Surah al-Hajj (2/2)

Surah al-Hajj (2/2)


وَ الۡبُدۡنَ جَعَلۡنٰہَا لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ شَعَآئِرِ اللّٰہِ لَکُمۡ فِیۡہَا خَیۡرٌ ٭ۖ فَاذۡکُرُوا اسۡمَ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡہَا صَوَآفَّ ۚ فَاِذَا وَجَبَتۡ جُنُوۡبُہَا فَکُلُوۡا مِنۡہَا وَ اَطۡعِمُوا الۡقَانِعَ وَ الۡمُعۡتَرَّ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ سَخَّرۡنٰہَا لَکُمۡ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَشۡکُرُوۡنَ﴿۳۶﴾ لَنۡ یَّنَالَ اللّٰہَ لُحُوۡمُہَا وَ لَا دِمَآؤُہَا وَ لٰکِنۡ یَّنَالُہُ التَّقۡوٰی مِنۡکُمۡ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ سَخَّرَہَا لَکُمۡ لِتُکَبِّرُوا اللّٰہَ عَلٰی مَا ہَدٰىکُمۡ ؕ وَ بَشِّرِ الۡمُحۡسِنِیۡنَ ﴿۳۷﴾

[You should also not be reluctant in sacrificing camels because] We have included sacrificial camels in the symbols of God for you.[66] There is a lot of good for you in them.[67] So pronounce God's name[68] on them as well when you make them stand in rows.[69] Then when they fall on their sides [after being slaughtered],[70] eat from them your selves and feed those also who [are needy but] are content[71] and those also who come to ask in anxiety. We have subjugated for you these animals in this manner[72] so that you may be grateful. Neither does their flesh reach God nor their blood; but only your piety reaches Him.[73] In this way, God has subjugated them for you so that the guidance God has blessed you with, you exalt God on it.[74] [This is the way of those who are thorough] and [O Prophet!] Give glad tidings to those who are thorough. (36-37)

اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُدٰفِعُ عَنِ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یُحِبُّ کُلَّ خَوَّانٍ کَفُوۡرٍ ﴿ ۳۸﴾ اُذِنَ لِلَّذِیۡنَ یُقٰتَلُوۡنَ بِاَنَّہُمۡ ظُلِمُوۡا ؕ وَ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلٰی نَصۡرِہِمۡ لَقَدِیۡرُۨ ﴿ۙ۳۹﴾ الَّذِیۡنَ اُخۡرِجُوۡا مِنۡ دِیَارِہِمۡ بِغَیۡرِ حَقٍّ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ یَّقُوۡلُوۡا رَبُّنَا اللّٰہُ ؕ وَ لَوۡ لَا دَفۡعُ اللّٰہِ النَّاسَ بَعۡضَہُمۡ بِبَعۡضٍ لَّہُدِّمَتۡ صَوَامِعُ وَ بِیَعٌ وَّ صَلَوٰتٌ وَّ مَسٰجِدُ یُذۡکَرُ فِیۡہَا اسۡمُ اللّٰہِ کَثِیۡرًا ؕ وَ لَیَنۡصُرَنَّ اللّٰہُ مَنۡ یَّنۡصُرُہٗ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَقَوِیٌّ عَزِیۡزٌ ﴿۴۰﴾اَلَّذِیۡنَ اِنۡ مَّکَّنّٰہُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ اَقَامُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتَوُا الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ اَمَرُوۡا بِالۡمَعۡرُوۡفِ وَنَہَوۡا عَنِ الۡمُنۡکَرِ ؕ وَ لِلّٰہِ عَاقِبَۃُ الۡاُمُوۡرِ ﴿۴۱﴾

[On the other hand, those who are stopping people from the path of God, for them] God's decision is that [against them He will now] defend those have accepted faith.[75] Indeed, God does not like any deceitful ingrate.[76] [Thus] those against whom war is waged are granted permission of war because they were oppressed and indeed God has the power to help them. Those who were turned out of their houses without any justification only because they say: "God is our Lord."[77] [This permission has been granted because] if God did not drive away people through one another, monasteries, churches, synagogues[78] and mosques in which the name of God is abundantly taken all would have been destroyed.[79] God will definitely help those who will strive to help Him.[80] Indeed, God is powerful, dominant over all.[81] Those[82] whom if We grant sovereignty in the land will be diligent in the prayer and pay zakah[83] and exhort towards good and forbid evil.[84] [God will definitely help them] and the fate of all matters is in the hands of God alone.[85] (38-41)

وَ اِنۡ یُّکَذِّبُوۡکَ فَقَدۡ کَذَّبَتۡ قَبۡلَہُمۡ قَوۡمُ نُوۡحٍ وَّ عَادٌ وَّ ثَمُوۡدُ ﴿ۙ۴۲﴾ وَ قَوۡمُ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ وَ قَوۡمُ لُوۡطٍ﴿ۙ۴۳﴾ وَّ اَصۡحٰبُ مَدۡیَنَ ۚ وَ کُذِّبَ مُوۡسٰی فَاَمۡلَیۡتُ لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ثُمَّ اَخَذۡتُہُمۡ ۚ فَکَیۡفَ کَانَ نَکِیۡرِ ﴿۴۴﴾ فَکَاَیِّنۡ مِّنۡ قَرۡیَۃٍ اَہۡلَکۡنٰہَا وَ ہِیَ ظَالِمَۃٌ فَہِیَ خَاوِیَۃٌ عَلٰی عُرُوۡشِہَا وَ بِئۡرٍ مُّعَطَّلَۃٍ وَّ قَصۡرٍ مَّشِیۡدٍ ﴿۴۵﴾ اَفَلَمۡ یَسِیۡرُوۡا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ فَتَکُوۡنَ لَہُمۡ قُلُوۡبٌ یَّعۡقِلُوۡنَ بِہَاۤ اَوۡ اٰذَانٌ یَّسۡمَعُوۡنَ بِہَا ۚ فَاِنَّہَا لَا تَعۡمَی الۡاَبۡصَارُ وَ لٰکِنۡ تَعۡمَی الۡقُلُوۡبُ الَّتِیۡ فِی الصُّدُوۡرِ ﴿۴۶﴾

[O Prophet!] If they deny you, then why should you be surprised? Before them, the nation of Noah, the 'Ad, the Thamud, the nation of Abraham, the nation of Lot and the people of Madyan had also denied and Moses too had been [similarly] denied.[86] Then I gave some reprieve to those who denied them; then seized them as well. Then, see how My curse was! So, how many a settlement have We destroyed and they were unjust. Now they are lying on their roofs. And how many wells are lying useless[87] and how many strong palaces are left deserted.[88] Then have these people not walked about in the earth that [after seeing these places that teach a lesson] their hearts could have become such that they could have understood from them and ears could have become such that they could have listened from them? So, the fact is that the eyes on the faces are not blind. In fact, those hearts become blind which are in the chests.[89] (42-46)

وَ یَسۡتَعۡجِلُوۡنَکَ بِالۡعَذَابِ وَ لَنۡ یُّخۡلِفَ اللّٰہُ وَعۡدَہٗ ؕ وَ اِنَّ یَوۡمًا عِنۡدَ رَبِّکَ کَاَلۡفِ سَنَۃٍ مِّمَّا تَعُدُّوۡنَ ﴿۴۷﴾ وَ کَاَیِّنۡ مِّنۡ قَرۡیَۃٍ اَمۡلَیۡتُ لَہَا وَ ہِیَ ظَالِمَۃٌ ثُمَّ اَخَذۡتُہَا ۚ وَ اِلَیَّ الۡمَصِیۡرُ ﴿ ۴۸﴾

They ask you to hasten the punishment, whereas [since God has threatened them with punishment, so] God will never break His promise. [They should know that] one day of God is equal in count to your one thousand years.[90] [So they should also not have this audacity]. How many a settlement We similarly gave respite in spite of their oppression; then seized them and all have to return to Me alone. (47-48)

قُلۡ یٰۤاَیُّہَا النَّاسُ اِنَّمَاۤ اَنَا لَکُمۡ نَذِیۡرٌ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿ۚ۴۹﴾ فَالَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ لَہُمۡ مَّغۡفِرَۃٌ وَّ رِزۡقٌ کَرِیۡمٌ ﴿۵۰﴾ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ سَعَوۡا فِیۡۤ اٰیٰتِنَا مُعٰجِزِیۡنَ اُولٰٓئِکَ اَصۡحٰبُ الۡجَحِیۡمِ ﴿۵۱﴾

Tell them: "O People! I am only an open warner for you.[91] Then they who accepted faith and did righteous deeds, for them is forgiveness and an honourable sustenance also. And those who strive to belittle Our revelations, it is they who are the companions of Hell." (49-51)

وَ مَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡنَا مِنۡ قَبۡلِکَ مِنۡ رَّسُوۡلٍ وَّ لَا نَبِیٍّ اِلَّاۤ اِذَا تَمَنّٰۤی اَلۡقَی الشَّیۡطٰنُ فِیۡۤ اُمۡنِیَّتِہٖ ۚ فَیَنۡسَخُ اللّٰہُ مَا یُلۡقِی الشَّیۡطٰنُ ثُمَّ یُحۡکِمُ اللّٰہُ اٰیٰتِہٖ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ﴿ۙ۵۲﴾ لِّیَجۡعَلَ مَا یُلۡقِی الشَّیۡطٰنُ فِتۡنَۃً لِّلَّذِیۡنَ فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ مَّرَضٌ وَّ الۡقَاسِیَۃِ قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ ؕ وَ اِنَّ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ لَفِیۡ شِقَاقٍۭ بَعِیۡدٍ﴿ۙ۵۳﴾ وَّ لِیَعۡلَمَ الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡعِلۡمَ اَنَّہُ الۡحَقُّ مِنۡ رَّبِّکَ فَیُؤۡمِنُوۡا بِہٖ فَتُخۡبِتَ لَہٗ قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ ؕ وَ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَہَادِ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِلٰی صِرَاطٍ مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۵۴﴾

[O Prophet!] Whichever messenger or prophet We sent before you[92] was faced with the situation that whenever he desired something,[93] Satan caused disruption in his desire.[94] Then God obliterates this disruption of Satan; then God strengthens His revelations and God is knowing and wise. This happens so that God makes this disruption of Satan a means of trial for those who have the ailment [of hypocrisy] in their hearts and whose hearts are hardened.[95] In reality, these unjust people have gone very far in [their] hostility. And this also happens because those who have been given the knowledge of the Book of God should fully know that the truth has come from your Lord. So, their faith should be strengthened on it and their hearts bow down before it.[96] And it is God's decision that He will definitely show the straight path to those who have accepted faith.[97] (52-54)

وَ لَا یَزَالُ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا فِیۡ مِرۡیَۃٍ مِّنۡہُ حَتّٰی تَاۡتِیَہُمُ السَّاعَۃُ بَغۡتَۃً اَوۡ یَاۡتِیَہُمۡ عَذَابُ یَوۡمٍ عَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۵۵﴾ اَلۡمُلۡکُ یَوۡمَئِذٍ لِّلّٰہِ ؕ یَحۡکُمُ بَیۡنَہُمۡ ؕ فَالَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ فِیۡ جَنّٰتِ النَّعِیۡمِ ﴿۵۶﴾ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا فَاُولٰٓئِکَ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ مُّہِیۡنٌ ﴿ ۵۷﴾

On the other hand, those who have decided to deny, they will remain in doubt from this knowledge until when suddenly the Hour of Judgement hovers over their heads or the torment of a baleful day[98] descends on them. [They should remember that] on that Day God will have all authority. He will decide between them. Then those who would have accepted faith and would have also done righteous deeds shall be in orchards of delight and those who have denied and rejected Our revelations, then it is for them that there is a humiliating torment.[99] (55-57)

وَ الَّذِیۡنَ ہَاجَرُوۡا فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ثُمَّ قُتِلُوۡۤا اَوۡ مَاتُوۡا لَیَرۡزُقَنَّہُمُ اللّٰہُ رِزۡقًا حَسَنًا ؕ وَ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَہُوَ خَیۡرُ الرّٰزِقِیۡنَ ﴿۵۸﴾ لَیُدۡخِلَنَّہُمۡ مُّدۡخَلًا یَّرۡضَوۡنَہٗ ؕ وَ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَعَلِیۡمٌ حَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۵۹﴾

The people who migrated in the way of God [because of being helpless due to their injustice], then were killed or died a natural death God will certainly grant them a good sustenance. Indeed, it is God Who provides the best sustenance.[100] He will definitely take them to a place with which they will be pleased.[101] Indeed, God is aware of everyone's circumstances; He is very gracious.[102] (58-59)

ذٰلِکَ ۚ وَ مَنۡ عَاقَبَ بِمِثۡلِ مَا عُوۡقِبَ بِہٖ ثُمَّ بُغِیَ عَلَیۡہِ لَیَنۡصُرَنَّہُ اللّٰہُ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَعَفُوٌّ غَفُوۡرٌ ﴿۶۰﴾

Thus shall this happen and [moreover] he who avenges [an act of injustice] the way it was inflicted on him,[103] then he is subjected to oppression, God will definitely help him. [However, if he forgives a little, it is better]. Undoubtedly, God is forgiving, merciful. (60)

ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّ اللّٰہَ یُوۡلِجُ الَّیۡلَ فِی النَّہَارِ وَ یُوۡلِجُ النَّہَارَ فِی الَّیۡلِ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ سَمِیۡعٌۢ بَصِیۡرٌ ﴿۶۱﴾ ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّ اللّٰہَ ہُوَ الۡحَقُّ وَ اَنَّ مَا یَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖ ہُوَ الۡبَاطِلُ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ ہُوَ الۡعَلِیُّ الۡکَبِیۡرُ ﴿۶۲﴾

[God will definitely help him.] This is because it is God Who makes the night enter the day and the day enter the night and because God hears and sees. This is because it is God Who is the truth and all which they invoke besides God are false and because God is the supreme, the greatest.[104] (61-62)

اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ اَنۡزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً ۫ فَتُصۡبِحُ الۡاَرۡضُ مُخۡضَرَّۃً ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَطِیۡفٌ خَبِیۡرٌ ﴿ۚ۶۳﴾ لَہٗ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَہُوَ الۡغَنِیُّ الۡحَمِیۡدُ ﴿ ۶۴﴾

[He will definitely help however adverse are the circumstances.] Do you not see that God sent down water from the sky; then, [through it,] the earth becomes lush green?[105] Indeed, God is very discerning, aware [of everything].[106] To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. Indeed, only God is self-sufficient and has praiseworthy attributes.[107] (63-64)

اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ سَخَّرَ لَکُمۡ مَّا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ الۡفُلۡکَ تَجۡرِیۡ فِی الۡبَحۡرِ بِاَمۡرِہٖ ؕ وَ یُمۡسِکُ السَّمَآءَ اَنۡ تَقَعَ عَلَی الۡاَرۡضِ اِلَّا بِاِذۡنِہٖ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ بِالنَّاسِ لَرَءُوۡفٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۶۵﴾ وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡۤ اَحۡیَاکُمۡ ۫ ثُمَّ یُمِیۡتُکُمۡ ثُمَّ یُحۡیِیۡکُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ الۡاِنۡسَانَ لَکَفُوۡرٌ ﴿۶۶﴾

Do you not see that God has put all things of the earth to your service and the ship also?[108] It sails in the sea at His bidding. And He is holding the sky lest it should fall down on the earth[109] except if only He permits. Certainly, God is very gracious and ever-merciful.[110] It is He Who has given life to you. Then He gives death; then He will bring you back to life. In reality, man is very ungrateful.[111] (65-66)

لِکُلِّ اُمَّۃٍ جَعَلۡنَا مَنۡسَکًا ہُمۡ نَاسِکُوۡہُ فَلَا یُنَازِعُنَّکَ فِی الۡاَمۡرِ وَ ادۡعُ اِلٰی رَبِّکَ ؕ اِنَّکَ لَعَلٰی ہُدًی مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۶۷﴾ وَ اِنۡ جٰدَلُوۡکَ فَقُلِ اللّٰہُ اَعۡلَمُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۶۸﴾ اَللّٰہُ یَحۡکُمُ بَیۡنَکُمۡ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ فِیۡمَا کُنۡتُمۡ فِیۡہِ تَخۡتَلِفُوۡنَ ﴿۶۹﴾ اَلَمۡ تَعۡلَمۡ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا فِی السَّمَآءِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ اِنَّ ذٰلِکَ فِیۡ کِتٰبٍ ؕ اِنَّ ذٰلِکَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ یَسِیۡرٌ ﴿۷۰﴾

[They object: "Why is the new shari'ah different?" Tell them:] "We have prescribed a path for each community that they may tread on it."[112] [Now also We have done the same.] So they must not be able dispute with you in any way in this matter.[113] Hence, pay no heed and keep calling towards your Lord. Indeed, you are on the straight path. If even after this, they are after arguing with you, tell them: "God very well knows what you are doing. God will decide between you on the Day of Judgement in what have been differing. Do you not know that everything of the heavens and the earth is in God's knowledge? All this is preserved in a register. Indeed, this is very easy for God."[114] (67-70)

وَ یَعۡبُدُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ مَا لَمۡ یُنَزِّلۡ بِہٖ سُلۡطٰنًا وَّ مَا لَیۡسَ لَہُمۡ بِہٖ عِلۡمٌ ؕ وَ مَا لِلظّٰلِمِیۡنَ مِنۡ نَّصِیۡرٍ ﴿۷۱﴾ وَ اِذَا تُتۡلٰی عَلَیۡہِمۡ اٰیٰتُنَا بَیِّنٰتٍ تَعۡرِفُ فِیۡ وُجُوۡہِ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوا الۡمُنۡکَرَ ؕ یَکَادُوۡنَ یَسۡطُوۡنَ بِالَّذِیۡنَ یَتۡلُوۡنَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ اٰیٰتِنَا ؕ قُلۡ اَفَاُنَبِّئُکُمۡ بِشَرٍّ مِّنۡ ذٰلِکُمۡ ؕ اَلنَّارُ ؕ وَعَدَہَا اللّٰہُ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا ؕ وَ بِئۡسَ الۡمَصِیۡرُ ﴿ ۷۲﴾

They worship those besides God about which God has revealed no sanction and about which they have no knowledge also. [These foolish people think that in the Hereafter they will help them.] In reality, no one will be the helper of these unjust people. When Our plain revelations are recited before them, you see revulsion on the faces of these disbelievers.[115] It is as if they will attack those who are reciting Our revelations to them. Tell them: "Should I inform you of a thing of greater revulsion than this? The fire of Hell! God has promised it to the disbelievers and it is a very evil abode." (71-72)

یٰۤاَیُّہَا النَّاسُ ضُرِبَ مَثَلٌ فَاسۡتَمِعُوۡا لَہٗ ؕ اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ تَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ لَنۡ یَّخۡلُقُوۡا ذُبَابًا وَّ لَوِ اجۡتَمَعُوۡا لَہٗ ؕ وَ اِنۡ یَّسۡلُبۡہُمُ الذُّبَابُ شَیۡئًا لَّا یَسۡتَنۡقِذُوۡہُ مِنۡہُ ؕ ضَعُفَ الطَّالِبُ وَالۡمَطۡلُوۡبُ ﴿۷۳﴾مَا قَدَرُوا اللّٰہَ حَقَّ قَدۡرِہٖ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَقَوِیٌّ عَزِیۡزٌ ﴿۷۴﴾

People! [If you want to understand the reality of these deities, then] an example is cited: So, listen to it attentively. In reality, those who you invoke besides God cannot create a fly even if all of them try to. And if that fly snatches something from them, they cannot seize it back. Those who desire are frail and that what they desire are absolutely frail too.[116] They have not recognized the importance of God that way it should be.[117] Indeed, God is powerful, dominant upon all. (73-74)

اَللّٰہُ یَصۡطَفِیۡ مِنَ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ رُسُلًا وَّ مِنَ النَّاسِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ سَمِیۡعٌۢ بَصِیۡرٌ ﴿ۚ۷۵﴾ یَعۡلَمُ مَا بَیۡنَ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ وَ مَا خَلۡفَہُمۡ ؕ وَ اِلَی اللّٰہِ تُرۡجَعُ الۡاُمُوۡرُ ﴿۷۶﴾

[It is because of this attitude of disregard for God that they regard the angels to be deities.] God selects [His] messengers from the angels and from human beings also. [How can they share in Godhead because of this?] Indeed, God [Himself] hears and sees all. He knows what is behind and before these angels and all matters turn to Him.[118] (75-76)

یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا ارۡکَعُوۡا وَ اسۡجُدُوۡا وَ اعۡبُدُوۡا رَبَّکُمۡ وَ افۡعَلُوا الۡخَیۡرَ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿ۚٛ۷۷﴾ وَجَاہِدُوۡا فِی اللّٰہِ حَقَّ جِہَادِہٖ ؕ ہُوَ اجۡتَبٰىکُمۡ وَ مَا جَعَلَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ فِی الدِّیۡنِ مِنۡ حَرَجٍ ؕ مِلَّۃَ اَبِیۡکُمۡ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ ؕ ہُوَ سَمّٰىکُمُ الۡمُسۡلِمِیۡنَ ۬ۙ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ وَ فِیۡ ہٰذَا لِیَکُوۡنَ الرَّسُوۡلُ شَہِیۡدًا عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ تَکُوۡنُوۡا شُہَدَآءَ عَلَی النَّاسِ ۚۖ فَاَقِیۡمُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتُوا الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ اعۡتَصِمُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ ؕ ہُوَ مَوۡلٰىکُمۡ ۚ فَنِعۡمَ الۡمَوۡلٰی وَ نِعۡمَ النَّصِیۡرُ ﴿ ۷۸﴾

Believers! [Their era has ended and now your era is beginning. So,] kneel and prostrate[119] and worship your Lord[120] and do righteous deeds[121] that you may succeed. And [moreover, to discharge the responsibilities of your status] strive in the way of God in the most befitting way.[122] He has chosen you[123] and not placed any constraint on you in [the] shari'ah [He has given you].[124] He has chosen the community of your father – Abraham – for you.[125] It was he who had earlier named you Muslim[126] and in this [Qur'an] also [your name is Muslim.] He has chosen you so that the messenger bears witness [to this religion] before you and you bear witness [to it] before all the people of the world.[127] So, be diligent in the prayer and pay zakah and hold strongly to God.[128] He is your Guardian. So, how good a guardian and how good a helper! (77-78)

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[66]. This is stated since some Jews also lived in Arabia and because of a weak tradition (Deuteronomy, 14:7), they had prohibited the camel upon themselves. Thus they started to work the propaganda as to how the new religion could be the religion of Abraham because it had permitted an animal to attain the nearness of God which was always prohibited. In verse 93 of Surah Al 'Imran, the Qur'an has answered this objection.

[67]. Ie., it has many blessings and benefits. This is in indication as to why the Arabs should specially sacrifice camels. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... The camel was the most loved of animals of the Arabs. It is their ship of the desert, companion of their stays and journeys and the sole means of their trade activities. They would try to gain the most benefit from its milk, meat and hide. The Qur'an has repeatedly directed the attention of the Arabs towards this great favour with reference to these blessings and benefits it has. Obviously if the Arabs sacrifice something for the pleasure of their Lord which is so advantageous for their worldly benefits, it can be a great source of attaining the nearness of God. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 250)

[68]. Ie., making them stand in rows the way standing is observed in the prayer.

[69]. The next sentence is an explicit evidence to the fact that the expression "pronouncing God's name on an animal" is a specfic term of the Qur'an to connote slaughtering an animal while pronouncing the name of God. It also becomes fully evident from this that in the shari'ah of God there is no concept of sacrificing an animal until God's name is declared.

[70]. Ie., are prostrated.

[71]. By first mentioning those needy who are content shows that it is this attitude which God likes.

[72]. Ie., God has made these animals so obedient to human beings that they are able to slaughter them while they are made to stand or to lie on their sides and present this sacrifice to God.

[73]. Here the Qur'an has refuted all the concepts which the Idolaters had regarding the ritual of animal sacrifice.

[74]. The essence of animal sacrifice is making an offering and its purpose is to express gratitude to God. When we make an offering of ourselves to God by making the sacrificial animals as its symbol, it is as if we express our gratitude on the guidance of submission which was shown by Abraham (sws) at the sacrifice of his only son. At this moment, the words of exaltedness and oneness of God are expressed for this very objective. The Qur'an has referred to this precisely for this purpose.

[75]. It is evident from the content of these verses that they were revealed right after migration in Madinah. It is thus said that the phase of reward and punishment has begun. If Muslims launch an initiative in this phase, God will definitely help them. It is this topic which is explained till verse 41.

[76]. This is a reference to the Quraysh who had forgotten the promise they had made with Abraham (sws) and Ishmael (sws), their forefathers. They had gained for themselves rights in the name of God's House but were not ready to fulfill their obligation of gratitude to the God Who had given them this status.

[77]. This is the first verse of theQur'an in which the Companions of the Prophet (sws) who had migrated from Makkah (the Muhajirun) were given permission to fight back if they wanted in case they were attacked. The Qur'an says that these Companions were driven out of their homes because they believed that Allah was their Lord and as such were totally innocent. A little deliberation shows that this one sentence depicts the whole charge-sheet against the Quraysh. The reason for this is that no one is willing to leave his home unless he is oppressed for living there and thereby utterly compelled to migrate. The words بِاَنَّہُمۡ ظُلِمُوۡا (because they have been oppressed) refer to this very aspect, and it is because of this ruthless and unfounded oppression that the Qur'an allowed the Muslims to resort to force against aggression. This right to use force has been given to the Muslims in their collective capacity because they are not addressed in their individual capacities in these verses. Thus in this matter any step which is to be taken for use of force must originate from their collective system. No person or group among them has the right to take a step on its own in this regard on behalf of the Muslims.It is precisely on this basis that the Prophet (sws) is reported to have said: "A Muslim ruler is the shield [of his people]. An armed struggle can only be carried out under him."(al-Bukhari, Al-Jami' al-sahih, 489, (no. 2957)

[78]. The actual words are صَوَامِع ,بِيْع and صَلَوات. Here صَوَامِع is the plural of صومعة. It is primarily used for the lofty mountains and buildings in which Christian monks would live in seclusion. Hence it has been translated as monastries. The word بِيْع is the plural of بيعة. It is used for the worship places of the both the Jews and the Christians. However, since the word صَلَوات is used ahead for the worship places of the Jews, hence this word must be considered specific to Christian places of worship. The word صَلَوات is the plural of صلوة. It refers to places in which the Jews offered the prayer. The Jews called their prayer صلوتا which is an Aramaic word.

[79]. The implication is that war is not a desirable thing; however, God has always permitted it because in the absence of this permission, the rebelliousness of nations would have reached the extent that places of worship would have been deserted and the places in which the name of God is declared night and day and He is worshipped would have been ruined, apart from there being devastation in the society. The places of worship of the Jews are specially mentioned here because it was they who would have been the most critical of any such use of force by the Muslims. They are told that if today their places of worship are intact, then it is only because the righteous among God's people have been defending them by sacrificing their own lives from the onslaughts of those who wanted to destroy them. Thus Muslims too are permitted to wage war for this very purpose: they are told to stop those who oppressively stop people from God and His House.

[80]. The promise of help stated earlier is further emphasized here. The implication is that to fight against those who stop people from God and His house is like helping God, and it is the established practice of God that He definitely helps those who help Him. This promise of God's help has been mentioned in verses 65-66 of Surah al-Anfal.

[81]. This sentence refers to many aspects. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has explained them. He writes:

God is mighty and powerful; hence He does not need the help of anyone. Those who help Him in fact open the doors for God's help for themselves.

Muslims should not feel scared because of their own small number and the large number of their enemies.The majestic God Who is promising to help them is mighty and dominant.

The disbelievers after witnessing the current situation of the Muslims must not be led to think that these few people cannot achieve anything. These drops will now become a storm because God is behind them and God is mighty and powerful. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 257)

[82]. From here onwards, the Almighty has mentioned the obligations He has imposed on Muslims if they are able to acquire political authority in some land. The verse tacitly indicates that those from whom this authority will be confiscated and given to the Muslims did not fulfill these obligations; in fact, they were guilty of violating them. Thus after conclusive communication of the truth from the messenger, God's established practice is that political authority is taken away from such embezzlers.

[83]. According to the established practice of adhering to the prayer that has been instituted at the state level, firstly, the rulers will be diligent in the prayer and also make it incumbent on their officials to offer it; secondly, it shall be their responsibility or that of their authorized deputies or representatives to lead and give the sermon of the Friday and the 'id prayers. Similarly, regarding zakahthe established practice has been instituted that it is the only tax that can be imposed on the Muslims. Thus every Muslim citizen of the state who is liable to pay zakah will necessarily give it to the government in the amount prescribed viz a viz his wealth, livestock and produce. On the other hand, besides expending the received amount in other heads, the government will try to reach out to its needy citizens before they are forced to beg for it from them.

[84]. For good, the actual word used is ma'ruf and for evil the word used is munkar. They refer to things which are regarded as good and evil by all mankind. This responsibility will obviously be fulfilled in some cases through education and exhortation and in some cases through the force of law. For the first case, the Friday sermon is the agency; it has to be delivered by the rulers specifically for this very purpose. For the second case, the police department is the means. It is set up in a Muslim government to fulfill this responsibility and carries out its duties in accordance with the bounds stipulated for it.

[85]. The implication is that whatever are the circumstances now, the consequence and fate rests in the hands of God and He has decided that now He will help the Muslims. Thus the rejecters should know that now they will not be dealing with the oppressed Muslims but with God, the Creator of the heavens and earth, Lord of the worlds.

[86]. Moses (sws) was not denied by his nation but by the Pharaoh. It is perhaps because of this that his denial is mentioned in the passive voice.

[87]. In the Arabia of those times, settlements were populated because of wells. Thus if wells fell into disuse, it meant that all the hustle and bustle of life is no longer there.

[88]. These words are suppressed in the verse because of concomitant indications.

[89]. Since the hearts are qualified by blindness, it shows that the eyes are qualified by words to the effect: "of the face."It has been revealed in the translation. The Qur'an is couched in literary Arabic; its language is not that of science. In literary Arabic, most actions of the mind are ascribed to the heart. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... Here since people who lack insight are being described, it was essential that the heart be portrayed with respect to its locus: real blindness is the blindness of the heart and the rejecters of the messenger are inflicted by this blindness. People should not think that they can see if the eyes on their face are open because the radiance of insight in the eyes comes from the heart and the eyes of their hearts are totally blind. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 265)

[90]. The implication is that they should not measure God's events on the basis of their own limited counting. Centuries which pass on human beings may only be a few moments in God's scheme. They can understand this by an example: one thousand earth years are like a day in God's calendar. Hence instead of asking to hasten the punishment, they should try to benefit from the respite which at the moment God has given them.

[91]. The actual words are: نَذِيْرٌ مُبِيْنٌ. Those who have a flair for Arabic literature know that this is a tacit reference to the "naked warner" (nadhir 'uryaṇ) referred to in it. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... It was a convention among the Arabs that where a caravan stopped for a break, a person guarded that place while being stationed at a high spot. If he felt danger from around him he would take off his clothes and become naked. He would declare that danger was lurking near after which all men would unsheathe their swords and get ready to defend. That person was called "the naked warner."Since this expression was indecent and therefore inapt for a prophet, the Qur'an changed into the decent one: "open warner." (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 267)

[92].These words show that there is a difference between a nabi (prophet) and a rasul (messenger). What is this difference? It is evident from the stipulations of the Qur'an that those whom God selects for the guidance of people and guides them through His revelation are called nabi. However, it is not essential that each nabi (prophet) also be a rasul (messenger). Messengerhood is a special status which only few among the prophets attain. According to its details mentioned in the Qur'an, a messenger is like a court of justice for his nation and leaves this world after deciding their fate in this world. Thus after conclusive communication of the truth by him, God grants dominance to those who believe in him and punishes those who reject him.

[93]. Obviously the desire of his prophet would be that his mission be completed and the leaders of his nation accept faith. Thus every morning he gets up with the desire that today God will bless some 'Utbah or some 'Amr or 'Umar with the honour of accepting Islam.

[94]. Ie., Satan caused hindrance in the fulfillment of a prophet's desire by raising all sorts of doubts, objections, accusations and working up a vicious propaganda against him

[95]. Ie., God makes evident to people the reality behind the objections and doubts raised by Satan. Thus all mischief and propaganda worked by him is finally obliterated and the verses of God appear to an upright person in such a definitive manner that no doubt or hesitancy remains in him. God gives the opportunity to Satan to raise these doubts and objections because He is knowing and wise: He knows that the scheme according to which He has made this world can only be fulfilled in this way. In the succeeding verses, this is explained further.

[96]. The implication is that whatever happens, happens to distinguish good and from evil. As a result evil doers are set apart from the righteous and the faith of the latter is also strengthened. This is the requirement of God's scheme in this world. Without this, those who are wanted by God for His Paradise cannot be selected. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

Here it should be kept in mind that the real nature of a thing becomes evident from its opposite. If a person knows a thing and also believes in it, then there is a strong possibility that if what can be said against it comes before him mayjolt and shake his ideology and faith if he is unaware of it. However, if the opposite has come before him and after evaluating the good from the bad he has accepted the truth, then there is little chance that any adverse wind will cause him to shift his stance. It is to create this insight in religion that in this world God has given the adversaries of truth the opportunity to do whatever they can against it so that those who accept it do not accept it blindly but with full awareness and comprehension. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 272)

[97]. It was stated earlier that people whose hearts are afflicted by the ailment of hypocrisy have gone so far in their opposition that now there is no chance for them to return. Now here, the believers are given glad tidings in contrast: God will not let their faith go waste in these trials; in fact, when after passing through all kinds of tests they prove their allegiance to the truth, He will hold their hands and guide them directly to the path which takes them to their destination.

[98]. The actual word is: عَقِيْم. It means "barren" from which the meaning of baleful and sinister is incorporated into it. In other words, it will be a day in which no scheme will succeed and every effort will go down the drain and every hope will be end up in frustration.

[99]. This is because they showed arrogance before God and His messenger and the punishment of arrogance is that the curse of humiliation and disgrace should be added to the torment.

[100]. The word زقر is not merely used for sustenance. It is a word that comprehensively covers the favours and gifts of God. It is specifically mentioned in verse 169 of Surah Al- 'Imran that those who are killed in the way of God should not be considered as dead. They are alive in the presence of God and in the life of Barzakh are also being provided favours and sustenance from their Lord. Here it is further explained that he who went out for the cause of God and then died a natural death, then his death will also be considered as shahadat (martyrdom)

[101]. Ie., they will become very happy because whatever they will get there cannot be imagined by them in this world.

[102]. Ie., God is not swift in punishing them; He in fact gives them the full opportunity to reform themselves. Hence His servants should rest assured; He is fully aware of whatever oppression they are tolerating from their adversaries.

[103]. The actual words are: وَمَنْ عَاقَبَ مَا عُوْقِبَ بِهِ. In them عُوْقِبَ بِهِ, are on the principle of similarity of genre the way it is said: دناهم كما دانوا.

[104].These are arguments cited in favour of divine help. The implication is that it should be noted that it is God Who has such power that the alternation of night and day takes place at His behest and moreover He hears and sees everything: He listens to and sees everything wherever it it is and in whatever form it is in and there is no god except Him who can help these oppressorsnor is there any being greater than Him. When all this is a reality, then how can His servants remain deprived of His help; He will surely help them.

[105]. Thus in this way whenever He wants He will send the winds of His mercy and help to His servants and they will become inundated with happiness.

[106]. This reference to the attributes of God has come here in a very subtle manner. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... Ie., He makes His schemes materialize in a way that no one has any inkling of them. He is also fully aware. People are only able to see the apparent; however, He has full knowledge of what is hidden in the veils of the past as well as the future. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 281)

[107]. Ie., He is not only self-sufficient; but at the same time has all praiseworthy attributes. Hence there is no reason for His servants to lose hope in Him. He certainly is peerless but at the same time He guards them at every instant and is also with them.

[108]. In those times, the most significant invention of mankind was the ship. The Qur'an has stated here that it too is in fact the invention of God and it sails at His behest. The extra-ordinary inventions of these times can also be analogously understood in this light.

[109]. The actual words are: أَنْ تَقَعَ عَلَیَ الاَرْضِ. Before أَنْ a governing noun (muḍaf) is suppressed in accordance with linguistic principles.

[110]. The implication is that it is God's fondness and affectionbecause of which the heavens and the earth are intact and all what they contain are serving human beings.

[111]. The implication is that the favours enjoyed by human beings because of God's love and affection should be used to comprehend God, to be grateful to Him and to benefit from the respite granted by Him. Alas! Human beings are ingrates and keep denying the reality presented by the messenger.

[112]. The actual word is: مَنْسَكْ. Similar words of شِرْعَة and مِنْهَاج are used in verse 48 of Surah al-Ma'idah. It is stated that each community has been given a specific shari'ah which had some differences from those of the others. In Surah al-Ma'idah, it is stated that the wisdom behind this was to try and test people. God wanted to see who became entangled in apparent traditions and turned away from facts and who became a true seeker of the truth and was prepared to accept it come what may because it had come forth from his Lord?

[113]. Ie., they should not get any opportunity to debate or argue in this matter so that they are able to divert the attention of people by engaging them in such side issues.

[114]. Ie., it is not at all difficult for God to keep a record of thousands and millions and in fact billions of people. Hence, people should be aware that one day all this will come before them in such a way that every person will cry out: what sort of a record is this? It has every big and small detail in it. Though the verse is addressed to the Prophet (sws) but the rebuke found in every word of it is directed at those people who were the addressees of the surah and were continuing to deny his message.

[115].This is because they mostly mention monotheism and the arguments in its favour and the honour they have for their alleged deities does not allow them to hear this.

[116]. A subtle reference is found in this: God can only be the being Who can compensate the weakness and frailty found in human beings; however, such are these foolish people that their deities are more helpless and feeble than their own selves.

[117].Ie., they have believed in God but have not believed in him with the correct comprehension of His power and might, otherwise they would not have invented such silly beliefs because all these beliefs are in fact based on lesser estimations of His divinity.

[118]. The implication is that the angels have definitely been given the status of prophethood but not because God is need of this in any way. He is the lord of the universe and His knowledge and power embraces everything. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... For this reason, neither can they increase God's knowledge in any way nor can any of their words and deeds be beyond God's access. Moreover, they are also not in a position to say that a particular thing is in their knowledge and not in God's. All matters are presented before God. They are not presented before these angels nor will they ever be. On the contrary, these angels present the report of the tasks which have been deputed to them by God. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 286)

[119]. Ie., believers must bend on their knees and prostrate because there is no greater a way to acknowledge the might and splendour of God. Thus it is a reality that if a human being kneels and prostrates with full cognizance and continues to adhere to this practice, he can never become arrogant and will always be ready to submit himself to a truth that comes before him.

[120]. The actual word is عبادت. It occurs in its comprehensive meaning. This is obviously a mention of the general after the specific, once kneeling and prostration have been mentioned. Thus the implication is that people should serve God in all affairs of life and obey Him alone.

[121]. This is a further mention of the general. In the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi, it refers to those acts of virtue which though are not mandatory in nature but refer to noble deeds and high morals which have a large role in making the life of a person sound and exemplary.

[122]. A governing noun is suppressed in the verse. The expression فِي اللّهِ is actually فِي سَبِيْلِ اللّهِ. This directive has been given in deference to the status for which they have been selected, as mentioned in the succeeding verses. The implication is that they should try to convey God's message in a conclusive way to the whole of mankind and leave no stone unturned in this task. Moreover, if they face any hindrance in this cause, they should try to overcome it by using all the powers of their heart and mind, body and soul and also expend all their wealth and resources.

[123]. Ie., chosen them just as He selects certain individuals among the progeny of Adam for prophethood and messengerhood. Earlier, the Israelites were also similarly selected but because of their defiance and rebelliousness, they earned God's wrath and were cursed.

[124]. This is stated here because this shari'ah does not have the same severity as that of the Israelites. The reason for this reduction probably being that the Israelites remained in the direct rule of God's government but this was not the case with the Ishmaelites. About them, the directive of God is that they will carry out this duty under their rulers.

[125]. Ie., in the real Islam in which there is no trace of Judaism or Christianity and which is the community of Abraham, their father. God has made it their religion and shari'ah after some revival, reformation and addition. The reference of the father is given to urge the Ishmaelites: this is not something strange for them: it is the religion of their father and what more religion and community than the religion and community of the father can be dearer to the children. Moreover, also evident from this is that it is primarily the Ishmaelites who have been chosen for this responsibility. All those who convert into Islam by accepting this message, they become secondarily included in this responsibility. It is precisely for this reason that in Surah al-Baqarah the Ishmaelites are referred to as the "middle community" (أُمَّةً وَسَطًا). On one side of them are God and His Messenger and on the other are all the nations of the world (النَّاس). In verse 33 of Surah Al-i 'Imran, the words آل ابراهيم are used for this purpose. When the Israelites were carrying out this obligation, the centre of their religious communication was the Bayt al-Maqdis. After the advent of Muhammad (sws), it lost this status and it too was entrusted to the Ishmaelites. Thus, now till the Day of Judgement, the centre of the true message of God is the ancient House which Abraham (sws) and Ishmael (sws) built with their sacred hands in Makkah and which is called بَيْتُ اللهِ ,البَيْت ,الْبَيْتُ العَتِيْقِ and الْمَسْجِدُ الْحَراَم.

[126]. This is a reference to the prayer of Abraham (sws) cited in these words in Surah al-Baqarah: رَبَّنَا وَاجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ لَكَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِنَا أُمَّةً مُّسْلِمَةً لَّكَ. The words أُمَّةً مُّسْلِمَةً are used for the ummah that is under discussion here.

[127]. This is an explanation of the selection mentioned earlier: it was done to bear witness to the religion of truth. This bearing witness is not mere preaching and persuasion; besides this, it is also the manifestation of the worldly retribution of God according to which if the Muslim ummah adheres to the truth and keeps communicating it to all the nations of the world while being faithful to its contents and with full certainty, then it will be granted dominance over those who do not accept faith and if it deviates from it, then it will be subjected to the punishment of disgrace and subservience through these very nations. Thus its very existence becomes a witness to what it says with its pen and tongue. It is because of this that the word "bearing witness" (شهاده) is used instead of preaching. This in fact is conclusive communication of truth which when it happens becomes a basis of God's judgement both in this world and in the next. After Muhammad (sws), this arrangement has been made by the Almighty for this conclusive communication at the global level.

[128]. Ie., they should strongly adhere to the guidance He has bestowed upon them and trust His help in all circumstances. At another instance (3:102), what is stated here is mentioned by the words: وَاعْتَصِمُواْ بِحَبْلِ اللّهِ.

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