًا کَبِیۡرًا ﴿۱۹﴾ They should pay heed to the day when He will gather them and those also which they worship besides God.[20] Then, He will ask them: "Did you lead My servants astray or did they go astray themselves?" They will reply: "Exalted are you! What right did We have to make others guardians besides You. But it happened that you gave them and their forefathers a lot of provisions until they forgot your remembrance and ended up as people ruined"[21]– Here, they have regarded you to be liars in what you would say. So, now you can neither save yourselves from punishment nor help yourselves. And whoever among you who are guilty of injustice,[22] We will make them taste a big torment. (17-19) وَ مَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡنَا قَبۡلَکَ مِنَ الۡمُرۡسَلِیۡنَ اِلَّاۤ اِنَّہُمۡ لَیَاۡکُلُوۡنَ الطَّعَامَ وَ یَمۡشُوۡنَ فِی الۡاَسۡوَاقِ ؕ وَ جَعَلۡنَا بَعۡضَکُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ فِتۡنَۃً ؕ اَتَصۡبِرُوۡنَ ۚ وَ کَانَ رَبُّکَ بَصِیۡرًا ﴿۲۰﴾ Whichever messengers We sent before you all ate food and roamed about in markets.[23] [Believers!] We have made you a trial for one another;[24] so, speak up, would you show patience on all these things?[25] [Rest assured! O Prophet] your Lord is observing all [that they are doing.][26] (20) وَ قَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یَرۡجُوۡنَ لِقَآءَنَا لَوۡ لَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ عَلَیۡنَا الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ اَوۡ نَرٰی رَبَّنَا ؕ لَقَدِ اسۡتَکۡبَرُوۡا فِیۡۤ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ وَ عَتَوۡ عُتُوًّا کَبِیۡرًا ﴿۲۱﴾ یَوۡمَ یَرَوۡنَ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃَ لَا بُشۡرٰی یَوۡمَئِذٍ لِّلۡمُجۡرِمِیۡنَ وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ حِجۡرًا مَّحۡجُوۡرًا ﴿۲۲﴾ وَ قَدِمۡنَاۤ اِلٰی مَا عَمِلُوۡا مِنۡ عَمَلٍ فَجَعَلۡنٰہُ ہَبَآءً مَّنۡثُوۡرًا ﴿۲۳﴾ اَصۡحٰبُ الۡجَنَّۃِ یَوۡمَئِذٍ خَیۡرٌ مُّسۡتَقَرًّا وَّ اَحۡسَنُ مَقِیۡلًا ﴿۲۴﴾ And those [among them] who do not fear coming before Us,[27] say: "Why were angels not sent to us [in your place]? Or why did this not happen that We could have directly observed God?"[28] They are very arrogant in their hearts and have increased a lot in their rebelliousness.[29] The day they will see the angels, on that day there will be no good news for these wrongdoers. [After seeing them,] they will shout: refuge, refuge.[30] And We will move towards the deeds they would have done and [take them to] render them into dust flying about. On that Day, the dwellers of Paradise will be in the best abode and a very nice resting place.[31] (21-24) وَ یَوۡمَ تَشَقَّقُ السَّمَآءُ بِالۡغَمَامِ وَ نُزِّلَ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ تَنۡزِیۡلًا ﴿۲۵﴾ اَلۡمُلۡکُ یَوۡمَئِذِۣ الۡحَقُّ لِلرَّحۡمٰنِ ؕ وَ کَانَ یَوۡمًا عَلَی الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ عَسِیۡرًا ﴿۲۶﴾ وَ یَوۡمَ یَعَضُّ الظَّالِمُ عَلٰی یَدَیۡہِ یَقُوۡلُ یٰلَیۡتَنِی اتَّخَذۡتُ مَعَ الرَّسُوۡلِ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۲۷﴾ یٰوَیۡلَتٰی لَیۡتَنِیۡ لَمۡ اَتَّخِذۡ فُلَانًا خَلِیۡلًا ﴿۲۸﴾ لَقَدۡ اَضَلَّنِیۡ عَنِ الذِّکۡرِ بَعۡدَ اِذۡ جَآءَنِیۡ ؕ وَ کَانَ الشَّیۡطٰنُ لِلۡاِنۡسَانِ خَذُوۡلًا ﴿۲۹﴾ وَ قَالَ الرَّسُوۡلُ یٰرَبِّ اِنَّ قَوۡمِی اتَّخَذُوۡا ہٰذَا الۡقُرۡاٰنَ مَہۡجُوۡرًا ﴿۳۰﴾ وَ کَذٰلِکَ جَعَلۡنَا لِکُلِّ نَبِیٍّ عَدُوًّا مِّنَ الۡمُجۡرِمِیۡنَ ؕ وَ کَفٰی بِرَبِّکَ ہَادِیًا وَّ نَصِیۡرًا ﴿۳۱﴾ The Day when the sky will be split apart from above a cloud. [It will appear] and group after group of angels will be sent [from within it.] On that Day, true sovereignty will only belong to the most merciful God.[32] That Day will be very harsh for the disbelievers. The Day when the oppressor[33] will longingly bite his hand and say: "Would that I had adopted the path [of truth] with the messenger. Alas! My misfortune! Would that I had not made so-and-so my friend! It was he who had led me astray and diverted me from God's remembrance[34] after it had come to me." It will be said: "Satan is very unfaithful to human beings!" and the messenger will say: "Lord! The people of my nation had totally ignored this Qur'an,"[35] – [the way these people have become your staunch enemies O Prophet] in the same way We have made enemies from the wrongdoers for every prophet.[36] [Rest assured] your Lord is sufficient for help and guidance. (25-31) وَ قَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا لَوۡ لَا نُزِّلَ عَلَیۡہِ الۡقُرۡاٰنُ جُمۡلَۃً وَّاحِدَۃً ۚۛ کَذٰلِکَ ۚۛ لِنُثَبِّتَ بِہٖ فُؤَادَکَ وَ رَتَّلۡنٰہُ تَرۡتِیۡلًا ﴿۳۲﴾ وَ لَا یَاۡتُوۡنَکَ بِمَثَلٍ اِلَّا جِئۡنٰکَ بِالۡحَقِّ وَ اَحۡسَنَ تَفۡسِیۡرًا ﴿ؕ۳۳﴾ اَلَّذِیۡنَ یُحۡشَرُوۡنَ عَلٰی وُجُوۡہِہِمۡ اِلٰی جَہَنَّمَ ۙ اُولٰٓئِکَ شَرٌّ مَّکَانًا وَّ اَضَلُّ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۳۴﴾ These disbelievers say: "Why was this Qur'an not revealed to him in a single installment?"[37] Thus have We done this so that We can strengthen your heart through this[38] and it is for this reason that We have gradually revealed it. Whatever objection these people will bring to you, We will disclose its correct answer and best interpretation to you. [For them, there is only Hell now and] those who will be dragged on their faces towards Hell[39] are the ones who have a very evil abode and they are the ones who have lost their way the most.[40] (32-34) وَ لَقَدۡ اٰتَیۡنَا مُوۡسَی الۡکِتٰبَ وَ جَعَلۡنَا مَعَہٗۤ اَخَاہُ ہٰرُوۡنَ وَزِیۡرًا ﴿ۚۖ۳۵﴾ فَقُلۡنَا اذۡہَبَاۤ اِلَی الۡقَوۡمِ الَّذِیۡنَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا ؕ فَدَمَّرۡنٰہُمۡ تَدۡمِیۡرًا ﴿ؕ۳۶﴾ وَ قَوۡمَ نُوۡحٍ لَّمَّا کَذَّبُوا الرُّسُلَ اَغۡرَقۡنٰہُمۡ وَ جَعَلۡنٰہُمۡ لِلنَّاسِ اٰیَۃً ؕ وَ اَعۡتَدۡنَا لِلظّٰلِمِیۡنَ عَذَابًا اَلِیۡمًا ﴿ۚۖ۳۷﴾وَّ عَادًا وَّ ثَمُوۡدَا۠ وَ اَصۡحٰبَ الرَّسِّ وَ قُرُوۡنًۢا بَیۡنَ ذٰلِکَ کَثِیۡرًا ﴿۳۸﴾ وَ کُلًّا ضَرَبۡنَا لَہُ الۡاَمۡثَالَ ۫ وَ کُلًّا تَبَّرۡنَا تَتۡبِیۡرًا ﴿۳۹﴾ وَ لَقَدۡ اَتَوۡا عَلَی الۡقَرۡیَۃِ الَّتِیۡۤ اُمۡطِرَتۡ مَطَرَ السَّوۡءِ ؕ اَفَلَمۡ یَکُوۡنُوۡا یَرَوۡنَہَا ۚ بَلۡ کَانُوۡا لَا یَرۡجُوۡنَ نُشُوۡرًا ﴿۴۰﴾ We similarly gave Moses the Book and with it had made his brother Aaron his helper. [41] Then We directed both of them to go to people who denied Our revelations [even after conclusive communication of the truth from both of them]. Then We too utterly devastated them. In this manner, when the people of Noah denied the messengers[42] We had them drowned also and made them an exemplary sign for people. For such wrongdoers, We have prepared a painful torment [ahead as well]. The 'Ad, the Thamud, the Companions of al-Rass[43] and many nations between them We destroyed[44] as well in a similar way. We tried to make each of them understand by giving them examples [of previous nations] and [when they did not understand, finally] We destroyed each of them. These [people of the Quraysh] have also passed by the settlement on which stones were devastatingly hurled.[45] Then, have they not been seeing it? No, this is not the case. In fact, they do not expect to be raised up again. (35-40) وَ اِذَا رَاَوۡکَ اِنۡ یَّتَّخِذُوۡنَکَ اِلَّا ہُزُوًا ؕ اَہٰذَا الَّذِیۡ بَعَثَ اللّٰہُ رَسُوۡلًا ﴿۴۱﴾ اِنۡ کَادَ لَیُضِلُّنَا عَنۡ اٰلِہَتِنَا لَوۡ لَاۤ اَنۡ صَبَرۡنَا عَلَیۡہَا ؕ وَ سَوۡفَ یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ حِیۡنَ یَرَوۡنَ الۡعَذَابَ مَنۡ اَضَلُّ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۴۲﴾ اَرَءَیۡتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ اِلٰـہَہٗ ہَوٰىہُ ؕ اَفَاَنۡتَ تَکُوۡنُ عَلَیۡہِ وَکِیۡلًا ﴿ۙ۴۳﴾ اَمۡ تَحۡسَبُ اَنَّ اَکۡثَرَہُمۡ یَسۡمَعُوۡنَ اَوۡ یَعۡقِلُوۡنَ ؕ اِنۡ ہُمۡ اِلَّا کَالۡاَنۡعَامِ بَلۡ ہُمۡ اَضَلُّ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۴۴﴾ Thus, [it is as a result of this that] whenever they see you, they only make fun of you [saying]: "So, it is this [person] who God has sent as [His] messenger? He would have turned us away from our deities if We had not strongly adhered to their [worship]." [They insist on this even though] the time is not far when they see the torment they will come to know who has strayed very far from the path. Have you seen the person [O Prophet!] who has made his desire his god? Then can you take his responsibility?[46] Do you think that most of them hear or understand? They are like mere animals; in fact, even more misguided.[47] (41-44) اَلَمۡ تَرَ اِلٰی رَبِّکَ کَیۡفَ مَدَّ الظِّلَّ ۚ وَ لَوۡ شَآءَ لَجَعَلَہٗ سَاکِنًا ۚ ثُمَّ جَعَلۡنَا الشَّمۡسَ عَلَیۡہِ دَلِیۡلًا ﴿ۙ۴۵﴾ ثُمَّ قَبَضۡنٰہُ اِلَیۡنَا قَبۡضًا یَّسِیۡرًا ﴿۴۶﴾ [People! Which Being have you abandoned to end up diligently worshipping these idols?] Have you not seen your Lord how He spreads the shadow of the night? Had He wanted He would have made it stay [in this manner].[48] Then [do you not see that] We have made the sun a guide[49] over it? Then [from the sun] We gradually draw it to Our self. (45-46) وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ جَعَلَ لَکُمُ الَّیۡلَ لِبَاسًا وَّ النَّوۡمَ سُبَاتًا وَّ جَعَلَ النَّہَارَ نُشُوۡرًا ﴿۴۷﴾ It is He Who has made the night a covering for you and made in it sleep a means of comfort[50] and made the day a time to be raised again.[51] (47) وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡۤ اَرۡسَلَ الرِّیٰحَ بُشۡرًۢا بَیۡنَ یَدَیۡ رَحۡمَتِہٖ ۚ وَ اَنۡزَلۡنَا مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً طَہُوۡرًا ﴿ۙ۴۸﴾ لِّنُحۡیَِۧ بِہٖ بَلۡدَۃً مَّیۡتًا وَّ نُسۡقِیَہٗ مِمَّا خَلَقۡنَاۤ اَنۡعَامًا وَّ اَنَاسِیَّ کَثِیۡرًا ﴿۴۹﴾ And it is He Who before His [rains of] mercy sends winds as glad tidings. [People, do you not see that] We send down pure water from the sky to enliven the dead land of the city and provide water to many animals among Our creatures and to human beings.[52] (48-49) وَ لَقَدۡ صَرَّفۡنٰہُ بَیۡنَہُمۡ لِیَذَّکَّرُوۡا ۫ۖ فَاَبٰۤی اَکۡثَرُ النَّاسِ اِلَّا کُفُوۡرًا ﴿۵۰﴾وَ لَوۡ شِئۡنَا لَبَعَثۡنَا فِیۡ کُلِّ قَرۡیَۃٍ نَّذِیۡرًا ﴿۫ۖ۵۱﴾ فَلَا تُطِعِ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ وَ جَاہِدۡہُمۡ بِہٖ جِہَادًا کَبِیۡرًا ﴿۵۲﴾ We have revealed this Qur'an among them in various ways[53] [O Prophet] so that they may receive reminders but most people do not live without being ungrateful. If We wanted, We could have sent a warner in each [of their] settlements [but We know that even then they would not have believed.[54]] So, pay no heed to these disbelievers[55] and through this Qur'an keep waging a great jihad with them.[56] (50-52) وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ مَرَجَ الۡبَحۡرَیۡنِ ہٰذَا عَذۡبٌ فُرَاتٌ وَّ ہٰذَا مِلۡحٌ اُجَاجٌ ۚ وَ جَعَلَ بَیۡنَہُمَا بَرۡزَخًا وَّ حِجۡرًا مَّحۡجُوۡرًا ﴿۵۳﴾ And [tell them:] It is He Who has left two seas joined together. The water of one is sweet, quenching thirst and the other is alkaline, very bitter. And He has set up a barrier between the two and a very strong obstruction.[57] (53) وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَ مِنَ الۡمَآءِ بَشَرًا فَجَعَلَہٗ نَسَبًا وَّ صِہۡرًا ؕ وَ کَانَ رَبُّکَ قَدِیۡرًا ﴿۵۴﴾ And it is He Who has created a human being from water; then made for him kindred of blood and of marriage. In reality, your Lord is very powerful.[58] (54) وَ یَعۡبُدُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ مَا لَا یَنۡفَعُہُمۡ وَ لَا یَضُرُّہُمۡ ؕ وَ کَانَ الۡکَافِرُ عَلٰی رَبِّہٖ ظَہِیۡرًا ﴿۵۵﴾ وَ مَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡنٰکَ اِلَّا مُبَشِّرًا وَّ نَذِیۡرًا ﴿۵۶﴾ قُلۡ مَاۤ اَسۡـَٔلُکُمۡ عَلَیۡہِ مِنۡ اَجۡرٍ اِلَّا مَنۡ شَآءَ اَنۡ یَّتَّخِذَ اِلٰی رَبِّہٖ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۵۷﴾ وَ تَوَکَّلۡ عَلَی الۡحَیِّ الَّذِیۡ لَا یَمُوۡتُ وَ سَبِّحۡ بِحَمۡدِہٖ ؕ وَ کَفٰی بِہٖ بِذُنُوۡبِ عِبَادِہٖ خَبِیۡرَا ﴿ۚۛۙ۵۸﴾ ۣالَّذِیۡ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ وَ مَا بَیۡنَہُمَا فِیۡ سِتَّۃِ اَیَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسۡتَوٰی عَلَی الۡعَرۡشِ ۚۛ اَلرَّحۡمٰنُ فَسۡـَٔلۡ بِہٖ خَبِیۡرًا ﴿۵۹﴾ وَ اِذَا قِیۡلَ لَہُمُ اسۡجُدُوۡا لِلرَّحۡمٰنِ قَالُوۡا وَ مَا الرَّحۡمٰنُ ٭ اَنَسۡجُدُ لِمَا تَاۡمُرُنَا وَ زَادَہُمۡ نُفُوۡرًا ﴿ٛ۶۰﴾ But such are they that leaving aside God, they are worshipping things which can neither benefit nor harm them and [not only this] these disbelievers have [gone beyond this to] become rivals of their Lord.[59] We have made you [O Prophet!] only as a bearer of glad tidings and deliverer of warnings. Tell them: "I am not asking any reward from you in return except this that whoever wishes should adopt the way leading to his Lord. Trust that living who shall never die[60] and glorify Him while being grateful to Him. [He will deal with them Himself.] He is sufficient to remain aware of the sins of His servants." [He] Who created the heavens and the earth and the things between them in six days;[61] then He ascended the throne.[62] He is the most-merciful.[63] So, ask [of His majesty] the one who knows Him.[64] When they are asked to prostrate before the most-merciful, they say: "What is the most-merciful?[65] Should we prostrate before him who you direct us to?" And this thing increases their hate. (55-60) تَبٰرَکَ الَّذِیۡ جَعَلَ فِی السَّمَآءِ بُرُوۡجًا وَّ جَعَلَ فِیۡہَا سِرٰجًا وَّ قَمَرًا مُّنِیۡرًا ﴿۶۱﴾ وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ جَعَلَ الَّیۡلَ وَ النَّہَارَ خِلۡفَۃً لِّمَنۡ اَرَادَ اَنۡ یَّذَّکَّرَ اَوۡ اَرَادَ شُکُوۡرًا ﴿۶۲﴾ [People! From whom are you deviating? In reality,] very exalted and very benevolent is the being who made strong forts in the sky[66] and made a shining lamp and a glittering moon in it and it is He Who made the night and day follow one another for those who want to be reminded or be grateful.[67] (61-62) وَ عِبَادُ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الَّذِیۡنَ یَمۡشُوۡنَ عَلَی الۡاَرۡضِ ہَوۡنًا وَّ اِذَا خَاطَبَہُمُ الۡجٰہِلُوۡنَ قَالُوۡا سَلٰمًا ﴿۶۳﴾ وَالَّذِیۡنَ یَبِیۡتُوۡنَ لِرَبِّہِمۡ سُجَّدًا وَّ قِیَامًا ﴿۶۴﴾ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ رَبَّنَا اصۡرِفۡ عَنَّا عَذَابَ جَہَنَّمَ ٭ۖ اِنَّ عَذَابَہَا کَانَ غَرَامًا ﴿٭ۖ۶۵﴾ اِنَّہَا سَآءَتۡ مُسۡتَقَرًّا وَّ مُقَامًا ﴿۶۶﴾ [It is He[68] Who is the most-merciful] and the servants of the most-merciful are the ones who walk humbly on earth[69] and when a person overcome with emotions tries to argue with them, they step aside by saying salam to him.[70] Who spend their nights while prostrating and standing before their Lord.[71] Who pray: "Lord ward off from us the torment of Hell. In reality, its torment holds fast." Indeed, it is a very evil abode for staying and living.[72] (63-66) وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اِذَاۤ اَنۡفَقُوۡا لَمۡ یُسۡرِفُوۡا وَ لَمۡ یَقۡتُرُوۡا وَ کَانَ بَیۡنَ ذٰلِکَ قَوَامًا ﴿۶۷﴾ And [are those] who when spend are neither extravagant nor stingy; their spending is in between it on moderation.[73] (67) وَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یَدۡعُوۡنَ مَعَ اللّٰہِ اِلٰـہًا اٰخَرَ وَ لَا یَقۡتُلُوۡنَ النَّفۡسَ الَّتِیۡ حَرَّمَ اللّٰہُ اِلَّا بِالۡحَقِّ وَلَا یَزۡنُوۡنَ ۚ وَ مَنۡ یَّفۡعَلۡ ذٰلِکَ یَلۡقَ اَثَامًا ﴿ۙ۶۸﴾ یُّضٰعَفۡ لَہُ الۡعَذَابُ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ وَ یَخۡلُدۡ فِیۡہٖ مُہَانًا ﴿٭ۖ۶۹﴾ اِلَّا مَنۡ تَابَ وَ اٰمَنَ وَ عَمِلَ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا فَاُولٰٓئِکَ یُبَدِّلُ اللّٰہُ سَیِّاٰتِہِمۡ حَسَنٰتٍ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِیۡمًا ﴿۷۰﴾ وَ مَنۡ تَابَ وَ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَاِنَّہٗ یَتُوۡبُ اِلَی اللّٰہِ مَتَابًا ﴿۷۱﴾ And [are those] who do not call any other deity besides God, do not kill any soul held sacred by God and do not commit fornication[74] – whosever does these sins, will bear its consequences. On the Day of Judgement, his torment will continue to increase and he will forever abide in it disgraced. Except he who repented, professed faith and did good deeds, then it is such people whose bad deeds God will transform into good ones.[75] In reality, God is very forgiving; ever-merciful. And he who repents and does good deeds should rest assured because he returns to God with full success.[76] (68-71) وَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یَشۡہَدُوۡنَ الزُّوۡرَ ۙ وَ اِذَا مَرُّوۡا بِاللَّغۡوِ مَرُّوۡا کِرَامًا ﴿۷۲﴾ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اِذَا ذُکِّرُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِ رَبِّہِمۡ لَمۡ یَخِرُّوۡا عَلَیۡہَا صُمًّا وَّ عُمۡیَانًا ﴿۷۳﴾ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ رَبَّنَا ہَبۡ لَنَا مِنۡ اَزۡوَاجِنَا وَذُرِّیّٰتِنَا قُرَّۃَ اَعۡیُنٍ وَّ اجۡعَلۡنَا لِلۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ اِمَامًا ﴿۷۴﴾ And the servants of the merciful are those who never participate in any evil and when they have to pass by a frivolous thing,[77] they pass with dignity. And are such that when they are reminded through their Lord's revelations, they do not pass by it blind and deaf.[78] And who say: "Our Lord! Grant us the soothing of eyes from our wives and our children[79] and [among these family members of ours] make us the leader of the pious."[80] (72-74) اُولٰٓئِکَ یُجۡزَوۡنَ الۡغُرۡفَۃَ بِمَا صَبَرُوۡا وَ یُلَقَّوۡنَ فِیۡہَا تَحِیَّۃً وَّ سَلٰمًا ﴿ۙ۷۵﴾ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَا ؕ حَسُنَتۡ مُسۡتَقَرًّا وَّ مُقَامًا ﴿۷۶﴾ It is these people who will get lofty abodes in Paradise because of their perseverance[81] and they will be welcomed there with salutations and greetings. They will live in them forever. What a nice place to live and stay.[82] (75-76) قُلۡ مَا یَعۡبَؤُا بِکُمۡ رَبِّیۡ لَوۡ لَا دُعَآؤُکُمۡ ۚ فَقَدۡ کَذَّبۡتُمۡ فَسَوۡفَ یَکُوۡنُ لِزَامًا ﴿۷۷﴾ Tell them [O Prophet!]: "Was it not for inviting you [to this status,] what concern does my Lord have for you?[83] So, you have denied, then [what you have been threatened of] is bound to happen such that you will not be able to escape it.[84] (77) _____________ [1]. Ie., this is a Book which distinguishes between good and evil, is a barometer and a conclusive argument. At another instance, this feature of the Book is called Mizan, which means a scale in which every person can weigh and see what is good and what is evil. Thus it does not need any external evidence to prove its claims and the veracity of its presenter; it in itself is evidence. It is because of this very status of the Qur'an that I have written in the chapter "Fundamental Principles" of my book "Islam: A Comprehensive Introduction" that two premises about this Book must be acknowledged as a principle: Firstly, no divine revelation extraneous to the Qur'an and not even the Prophet (sws), to whom this Qur'an was revealed, can specify a general directive of the Qur'an or alter any of its directives. Everything shall be accepted or rejected as religion on the basis of the Qur'an. Everything accepted in religion shall be rigorously scrutinized in the light of this Divine Guidance. All bases of belief and faith shall be directly derived from it. Every revelation, inspiration, research and opinion shall be subservient to the Qur'an, and it shall be acknowledged that even the works of great jurists like Abu Hanifah and al-Shafi'i, scholars of Hadith like al-Bukhari and Muslim, theologians like al-Ash'ari and al-Maturidi, sufis like Junayd and Shibli must be weighed in the scales of this mizan, and nothing can be accepted from them which is not in consonance with it. Secondly, the text of the Qur'an is univocal. The meaning conveyed by each word of it is definitive. Whatever it intends to say, it says with full certainty and there is no ambiguity about it. In no issue is it unable to convey what it wants to. The meanings of its words perfectly match the words, and the meanings do not in any way contradict what the words say. The only way to approach the Qur'an in order to understand it is through its words. With full certainty these words convey what they stand for and there is no question of any doubt or ambiguity in this regard. (Javed Ahmad Ghamidi, Mizan (Islam: A Comprehensive Introduction), Tr. Dr Shehzad Saleem (Lahore: Shirkat Printing Press, 2018), 30. [2]. Ie., it is not merely for Makkah and those who live in its whereabouts but for the whole world. It is explained in verse 19 of Surah al-An'am that the message of the Qur'an is for all times to come. It is stated: وَ اُوۡحِیَ ا ِلَیّ ہٰذَا الۡقُرۡاٰنُ لِاُنۡذِرَکُمۡ بِہٖ وَ مَنۡۢ بَلَغَ (and this Qur'an has been revealed to me that I may warn you through it and all those also whom it may reach). This status of the Qur'an necessarily entails that for the later people also, it be univocal and provide certitude the way it was and did for its foremost addressees. By the grace of God, this is in fact so and this Book is with us with this certitude and finality. The words عَلَيَ عَبْدِهِ are used for Muhammad (sws) in the verse. This is a style in which attention is affectionately focused on him. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... There is a special occasion for directing attention towards the Prophet (sws) in an affectionate way. In the succeeding verses, objections of the disbelievers are cited which they would raise in a very humiliating way against the Prophet (sws). These objections were generally raised by the affluent people from Makkah and Ta'if. Being conceited because of their wealth, they would mock at the meagre worldly resources of the Prophet (sws) and present this as a primary argument to refute his prophethood. While keeping in mind this mentality of these arrogant people, it is stated that after the favour of the Furqan which the Almighty has revealed to His special servant, nothing more is needed by him. In order to complete the mission of warning people, he has the perfect provision with him. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 443) [3]. The implication is that no one should think that this Book is a request from a requester. It is the royal decree of the king of the universe that has to be obeyed. If it is denied no one will be able to save people from God's grasp. [4]. Those who have ascribed sons and daughters to God necessarily claim that they will save them from God's grasp. This a refutation of this false claim. [5]. Stated here is the argument for the oneness of God: when He has created everything and it is He Who has prescribed bounds and limits for the form, body, power, potential, traits and attributes, rise and development and existence and downfall, then how can someone else share His divinity? Is it possible for anyone to even slightly increase or decrease the measure in which God has created a thing? [6]. The implication is, what greater a foolishness can there be than to refute the facts presented by the Qur'an on the basis of such helpless deities? [7]. Ie., it is not divine revelation but words that he has fabricated himself and then ascribed to God. [8]. They did not say this by specifically naming someone because when the blame is false an ambiguous style is appropriate. In the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi, if such a specification had been made, they would have been exposed. To prove the Qur'an to be a fabrication (God forbid) they had to give the statement that it also contained accounts of previous prophets. However, the question could arise in the minds of everyone that if the Qur'an was not divinely revealed, how could a person from among themselves know all these accounts which such veracity and detail? In response to this, they indicated some People of the Book who had professed faith to say that they had taught him these tales. Such is this effort to validate one's statement that it can be seen how blind these people had become in their animosity to the truth and how blatantly they had taken to lying and injustice. [9]. Such is the great wisdom encompassed by the Qur'an and such is its status as a literary masterpiece and such is the way and purpose for which the accounts of prophets have been narrated in it that every upright person can see how baseless, despicable and inconvincing is the allegation that has been mentioned about it. Thus the answer that the Qur'an gave in response was sufficient. Not much needs to be said to refute people who utter such obviously baseless things with such stubbornness [10]. This is a further explanation of the previous allegation. The words used in the verse for this are: تُمْلَی عَلَيْهِ. They imply that whatever was being narrated has been both memorized and written down by people. [11]. The implication is that it is not possible for an Arab or a non-Arab to be aware of the knowledge and wisdom nor the facts related to the past, present and future that are being mentioned in this Book. Their source and fountainhead of inspiration can only be the being Who is aware of all the riddles and secrets of the heavens and the earth. This is evident from every single line of this Book. After this, those who are making this allegation can see how baseless and despicable it is. [12]. Ie., he would have walked alongside him and declared to people that the person was God's messenger and that they should fear what he was threatening them with otherwise he (the angel) would immediately send down punishment to them. [13]. The implication is that he could have obtained his livelihood from it and would hence have no need to roam about in the markets. [14]. Ie., so evident is the truth that are not being able to find a way to refute it. Thus while becoming blind with prejudice and malice they are uttering such preposterous and despicable things of which the baselessness they themselves know. [15]. Ie., what God has to give him in the Hereafter could be given to him here in this world. This is not difficult for Him at all. [16]. Ie., what they are uttering from their tongues is not what they have in their hearts. [17]. This is because the only option to escape the type of punishment they will encounter there would be death in some way. [18]. They could utter these words and they could also be a portrayal of the situation which they will face. [19]. While keeping in consideration the suggestion these people gave earlier, the Qur'an here has described in detail Paradise and Hell. The implication is that if they were able to see the torment that is ready for them there and the elaborate arrangement that has been made for the believers in granting them an eternal kingdom, they would not have said what they had stated in response to the call of God's messenger. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: Four things are stated here about Paradise: First, it will be given to the believers as a reward for their deeds. God will assure them that they are worthy of it because of their own deeds and efforts and that they are fully entitled to it. Second, it will be their eternal abode; they will never have the fear of being deprived of it. Third, they will get in it all what they desire and it will remain with them forever. Fourth, God has made a certain promise to the believers to grant them Paradise and it is essential for Him to abide by this promise of His own accord and made Himself accountable for this promise before His servants. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 455) [20]. These deities are mentioned earlier in verse 3. [21]. When two or three generations pass with wealth and authority, most people are misled to believe these are now their birth-right and in the first place, the Hereafter will not come and if it does then just as they were given much more than others, in the Hereafter too they will necessarily be granted those. This is a statement of their mentality and it is very clear that this would be the answer of the prophets and the righteous and the angels which these people used to worship and not of that of the deities and the idols. [22]. Ie., disbelief and polytheism which was mentioned earlier. The actual words used for this punishment are: عَذَابًا كَبِيْرًا. The reason is that the Qur'an calls it: ظُلْمٌ عَظِيْمٌ. [23]. Earlier, the objection of the disbelievers of the Quraysh is cited: what kind of a messenger is this who eats food and roams about in markets. Here the Qur'an has answered this: which of the messengers which they believed in earlier did not eat food or roam around in markets? Noah (sws), Abraham (sws), Ishmael (sws), Moses (sws) and Jesus (sws) whose propehthood they affirm ate food and walked about in the markets. Then why are they raising this peculiar objection against Muhammad (sws)? [24]. Ie., their attitude of disgrace and mockery has been made a trial for for the Prophet (sws) and his companions and the poverty of the Prophet (sws) and his companions has been made a trial for these people. These people reject them by saying that had this been a divine religion, then the affluent among the Makkah and Ta'if would have been selected for this purpose and not these indigent Muslims. [25]. The implication is that all of them failed in their trial of gratitude. Now what attitude will the Muslims adopt against arrogance and mockery? Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... Muslims are urged here: if their opponents have failed in their trial, they should consign them to their fate. The trial of patience which awaits Muslims should be diligently faced by them with will and determination. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 458) [26]. Ie., when God is observing them, the Prophet (sws) should rest assured that in spite of all their opposition, He will make him succeed. [27]. This is stated because what is cited ahead can only be uttered by arrogant and haughty people who have no fear of the Hereafter. Thus instead of referring to them as "disbelievers" they are mentioned by words that reveals their frenzy and ignorance. [28]. The demand to see God openly is also very supercilious. They meant that instead of sending someone as a messenger, God should have come directly before them to speak with them so that the scene that has now been created would never have transpired. [29]. The Qur'an has attacked here the conceit that was concealed in their demands. [30]. The actual words used are: حِجْرًا مَحْجُوْرًا. In Arabic, the word حِجْرًا also means "to ask for refuge," like معاذ اللّه. In such a case, it is in the accusative because of a suppressed verb and the word مَحْجُوْرًا comes with it in precisely the same way as ذائل comes with ذيل and مائت with موت. [31]. The actual word is: مَقِيْل. It means a place of afternoon siesta. However, in general usage it also means merely "a place" while being stripped of a part of its meaning. Same is the case of the superlative form أفعل. In both instances in the verse, it occurs without the meaning of comparsion in it. [32]. Ie., the reality will become fully evident and it will become plain to all those who have vanity about their sovereignty in this world that the real sovereign of this world is God. [33]. Here the word ظالم is in the meaing of ظالم لنفسه. ie., he who is unjust to his own soul. [34]. The actual words are: أَضَلَّنِيْ عَنِ الذِّكرِ. The preposition عَنْ here shows that the verb أَضَلَّ encompasses the meaning of صرف, ie., "by leading me astray he made me turn away from God's remembrance." [35]. The word "messenger" in the verse refers to Muhammad (sws). The implication is that when on the Day of Judgement the rejecters of the Qur'an will be wailing on their wretchedness, at that time he also should present his complaint after which none of these wretched people will have anything to say. [36]. Ie., they were given the respite to become active opponents of the messenger. Since this respite is given according to the established law and practice of God regarding trials, it has been ascribed to God. [37]. This objection was raised to insinuate that coming up with various episodes of the Qur'an of various content after deliberation is actually a clear sign of the fact that the Prophet (sws) is fabricating the Qur'an himself. This is because God does not need to deliberate and reveal it in small parts. [38]. Ie., God may encourage the Prophet (sws) in the struggle of good and evil in which this Book has put him so that he is rest assured that his Lord is fully with him, is guiding him at every instance and looking after all his needs. None of these things could have been there for him if this Book had been handed over to him in one go and he was left alone to confront all the opposition. In such a situation, he would have felt totally unattended and unsupported. [39]. The preposition عَلَی after يُحْشَرُوْنَ shows that another verb is encompassed ie وجوههم على يسحبون و يحشرون. [40]. This is because the path they set off on led them to the destination of Hell. [41]. This was done because Moses (sws) was being sent to a very tyrannical king of his times and he thought that his brother Aaron (sws) was a much more powerful and eloquent orator than him and hence if both were together, he would be able to carry out his obligation in a better way. [42]. Although only one messenger was sent to them but they would have behaved in the same manner with other messengers. For this reason, disobeying one messenger has been regarded as disobeying all. [43]. It is unfortunate that till now it has not been determined who these people were. Exegetes of the Qur'an have mentioned various narratives; however, none of them is convincing. Among classical Arabic poets Zuhayr (d. 607 AD) has mentioned a valley of Rass in one of his couplets. It is evident from this that it is perhaps a reference to an ancient Arab nation to whom a messenger was sent and they denied him. [44]. The verb أهْلَكْنَا (We destroyed) is suppressed in the verse because of concomitant indications. This is its translation. [45]. This is a reference to the settlement of the people of Lot (sws). The Quraysh would pass by it every now and them in their trade journeys. [46]. The Prophet (sws) is assured here that he should not be very anxious for their guidance; none can bring them to the right path. In the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi, the candle of light within a person is his intellect and not his desires. So, who has the power to show the way to people who put have off this candle and become slaves to their desires? [47]. This is because animals never deviate from their instincts. However, when a human being becomes a slave to his desires, he crosses the limits of his instincts as well as those of nature. [48]. This is stated to express God's favour: had He stationed the shadow one can imagine how difficult it would have been to live on earth. [49]. This is because it is the sun which becomes the means to take out the world from total darkness in much the same way as a person who guides a caravan through all stages of a journey. [50]. The actual word is: سُبَاتًا. It means "to cut." Sleep has been called سبات because it discontinues action and in this way provides an opportunity to people to acquire peace and comfort. The implication is that it is God Who has made sleep a means to do away with tiredness. He has arranged for people to cover themselves with the soothing blanket of the night so that they can refresh themselves for the routines and activities of life. [51]. It is indicated here in a very subtle style that each morning is like a Day of Judgement in which people get up in the much the same way they will suddenly wake up from the sleep of death on the morning of the Day of Judgement. It is the eloquence of the Qur'an that it has encompassed this whole meaning merely by using the word نُشُوْر. [52]. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has explained the facts which these verses are directing our attention to. He writes: The implication is that people should think: Has this world – in every nook and corner of which are so many manifestations of wisdom and power – come into being without a creator? Is all this the result of a blind first cause? Has this correspondence and connection between the heavens, the earth, the clouds, the winds and the rain and between what is needed by human beings and animals come into existence of its own accord? Can it be imagined after observing the harmony between diverse elements of nature that conflicting intentions control it? Does not this elaborate arrangement of mercy and providence from the most gracious and ever merciful Lord impose any responsibility on human beings? Does not every shower of rain remind us of this fact of life that the wise and powerful being Who is making us continuously observe His wisdom and power will have not the slightest difficulty in raising people back to life once they die and become clay? (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 476) [53]. Ie., the Qur'an has been narrated to every group and segment of these people in different styles stating various facts so that none of them can say that the truth has not been conclusively conveyed to them. [54]. The implication is that just as everything in the Qur'an has been repeated in different aspects giving due regard to various groups and sections of these people, in a similar way God could have sent a messenger in every settlement. However, what would have happened after this? Even then they would have denied with this same stubbornness. So, the Prophet (sws) should remain assured that if they do not believe and on the contrary make fun of him, then this is none of his fault. Their mischievous nature is to blame. If they had recognized his true worth, they would never have done this. They would have in fact thanked God for sending them this radiant light of guidance. [55]. This is a reference to what has been stated earlier: so, it is this person whom God has made His messenger. The word إطاعة is used in the verse. It means "to show obedience and regard to someone." Here it is used in this meaning and has been translated thus. [56]. Ie., the intense struggle which the Prophet (sws) is undertaking at the moment. This word has been used giving due regard to the situation he is in and to the profound effort he is showing to communicate his message to people. In fact, it constitutes a great praise for him from God. What is secondarily evident from this is that the real jihad for which he was sent was one which was done through the Qur'an and not the sword. [57]. In order to substantiate the belief of monotheism, attention is directed to that great power and wisdom which can be observed at every place where two seas meet or where a river falls into a sea. The waves of both strike each other but the water of both remains separate. It is like an unseen wall that exists between the two. It can neither be observed by anyone nor is it broken by the waves of both striking one another. This phenomenon is called "surface tension" in science. It is because of this law that chunks of sweet water within seas continue to remain sweet. This is a clear testimony to the fact that there is one overall power which is holding both waters in this manner. [58]. Ie., such is the power of God that He created such amazing creatures as human beings. Then He made pairs in them and with their union created, on the one hand, sons and grandsons who bring daugters-in-law in their houses and, on the other, daughters and grand daughters who go into other houses as daughters-in-law as a result of which families and from families nations continue to come into being. These human pairs apparently seem to be diverse to one another. However, the existence of harmony and connection among them and from this the existence of relations of blood and marriage shows that it is the intention of one single wise and powerful being that controls the whole universe and there is none who can oppose this harmony between these conflicting and diverse elements. [59]. The actual words are: وَكَانَ الْكَافِرُ عَلَيٰ رَبِّهِ ظَهِيرًا. The word كَافِرُ is a generic noun and the preposition عَلَيٰ after ظَهِير encompasses the meaning of adversary and opponent in it. [60]. A little deliberation shows that there is a subtle sarcasm in it on the dead deities about which it is said that they can neither harm benefit nor harm others. [61]. These six days refer to the six days of God whose length only He knows. In our own language, we can refer to this as six periods of time. The purpose of stating this is that the existence of this universe is not an accidental happening. It has been created under formal planning and hence cannot be purposeless [62]. This is an expression of God's authority and the preposition عَلَيٰ after إسْتَوَى incorporates the meaning of "firmness" in it. The implication is that after creating this universe, its Creator has not become aloof. He is firmly sitting on its throne and all its affairs are running under His guidance. [63]. If the verse is parsed, the word اَلَّرَحْمَاَنُ is an enunciative (khabar) of a suppressed inchoative (mubtada'). The addressees are reminded of this attribute of God to direct their attention to the fact that it was because of His mercy that He created this universe and it is a requisite of this mercy that one day He will make it reach its true fate. Hence no one should think that it is a place of amusement or the warring place of gods. Certainly not! It has come into existence for a specific purpose and is bound to achieve it. [64]. Ie., ask God Himself because only He truly knows His being and attributes. The word خَبِيْر occurs in this verse in precisely the same way as it occurs in verse 14 of Surah al-Fatir thus: وَلَا يُنَبِّئُكَ مِثْلُ خَبِيرٍ. It is not defined to magnify it and the genetive pronoun refers to خَبِيْر. [65]. Since the name اَلَّرَحْمَاَنُ was more common among the People of the book, the leaders of the Quraysh raised the propaganda that this name is mentioned at various instances in the Qur'an because the purpose is to impose the traditions of the People of the Book on them. This sentence is uttered in this background. [66]. This refers to the forts and stations in the skies in which angels are deputed at all times to protect the frontiers beyond which no human or jinn are allowed to go. [67]. The implication is that every nook and corner of the universe is replete with signs that stimulate the intellect and soul but will and intention is needed to benefit from them. Mankind has been created to test this will and intention. Alas! They fail in it. Neither does their intellect receive a reminder from these signs nor are their hearts filled with sentiments of gratitude. [68]. From here onwards, the addressees are invited in a very moving style to adhere to qualities which arise in a person if he has a true comprehension of God. An admonition is sounded in it to the arrogant Quraysh that they should observe their character and conduct in this mirror while at the same time believers are urged to consider the qualities their Lord wants them to adopt. [69]. Ie., their gait is not the gait of the arrogant and haughty. Such a gait reflects a person's inner self. Wealth, authority, knowledge and skill, beauty and physical power and other similar things produce conceit in a person. The arrogance of each of them manifests in the gait of a person in a specific way and testifies to the fact that his heart is devoid of any comprehension of worship and conception of God. The heart which has comprehension of worship and conception of God beats in the chest of those who are humble and down to earth. Instead of showing arrogance, they walk humbly on earth. [70]. Just as saying salam is meant to greet someone, it is also a polite way to disengage from a person. Similar, is the case of مخاطبت (speech). It can have several aspects. Concomitant indications show that here it refers to debate and argument. [71]. In the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi, this refers to the tahajjud prayer in which a person fervently stands and prostrates before God. The devotion and anxiety which is evident from the style of this verse does not need elaboration. [72]. Two words are used in the verse: مُسْتَقَّرٌ and مُقَام. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... Though the words مُسْتَقَّرٌ and مُقَام are also used synonymously but when they occur together, a certain difference in meaning arises. The conclusion I have reached after reflecting on their occasions of usage is that the former refers to a permanent place of residence while the latter means a temporary one. The implication is that Hell is such a horrible place that it is not even worth tolerating as a temporary abode, let alone a permanent one. Whereas the most horrible of places can be one which can be put with on a temporary basis. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 487) [73]. A person can determine this with respect to his circumstances and it is essential to do this because if a person's expenses are not moderate, he is deprived of the good fortune of spending for the cause of God. [74]. In the shari'ah of God, it is these three which are the greatest sins from which a believer should abstain in all circumstances. The reason for this is eternal Hell, as is stated ahead. [75]. Ie., the evil deeds will be deleted from a person's account and will be replaced by good deeds which will cover these sins. [76]. The actual words are: يَتُوْبُ إلَي اللّهِ مَتَابًا. Here the emphasis imparted by مَتَابًا is for magnification. The translation attempts to convey this meaning. In the verse, there are great glad tidings in the Herein and the Hereafter for those who repent. The implication is that they will have the companionship and patronage of God everywhere because in reality they are returning to Him. [77]. The actual word is: لَغْو. It refers to the involvements which every upright person regards as ones in which decent and cultured people should not engage. Examples are swearing, unseemly conversation, jokes and immoral teasing. [78]. In fact, they reflect on them and gain benefit. It is also a sarcastic remark on the blind and deaf opponents of the Qur'an who would launch an onslaught in precisely this manner to object to and criticize it. [79]. Ie., besides their own fate, they also worry about the fate of their family and they want that their deeds and conduct should be according to God's choice. This would mean that they are not ready to see their dear ones becoming prepared in this world as the fuel of Hell and they are always happy because of their righteous deeds. [80]. The implication is that the families which they head should be families who are pious and the God-fearing and not those who shun Him. [81]. This is because in the previous world they had made themsevles low for the cause of truth and led humble and modest lives. Jesus (sws) is reported to have said: "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." (Matthew, 5:3) [82]. These are contrasting words for Paradise in relation to Hell as described earlier. [83]. The implication is that if God sends His prophets and reveals His books, then it is for their benefit otherwise none of His needs depend on them so that He make this elaborate arrangement. [84]. This is a reference to the punishment which visits a nation which denies its messenger. ____________




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Sūrahs Muzzammil and Muddaththir

Downfall of the Muslims

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi on Hadith

Your Questions Answered

Surahs Nuh and Jinn

Birth Control

An Interview with the Indian Media

Surahs Haqqah and Ma‘arij

Roles and Responsibilities of Muslims in the West

Surahs Mulk - Qalam

The Punishment of Intentional Murder

Hajj and ‘Umrah

Sūrahs Hashr – Mumtahinah

Religious Extremism

Sūrahs Hadīd – Mujādalah

The Right to make a Will

Talks of the Prophet Muhammad (sws)

Surah Waqi‘ah

The General and the Specific

Sūrah Qamar and Sūrah Rahmān

Surah Tur and Surah Najm

Inheritance of an Orphaned Grandchild

The Sharī‘ah of Preaching

The Source of Religion

Sūrah Mā’idah (90-120)

The Prayer

Sūrahs Qāf and Dhāriyāt (Part 2/2)

Sūrahs Qāf and Dhāriyāt (Part 1/2)

Sūrah Mā’idah (32-63) part (1/2)

Sūrah Mā’idah (32-63) part (2/2)

Dealings and Practices of God

Age of ‘Ā’ishah (rta) at her Marriage

Sūrah Mā’idah (1-31) part (1/2)

Sūrah Mā’idah (1-31) part (2/2)

Sūrah Nisā’ (153-176)

Belief in the Prophets

Sūrah Nisā’ (101-152)

Belief in the Hereafter

Sūrah Nisā’ (58-100)

The Consensus of Muslims

Sūrah Nisā’ (36-57)

Islam and the State

Our Call to Humanity

Sūrah Nisā’ (15-34)

The Rule of an Islamic Government

Sūrah Nisā’ (1-14)

Ijtihād