Surah al-Nahl (1/2)

Surah al-Nahl (1/2)


Qur'anic Exegesis

بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ

اَتٰۤی اَمۡرُ اللّٰہِ فَلَا تَسۡتَعۡجِلُوۡہُ ؕ سُبۡحٰنَہٗ وَ تَعٰلٰی عَمَّا یُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿۱﴾ یُنَزِّلُ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃَ بِالرُّوۡحِ مِنۡ اَمۡرِہٖ عَلٰی مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِہٖۤ اَنۡ اَنۡذِرُوۡۤا اَنَّہٗ لَاۤ اِلٰہَ اِلَّاۤ اَنَا فَاتَّقُوۡنِ ﴿۲﴾ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالۡاَرۡضَ بِالۡحَقِّ ؕ تَعٰلٰی عَمَّا یُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿۳﴾ خَلَقَ الۡاِنۡسَانَ مِنۡ نُّطۡفَۃٍ فَاِذَا ہُوَ خَصِیۡمٌ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۴﴾ وَ الۡاَنۡعَامَ خَلَقَہَا ۚ لَکُمۡ فِیۡہَا دِفۡءٌ وَّ مَنَافِعُ وَ مِنۡہَا تَاۡکُلُوۡنَ ﴿۪۵﴾ وَ لَکُمۡ فِیۡہَا جَمَالٌ حِیۡنَ تُرِیۡحُوۡنَ وَ حِیۡنَ تَسۡرَحُوۡنَ ﴿۪۶﴾ وَ تَحۡمِلُ اَثۡقَالَکُمۡ اِلٰی بَلَدٍ لَّمۡ تَکُوۡنُوۡا بٰلِغِیۡہِ اِلَّا بِشِقِّ الۡاَنۡفُسِ ؕ اِنَّ رَبَّکُمۡ لَرَءُوۡفٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ۙ﴿۷﴾ وَّ الۡخَیۡلَ وَ الۡبِغَالَوَ الۡحَمِیۡرَ لِتَرۡکَبُوۡہَا وَ زِیۡنَۃً ؕ وَ یَخۡلُقُ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۸﴾ وَعَلَی اللّٰہِ قَصۡدُ السَّبِیۡلِ وَ مِنۡہَا جَآئِرٌ ؕ وَ لَوۡ شَآءَ لَہَدٰىکُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿ ۹﴾

In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.

The directive of God has been pronounced. So, do not seek to hasten it.[1] He is pure and exalted from the things which they associate with Him.[2] [Tell them O Prophet that not every one is worthy that God send down angels to him]. He sends down angels with the command of revelation[3] to whomsoever He wills with the directive: "Warn the people: 'There is no deity [for you] except Me; so, fear Me alone.'" He has created the heavens and the earth with truth.[4][No one can influence His decisions]. He is far above those which they associate with Him. He has created man with a small drop; so, you see that he has suddenly arisen to become an open enemy.[5]He has also created these cattle in which there is the winter's attire for you and other benefits too and you also obtain nutrition from them. In them, there is also splendour for you, when in the evening you bring them back and in the morning when you leave them to graze.[6]They transport your burdens to cities where you could have only reached with great difficulty. In reality, your Lord is very affectionate, very merciful. He has created these horses, mules and donkeys also so that you ride them and they are also [a means of] adornment. He also creates things which you do not know. [If you want to come close to Him, then know that] the straight path reaches God, whereas there are deviant paths as well. [It is now your free will to adopt whichever path you want to]; otherwise, in reality, had He wanted He would have guided all of you to [that one path]. (1-9)

ہُوَ الَّذِیۡۤ اَنۡزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً لَّکُمۡ مِّنۡہُ شَرَابٌ وَّ مِنۡہُ شَجَرٌ فِیۡہِ تُسِیۡمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰﴾ یُنۡۢبِتُ لَکُمۡ بِہِ الزَّرۡعَ وَ الزَّیۡتُوۡنَ وَ النَّخِیۡلَ وَ الۡاَعۡنَابَ وَ مِنۡ کُلِّ الثَّمَرٰتِ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّتَفَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱﴾ وَ سَخَّرَ لَکُمُ الَّیۡلَ وَ النَّہَارَ ۙ وَ الشَّمۡسَ وَ الۡقَمَرَ ؕ وَ النُّجُوۡمُ مُسَخَّرٰتٌۢ بِاَمۡرِہٖ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۲﴾ وَ مَا ذَرَاَ لَکُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مُخۡتَلِفًا اَلۡوَانُہٗ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّذَّکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳﴾

It is He Who has sent down water from the skies which you drink and through which that pasturage sprouts in which you graze [animals]. From it, He grows for you crops, olives, dates, grapes and fruits of all types. Indeed, in it, there is a great sign for those who reflect.[7] It is He Who has put the night, the day, the sun and the moon into your service, and it is at His behest that the stars also serve you. Indeed, in it are many signs for those who use their intellect. And these things of various types that He has scattered for you in the earth, also undoubtedly have a great sign for those who can be reminded.[8] (10-13)

وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ سَخَّرَ الۡبَحۡرَ لِتَاۡکُلُوۡا مِنۡہُ لَحۡمًا طَرِیًّا وَّ تَسۡتَخۡرِجُوۡا مِنۡہُ حِلۡیَۃً تَلۡبَسُوۡنَہَا ۚ وَ تَرَی الۡفُلۡکَ مَوَاخِرَ فِیۡہِ وَ لِتَبۡتَغُوۡا مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ وَ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَشۡکُرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۴﴾

It is He Who has put the sea into your service so that you can eat the fresh meat [of fish] from it and extract it from it [items of] of jewelry that you wear. And you see the ships sailing through this [sea] while cutting across [its surface] so that you can travel in them and so that you seek the bounty of your Lord and so that you can be grateful to Him. (14)

وَ اَلۡقٰی فِی الۡاَرۡضِ رَوَاسِیَ اَنۡ تَمِیۡدَ بِکُمۡ وَ اَنۡہٰرًا وَّ سُبُلًا لَّعَلَّکُمۡ تَہۡتَدُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۵﴾ وَ عَلٰمٰتٍ ؕ وَ بِالنَّجۡمِ ہُمۡ یَہۡتَدُوۡنَ ﴿۱۶﴾

He has set forth the mountains on the earth lest it may tilt away with you and has made canals to flow in it[9] and made paths so that you can be guided and besides these has also set forth other signs[10] and people also find their way through the stars [of the heavens]. (15-16)

اَفَمَنۡ یَّخۡلُقُ کَمَنۡ لَّا یَخۡلُقُ ؕ اَفَلَا تَذَکَّرُوۡنَ﴿۱۷﴾ وَ اِنۡ تَعُدُّوۡا نِعۡمَۃَ اللّٰہِ لَا تُحۡصُوۡہَا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَغَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۸﴾ وَ اللّٰہُ یَعۡلَمُ مَا تُسِرُّوۡنَ وَ مَا تُعۡلِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۹﴾ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ لَا یَخۡلُقُوۡنَ شَیۡئًا وَّ ہُمۡ یُخۡلَقُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۲۰﴾ اَمۡوَاتٌ غَیۡرُ اَحۡیَآءٍ ۚ وَ مَا یَشۡعُرُوۡنَ ۙ اَیَّانَ یُبۡعَثُوۡنَ ﴿ ۲۱﴾

Then will He who creates become equal to those who do not? So, do you not understand? Even if you try to count the favours of God, you will not be able to. [Even then you are ungrateful?] In reality, God is Most Forgiving, Ever Merciful. [If He has granted you respite, then this is the sole reason for it as well, but remember that] God knows what you conceal and what you reveal. Those whom they call besides God do not create; in fact, they themselves have been created. They are dead; not alive and do not know when they will be raised to life.[11] (17-21)

اِلٰـہُکُمۡ اِلٰہٌ وَّاحِدٌ ۚ فَالَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ مُّنۡکِرَۃٌ وَّ ہُمۡ مُّسۡتَکۡبِرُوۡنَ ﴿۲۲﴾ لَاجَرَمَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا یُسِرُّوۡنَ وَ مَا یُعۡلِنُوۡنَ ؕ اِنَّہٗ لَا یُحِبُّ الۡمُسۡتَکۡبِرِیۡنَ ﴿۲۳﴾

Your God is one. But those who do not believe in the Hereafter, their hearts deny and they are inflicted with arrogance.[12] God definitely knows what they conceal and what they reveal. He does not like those who are arrogant. (22-23)

وَ اِذَا قِیۡلَ لَہُمۡ مَّا ذَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ رَبُّکُمۡ ۙ قَالُوۡۤا اَسَاطِیۡرُ الۡاَوَّلِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۲۴﴾ لِیَحۡمِلُوۡۤا اَوۡزَارَہُمۡ کَامِلَۃً یَّوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ ۙ وَ مِنۡ اَوۡزَارِ الَّذِیۡنَ یُضِلُّوۡنَہُمۡ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ ؕ اَلَا سَآءَ مَا یَزِرُوۡنَ ﴿ ۲۵﴾

When they are asked: "What is this which your Lord has revealed,[13] they say: 'These are tales of the ancients.'"[14] This is because on the Day of Judgement they bear fully their own burdens and also of those who they were leading astray without any knowledge.[15] Remember! Very evil is the burden which these people will bear. (24-25)

قَدۡ مَکَرَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ فَاَتَی اللّٰہُ بُنۡیَانَہُمۡ مِّنَ الۡقَوَاعِدِ فَخَرَّ عَلَیۡہِمُ السَّقۡفُ مِنۡ فَوۡقِہِمۡ وَ اَتٰىہُمُ الۡعَذَابُ مِنۡ حَیۡثُ لَا یَشۡعُرُوۡنَ ﴿۲۶﴾ ثُمَّ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ یُخۡزِیۡہِمۡ وَ یَقُوۡلُ اَیۡنَ شُرَکَآءِیَ الَّذِیۡنَ کُنۡتُمۡ تُشَآقُّوۡنَ فِیۡہِمۡ ؕ قَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡعِلۡمَ اِنَّ الۡخِزۡیَ الۡیَوۡمَ وَ السُّوۡٓءَ عَلَی الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۲۷﴾ الَّذِیۡنَ تَتَوَفّٰىہُمُ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ ظَالِمِیۡۤ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ ۪ فَاَلۡقَوُا السَّلَمَ مَا کُنَّا نَعۡمَلُ مِنۡ سُوۡٓءٍ ؕ بَلٰۤی اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۲۸﴾ فَادۡخُلُوۡۤا اَبۡوَابَ جَہَنَّمَ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَا ؕ فَلَبِئۡسَ مَثۡوَی الۡمُتَکَبِّرِیۡنَ ﴿۲۹﴾

Before this also, people plotted schemes in this manner.[16] Then God pulled out their building from its foundation; so its roof collapsed on their heads[17] and its torment visited them from where they could not even imagine. Then not only this, God will humiliate them even more on the Day of Judgement and ask them: "Where are My associates for which you would fight?" Those endowed with knowledge, will call out [at that time]: "Today humiliation and misfortune will afflict these disbelievers." – On those[18] whose souls are claimed by the angels such that they would be doing injustice to their souls. So, they will immediately concede: "We were not doing anything evil." [The angels will reply:] "Why not! Indeed, God knows full well what you have been doing. Now enter the gates of Hell such that you will remain in it forever. So, what an evil abode it is for those who are arrogant." (26-29)

وَ قِیۡلَ لِلَّذِیۡنَ اتَّقَوۡا مَاذَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ رَبُّکُمۡ ؕ قَالُوۡا خَیۡرًا ؕ لِلَّذِیۡنَ اَحۡسَنُوۡا فِیۡ ہٰذِہِ الدُّنۡیَا حَسَنَۃٌ ؕ وَ لَدَارُ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ خَیۡرٌ ؕ وَ لَنِعۡمَ دَارُ الۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۳۰﴾ جَنّٰتُ عَدۡنٍ یَّدۡخُلُوۡنَہَا تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ لَہُمۡ فِیۡہَا مَا یَشَآءُوۡنَ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یَجۡزِی اللّٰہُ الۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۳۱﴾ الَّذِیۡنَ تَتَوَفّٰىہُمُ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ طَیِّبِیۡنَ ۙ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ سَلٰمٌ عَلَیۡکُمُ ۙ ادۡخُلُوا الۡجَنَّۃَ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۳۲﴾

On the other hand, those who fear God, when they are asked: "What has your Lord sent down?" they reply: "He has revealed the best thing." [In reality,] they who are good, for them there is goodness in this world[19] and the abode of the Hereafter is much better than this and how marvelous is the abode of those who fear God. Eternal orchards which they will enter; canals will be flowing below them; they will have everything there what they want. God rewards those who fear in this way. Those[20] whose souls are claimed by the angels such that they are pure.[21] The angels will say: "Peace be to you. Go and live in Paradise as a reward for your deeds." (30-32)

ہَلۡ یَنۡظُرُوۡنَ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ تَاۡتِیَہُمُ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ اَوۡ یَاۡتِیَ اَمۡرُ رَبِّکَ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ فَعَلَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ ؕ وَ مَا ظَلَمَہُمُ اللّٰہُ وَ لٰکِنۡ کَانُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ یَظۡلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۳۳﴾ فَاَصَابَہُمۡ سَیِّاٰتُ مَا عَمِلُوۡا وَ حَاقَ بِہِمۡ مَّا کَانُوۡا بِہٖ یَسۡتَہۡزِءُوۡنَ ﴿ ۳۴﴾

Do they but await that angels come to them or the directive of your Lord is given? Those who were before them also behaved similarly. [Then what happened, it was] not injustice to them by God; in fact, they had been unjust to themselves. So, they were punished for their misdeeds and were embraced by precisely what they were making fun of. (33-34)

وَ قَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ اَشۡرَکُوۡا لَوۡ شَآءَ اللّٰہُ مَا عَبَدۡنَا مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖ مِنۡ شَیۡءٍ نَّحۡنُ وَ لَاۤ اٰبَآؤُنَا وَ لَا حَرَّمۡنَا مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖ مِنۡ شَیۡءٍ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ فَعَلَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ ۚ فَہَلۡ عَلَی الرُّسُلِ اِلَّا الۡبَلٰغُ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿۳۵﴾ وَ لَقَدۡ بَعَثۡنَا فِیۡ کُلِّ اُمَّۃٍ رَّسُوۡلًا اَنِ اعۡبُدُوا اللّٰہَ وَ اجۡتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوۡتَ ۚ فَمِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ ہَدَی اللّٰہُ وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ حَقَّتۡ عَلَیۡہِ الضَّلٰلَۃُ ؕ فَسِیۡرُوۡا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ فَانۡظُرُوۡا کَیۡفَ کَانَ عَاقِبَۃُ الۡمُکَذِّبِیۡنَ ﴿۳۶﴾

These idolaters say: "Had God willed, we would not have worshipped anyone except Him – neither we nor our forefathers and nor would we have regarded anything as prohibited without His [directive]." Those before them had also adopted this attitude. So, the only responsibility of the messengers is to clearly communicate. [Thus you can see that] We sent a messenger in every community with the message: "Worship God and be on guard against Satan." Then, God guided some of them and there were also some who deviated from the truth. So walk about in the land and see the fate the rejecters encountered. (35-36)

اِنۡ تَحۡرِصۡ عَلٰی ہُدٰىہُمۡ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یَہۡدِیۡ مَنۡ یُّضِلُّ وَ مَا لَہُمۡ مِّنۡ نّٰصِرِیۡنَ ﴿۳۷﴾

If you are very desirous for their guidance, then what will you gain from this [O Prophet!] because God does not guide those whom He leads astray [according to His law] and also no one can be their helper. (37)

وَ اَقۡسَمُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ جَہۡدَ اَیۡمَانِہِمۡ ۙ لَا یَبۡعَثُ اللّٰہُ مَنۡ یَّمُوۡتُ ؕ بَلٰی وَعۡدًا عَلَیۡہِ حَقًّا وَّ لٰکِنَّ اَکۡثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۳۸﴾ لِیُبَیِّنَ لَہُمُ الَّذِیۡ یَخۡتَلِفُوۡنَ فِیۡہِ وَ لِیَعۡلَمَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اَنَّہُمۡ کَانُوۡا کٰذِبِیۡنَ ﴿۳۹﴾ اِنَّمَا قَوۡلُنَا لِشَیۡءٍ اِذَاۤ اَرَدۡنٰہُ اَنۡ نَّقُوۡلَ لَہٗ کُنۡ فَیَکُوۡنُ ﴿۴۰﴾

While swearing strong oaths by God, they say: "God will not raise to life he who dies." Why not! This is a promise made by Him that He shall necessarily fulfill, but most people do not know. This will happen so that God reveals to them the reality about which they are differing and the disbelievers know that they were liars. [This is not the slightest difficult for Us.] When We decide about something all we need to say is: "Be," and it happens.[22] (38-40)

وَ الَّذِیۡنَ ہَاجَرُوۡا فِی اللّٰہِ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ مَا ظُلِمُوۡا لَـنُبَوِّئَنَّہُمۡ فِی الدُّنۡیَا حَسَنَۃً ؕ وَ لَاَجۡرُ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ اَکۡبَرُ ۘ لَوۡ کَانُوۡا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۴۱﴾ الَّذِیۡنَ صَبَرُوۡا وَ عَلٰی رَبِّہِمۡ یَتَوَکَّلُوۡنَ ﴿۴۲﴾

[Why will We not raise them to life?] In fact, those who have migrated in the way of God after they had been oppressed, We will definitely bestow on them a nice abode in this world[23] and the reward of the Hereafter is much more.[24] Alas! Would that these disbelievers knew those [immigrants] who remained steadfast and who trust their Lord. (41-42)

وَ مَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡنَا مِنۡ قَبۡلِکَ اِلَّا رِجَالًا نُّوۡحِیۡۤ اِلَیۡہِمۡ فَسۡـَٔلُوۡۤا اَہۡلَ الذِّکۡرِ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۴۳﴾ بِالۡبَیِّنٰتِ وَ الزُّبُرِ ؕ وَ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ الذِّکۡرَ لِتُبَیِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ اِلَیۡہِمۡ وَ لَعَلَّہُمۡ یَتَفَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۴۴﴾

[They insist that angels be sent down to them.] In reality, before you too We had sent men as messengers to whom We sent revelations. So, if you do not know, ask these who [before this] are the recipients of the reminder.[25] We had sent them with proofs and with Books. And now We have revealed this reminder to you so that you may mention to these people what has been revealed to them and so that they may reflect.[26] (43-44)

اَفَاَمِنَ الَّذِیۡنَ مَکَرُوا السَّیِّاٰتِ اَنۡ یَّخۡسِفَ اللّٰہُ بِہِمُ الۡاَرۡضَ اَوۡ یَاۡتِیَہُمُ الۡعَذَابُ مِنۡ حَیۡثُ لَا یَشۡعُرُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۴۵﴾ اَوۡ یَاۡخُذَہُمۡ فِیۡ تَقَلُّبِہِمۡ فَمَا ہُمۡ بِمُعۡجِزِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۴۶﴾ اَوۡ یَاۡخُذَہُمۡ عَلٰی تَخَوُّفٍ ؕ فَاِنَّ رَبَّکُمۡ لَرَءُوۡفٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۴۷﴾

Then are these people, who are plotting evil schemes, unafraid that God may thrust them into the earth or they be visited by a torment from where they cannot even imagine or catch them while they walk about – [if He decides to this,] they cannot defeat Him – or He may seize them in a situation that they [themselves] fear [it]. He is giving respite to them because your Lord is very gentle and ever-merciful. (45-47)

اَوَ لَمۡ یَرَوۡا اِلٰی مَا خَلَقَ اللّٰہُ مِنۡ شَیۡءٍ یَّتَفَیَّؤُا ظِلٰلُہٗ عَنِ الۡیَمِیۡنِ وَ الشَّمَآئِلِ سُجَّدًا لِّلّٰہِ وَہُمۡ دٰخِرُوۡنَ ﴿۴۸﴾ وَ لِلّٰہِیَسۡجُدُ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِوَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مِنۡ دَآبَّۃٍ وَّ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ وَ ہُمۡ لَا یَسۡتَکۡبِرُوۡنَ ﴿۴۹﴾ یَخَافُوۡنَ رَبَّہُمۡ مِّنۡ فَوۡقِہِمۡ وَ یَفۡعَلُوۡنَ مَا یُؤۡمَرُوۡنَ ﴿۵۰﴾

Do they not see that whatever God has created, their shadows prostrate before God[27] turning from right and left and [the objects which have these shadows too] are also meek and submissive.[28] In reality, all living beings in the heavens and the earth prostrate to God only and the angels of God too; they are never disobedient. They fear their Lord above them and do whatever they are directed to. (48-50)

وَ قَالَ اللّٰہُ لَا تَتَّخِذُوۡۤا اِلٰـہَیۡنِ اثۡنَیۡنِ ۚ اِنَّمَا ہُوَ اِلٰہٌ وَّاحِدٌ ۚ فَاِیَّایَ فَارۡہَبُوۡنِ ﴿۵۱﴾ وَ لَہٗ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لَہُ الدِّیۡنُ وَاصِبًا ؕ اَفَغَیۡرَ اللّٰہِ تَتَّقُوۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾

God has said: "Do not make two gods; He is the one God. So, fear Me only." Whatever is in the heavens and the earth belongs to Him and only He is to be always obeyed. Then do you fear others besides God?[29] (51-52)

وَ مَا بِکُمۡ مِّنۡ نِّعۡمَۃٍ فَمِنَ اللّٰہِ ثُمَّ اِذَا مَسَّکُمُ الضُّرُّ فَاِلَیۡہِ تَجۡـَٔرُوۡنَ ﴿ۚ۵۳﴾ ثُمَّ اِذَا کَشَفَ الضُّرَّ عَنۡکُمۡ اِذَا فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنۡکُمۡ بِرَبِّہِمۡ یُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۵۴﴾ لِیَکۡفُرُوۡا بِمَاۤ اٰتَیۡنٰہُمۡ ؕ فَتَمَتَّعُوۡا ۟ فَسَوۡفَ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۵۵﴾ وَ یَجۡعَلُوۡنَ لِمَا لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ نَصِیۡبًا مِّمَّا رَزَقۡنٰہُمۡ ؕ تَاللّٰہِ لَتُسۡـَٔلُنَّ عَمَّا کُنۡتُمۡ تَفۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۵۶﴾

Whatever favour you have is from God. Then when you are afflicted by a calamity, you beseech Him only.[30]Then when God secures you from that calamity, right at that time some of you start associating partners with Him so that they become ungrateful to the favours We have given them. So, be merry for a few days; then soon you will come to know. And those about whom they have no knowledge,[31]they put their share too in what We have given them.[32]By God! You shall definitely be held accountable for the falsehood that you are fabricating. (53-56)

وَ یَجۡعَلُوۡنَ لِلّٰہِ الۡبَنٰتِ سُبۡحٰنَہٗ ۙ وَ لَہُمۡ مَّا یَشۡتَہُوۡنَ ﴿۵۷﴾ وَ اِذَا بُشِّرَ اَحَدُہُمۡ بِالۡاُنۡثٰی ظَلَّ وَجۡہُہٗ مُسۡوَدًّا وَّ ہُوَ کَظِیۡمٌ ﴿ۚ۵۸﴾ یَتَوَارٰی مِنَ الۡقَوۡمِ مِنۡ سُوۡٓءِ مَا بُشِّرَ بِہٖ ؕ اَیُمۡسِکُہٗ عَلٰی ہُوۡنٍ اَمۡ یَدُسُّہٗ فِی التُّرَابِ ؕ اَلَا سَآءَ مَا یَحۡکُمُوۡنَ ﴿۵۹﴾ لِلَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ مَثَلُ السَّوۡءِ ۚ وَ لِلّٰہِ الۡمَثَلُ الۡاَعۡلٰی ؕ وَ ہُوَ الۡعَزِیۡزُ الۡحَکِیۡمُ ﴿ ۶۰﴾

They ascribe daughters to God. Exalted is God; [for Him, daughters] and for them what they desire! When glad tidings of a daughter are given to any of them, his face darkens, his heart wrenches because of the shame of the glad tidings given to him, he hides from people thinking whether he should keep her in shame or bury her – Alas! What an evil decision do they make![33] [In reality,] those who do not believe in the Hereafter are in fact worthy of an evil example. For God are the best examples.[34] He is powerful, very wise. (57-60)

وَ لَوۡ یُؤَاخِذُ اللّٰہُ النَّاسَ بِظُلۡمِہِمۡ مَّا تَرَکَ عَلَیۡہَا مِنۡ دَآبَّۃٍ وَّ لٰکِنۡ یُّؤَخِّرُہُمۡ اِلٰۤی اَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّی ۚ فَاِذَا جَآءَ اَجَلُہُمۡ لَا یَسۡتَاۡخِرُوۡنَ سَاعَۃً وَّ لَا یَسۡتَقۡدِمُوۡنَ ﴿۶۱﴾

Had God seized people immediately for their oppression,[35] He would never have left any living being on earth but [His law is that] He gives them respite till an appointed time. Then when their appointed time arrives, they will not be able to hold back for an instant or move ahead. (61)

وَ یَجۡعَلُوۡنَ لِلّٰہِ مَا یَکۡرَہُوۡنَ وَ تَصِفُ اَلۡسِنَتُہُمُ الۡکَذِبَ اَنَّ لَہُمُ الۡحُسۡنٰی ؕ لَا جَرَمَ اَنَّ لَہُمُ النَّارَ وَ اَنَّہُمۡ مُّفۡرَطُوۡنَ ﴿۶۲﴾

They are suggesting for God what they do not like for themselves and their tongues lie that for them is goodness [in the future as well].[36] For them certainly is Hell and they will be left in it. (62)

تَاللّٰہِ لَقَدۡ اَرۡسَلۡنَاۤ اِلٰۤی اُمَمٍ مِّنۡ قَبۡلِکَ فَزَیَّنَ لَہُمُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ اَعۡمَالَہُمۡ فَہُوَ وَلِیُّہُمُ الۡیَوۡمَ وَ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۶۳﴾

By God! [O Prophet!] We sent messengers to many nations before you also; so, Satan made their deeds seem fair to them [in a similar way]. So, now he is their companion and for them is a painful torment. (63)

وَ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنَا عَلَیۡکَ الۡکِتٰبَ اِلَّا لِتُبَیِّنَ لَہُمُ الَّذِی اخۡتَلَفُوۡا فِیۡہِ ۙ وَ ہُدًی وَّ رَحۡمَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یُّؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۶۴﴾

[If they do not believe, then you are not responsible for this in any way.] We have only revealed this Book to you so that through it you can fully explain to them what they are differing in and so that it can be a guide and mercy[37] for those who believe in it. (64)

وَ اللّٰہُ اَنۡزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَاَحۡیَا بِہِ الۡاَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِہَا ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّسۡمَعُوۡنَ ﴿ ۶۵﴾وَ اِنَّ لَکُمۡ فِی الۡاَنۡعَامِ لَعِبۡرَۃً ؕ نُسۡقِیۡکُمۡ مِّمَّا فِیۡ بُطُوۡنِہٖ مِنۡۢ بَیۡنِ فَرۡثٍ وَّ دَمٍ لَّبَنًا خَالِصًا سَآئِغًا لِّلشّٰرِبِیۡنَ ﴿۶۶﴾ وَ مِنۡ ثَمَرٰتِ النَّخِیۡلِ وَ الۡاَعۡنَابِ تَتَّخِذُوۡنَ مِنۡہُ سَکَرًا وَّ رِزۡقًا حَسَنًا ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۶۷﴾

In reality, it is God Who has rained down water from the sky. Then, through it, enlivened the earth after it had died. Surely, there is a great sign in this for people who listen. And surely there is a great lesson[38] for you in the cattle. We make you drink pure milk from between their faeces and blood within their bellies which is very delicious for those who drink.[39] [Similarly,] from the fruits of dates and grapes also. You make things of intoxication from them and wholesome things to eat as well.[40] Surely, there is a great sign in this who use their intellect.[41] (65-67)

وَ اَوۡحٰی رَبُّکَ اِلَی النَّحۡلِ اَنِ اتَّخِذِیۡ مِنَ الۡجِبَالِ بُیُوۡتًا وَّ مِنَ الشَّجَرِ وَ مِمَّا یَعۡرِشُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۶۸﴾ ثُمَّ کُلِیۡ مِنۡ کُلِّ الثَّمَرٰتِ فَاسۡلُکِیۡ سُبُلَ رَبِّکِ ذُلُلًا ؕ یَخۡرُجُ مِنۡۢ بُطُوۡنِہَا شَرَابٌ مُّخۡتَلِفٌ اَلۡوَانُہٗ فِیۡہِ شِفَآءٌ لِّلنَّاسِ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّتَفَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۶۹﴾

[Do you not see that] your Lord sent His revelation to the honey bee[42] that she should make her hives in mountains, trees and fences they build. "Then suck juice from fruits of all types and follow the trodden paths of your Lord."[43] From her belly comes out a fluid of different colours; there is cure in it for people. Surely, there is a great sign in this as well for those who reflect.[44] (68-69)

وَ اللّٰہُ خَلَقَکُمۡ ثُمَّ یَتَوَفّٰىکُمۡ ۟ۙ وَ مِنۡکُمۡ مَّنۡ یُّرَدُّ اِلٰۤی اَرۡذَلِ الۡعُمُرِ لِکَیۡ لَا یَعۡلَمَ بَعۡدَ عِلۡمٍ شَیۡئًا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلِیۡمٌ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۷۰﴾

In a similar way, God has created you; then it is He Who makes you die. [Some of you die early] and some of you are made to reach old age so that after knowing a lot they know no more. In reality, it is God Who knows; it is He Who has power over everything.[45] (70)

وَ اللّٰہُ فَضَّلَ بَعۡضَکُمۡ عَلٰی بَعۡضٍ فِی الرِّزۡقِ ۚ فَمَا الَّذِیۡنَ فُضِّلُوۡا بِرَآدِّیۡ رِزۡقِہِمۡ عَلٰی مَا مَلَکَتۡ اَیۡمَانُہُمۡ فَہُمۡ فِیۡہِ سَوَآءٌ ؕ اَفَبِنِعۡمَۃِ اللّٰہِ یَجۡحَدُوۡنَ ﴿۷۱﴾

[Then observe also that] God has given preference to some of you over others in livelihood. Then those who are given preference do not give their livelihood to their slaves so that they become equal in it. [Yet, they think that God has divided His kingdom among others and they obtain livelihood from them.] So, are they denying the favour of God?[46](71)

وَ اللّٰہُ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ اَنۡفُسِکُمۡ اَزۡوَاجًا وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ اَزۡوَاجِکُمۡ بَنِیۡنَ وَ حَفَدَۃً وَّ رَزَقَکُمۡ مِّنَ الطَّیِّبٰتِ ؕ اَفَبِالۡبَاطِلِ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ وَ بِنِعۡمَتِ اللّٰہِ ہُمۡ یَکۡفُرُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۷۲﴾ وَ یَعۡبُدُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ مَا لَا یَمۡلِکُ لَہُمۡ رِزۡقًا مِّنَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ شَیۡئًا وَّ لَا یَسۡتَطِیۡعُوۡنَ ﴿ۚ۷۳﴾ فَلَا تَضۡرِبُوۡا لِلّٰہِ الۡاَمۡثَالَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَعۡلَمُ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۷۴﴾

[Then also see that] God has created wives for you from your own species and from your wives has produced sons and grandsons and given you pure things to eat. Then [even] after [seeing and knowing all] this, they believe in evil and have become rejecters of God's favours and worship those besides God who have no authority for them in the heavens for their livelihood nor in the earth nor can have access [to any such authority].[47] So, [in analogy to your own selves,] do not cite comparisons for God.[48] In reality, God knows [His being and attributes;] you do not. (72-74)

ضَرَبَ اللّٰہُ مَثَلًا عَبۡدًا مَّمۡلُوۡکًا لَّا یَقۡدِرُ عَلٰی شَیۡءٍ وَّ مَنۡ رَّزَقۡنٰہُ مِنَّا رِزۡقًا حَسَنًا فَہُوَ یُنۡفِقُ مِنۡہُ سِرًّا وَّ جَہۡرًا ؕ ہَلۡ یَسۡتَوٗنَ ؕ اَلۡحَمۡدُ لِلّٰہِ ؕ بَلۡ اَکۡثَرُہُمۡ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۷۵﴾ وَ ضَرَبَ اللّٰہُ مَثَلًا رَّجُلَیۡنِ اَحَدُہُمَاۤ اَبۡکَمُ لَا یَقۡدِرُ عَلٰی شَیۡءٍ وَّ ہُوَ کَلٌّ عَلٰی مَوۡلٰىہُ ۙ اَیۡنَمَا یُوَجِّہۡہُّ لَایَاۡتِ بِخَیۡرٍ ؕ ہَلۡ یَسۡتَوِیۡ ہُوَ ۙ وَ مَنۡ یَّاۡمُرُ بِالۡعَدۡلِ ۙ وَ ہُوَ عَلٰی صِرَاطٍ مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۷۶﴾

[If you want to hear out comparisons, then listen:] God cites the comparison of a slave who is under the ownership of someone; he does not have any authority. In contrast to him, there is another person Who We have granted a decent livelihood from Ourselves; then he spends from it openly or secretly [in any way he wants to]. [Speak up:] Will the two be equal? [Then how do you equate God with His powerless people? In reality,] God is worthy of gratitude but most people do not know. [To explain this fact further,] God cites another comparison. There are two people. One of them is dumb; he cannot do anything and is a burden on his master. Wherever he sends him, he does not do anything right. Will this dumb person and that being invested with authority be equal who teaches justice and adheres to the straight path himself as well?[49] (75-76)

[1]. This is a declaration of the decision which is necessarily pronounced once the truth is conclusively conveyed by messengers of God. The addressees of the Qur'an were seeking to hasten it. It is they who are addressed here.

[2]. The verse begins with a direct address and then it shifts to an indirect one. What is the reason for this shift? Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... The eloquence in it is that the first part consists of warning and threat; hence direct address was more appropriate for it. The second part has an element of abhorrence and disgust for which indirect address is more apt. It is as if this part is said while turning away from them. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 389)

[3]. The actual words are: بِالرُّوۡحِ مِنۡ اَمۡرِہٖ. Ie., from the command of رُوْح. The latter word here means God's revelation. It has been used in the Qur'an in this meaning also. The reason for this is that the breath or utterance which emanates from God and becomes an angel or the corporal form of a human being or becomes a word is the same with regard to its essence.

[4]. Ie., created them with purpose and wisdom. Thus it is essential that this universe reach a meaningful conclusion and the court of God deliver a verdict with justice about whatever happened in it. This is not a place of amusement for people to do whatever they like without any accountability.

[5]. The reference is to the rebellious people who at that time were addressees of the Qur'an.

[6]. The actual words are: حِیۡنَ تُرِیۡحُوۡنَ وَ حِیۡنَ تَسۡرَحُوۡنَ. Here apparently the word تَسْرَحُوْنَ should have been mentioned before تُرِيْحُوْنَ but the Qur'an has done the opposite. What is the reason? Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has explained it. He writes:

... The reason for this is that the occasion of the discourse entails an expression of splendour and this is found more when the herd returns in the even after grazing. At this time, the animals appear fat and fresh after nibbling their fodder. This splendour is not apparent in the morning when they are left to graze. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 391)

[7]. Ie., the sign that this universe is a created entity having only one creator; that it is this creator who is ruling everywhere in these heavens and the earth; that all are benefiting from His power, wisdom, mercy and providence; that He has created nothing without a purpose; that He will certainly bring about a day in which He will reward those who recognized their responsibilities and question those who spent their life in oblivion and negligence.

[8]. The faculties which guide a human being are mentioned here by the words يَتَفَكَّرُوْن (those who reflect), يَعْقِلُوْنَ (those who use their intellect and يَذَّكَّرُوْنَ (those who are reminded) respectively. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... These faculties are mentioned in a descending order. The highest ability of a person is that he reflects on this universe. Through this reflection he is guided from multiplicity towards oneness and is able to comprehend the real purpose of this universe. If he does not have this ability, then at least he should use his intellect and be reminded of the destination towards which every single entity of this universe points and not walk about blindly. In verses 65, 67 and 69 of this very surah the words used are يَسْمَعُوْنَ, يَعْقِلُوْنَ and يَتَفَكَّرُوْن respectively. This, on the other hand, is an ascending order sequence. In other words, the least ability a sane person should have is to lend ear to sane talk and try to understand it. If he is not even able to do this, then he is like an animal walking on two legs. His highest trait is to reflect on this universe. This is because it is this reflection due to which the doors to true knowledge and to the comprehension of the divine are opened. The Qur'an, in reality, wants to awaken this very trait in a person. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 396)

[9]. The actual words are: اَنۡہٰرًا وَّ سُبُلًا. Appropriate verbs have been suppressed in them in accordance with linguistic principles ie.

فَجَّرَ فِيْهَا اَنْهَارًا وَّ مَهَّدَ فِيْهَا سُبُلًا.

[10]. This style also is the same as referred to in the previous note ie. جَعَلَ للسَّبِيْلِ عَلَامَاتٍ.

[11]. It is evident from the words of the verse that this is specially a mention of their elders and forefathers who they would elevate beyond humans and call upon for their needs and would worship them.

[12]. The implication is that rejection has taken roots in their hearts. The only reason for this is that they consider it a matter of humiliation for themselves to leave their alleged beliefs and accept the call of God's envoy. Thus it is purely due to self-arrogance that they are denying an absolute reality.

[13]. After being influenced by the message of the Qur'an this question obviously was asked by the followers to their leaders in order to find their opinion and chalk out a plan for themselves in its light.

[14]. The implication is that these are baseless tales of the past which are being repeated in a new form. There is no need to be over-awed or overcome by fear because of them. Whatever they (ie., the leaders) are doing, is the right course. Fabrications in the name of God are being presented to them to lead them astray.

[15]. The actual words are: مِنۡ اَوۡزَارِ الَّذِیۡنَ یُضِلُّوۡنَہُمۡ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ. The letter مِنْhere connotes "part" (تبعيض). The implication is that those who have gone astray will definitely bear the burden of their deviance because they have been blessed with sense and reason by God; however, part of their burden shall also be borne by their leaders who had led them astray. The qualifying words بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ show that the call of the messengers is based on true knowledge and whatever is said in its response is not based on true knowledge. Nothing from the established principles derived from knowledge and intellect can be presented in its support.

[16]. Since whatever they were doing was to save their leadership, hence the Qur'an has referred to it as plotting schemes.

[17]. This is a portrayal of the destruction which these nations encountered and it was as if the structure of their authority and civilization collapsed in such a way that it came down on their heads.

[18]. From here onwards, there is an insertion in the discourse from the Almighty in order to apply what is stated by "those endowed with knowledge" on the addressees at the time of Qur'an's revelation: those who were inebriated by their arrogance will also reach this same fate.

[19]. This is specially stated here because at that time these words referred to God's messenger (sws) and his companions for whom achieving political dominance and authority in this world were essential.

[20]. Here the Almighty has brought the discourse in line with the circumstances of the time of the Qur'an's revelation as He did in verse 28 earlier.

[21]. The actual words are: طَيّبِيْنَ. They occur in parallel to: ظَالِمِيْ أنْفُسِهِمْ.

[22]. I.e., it happens in the way ordained for it.

[23]. This is said because dominance and political authority was essential for the Prophet (sws) and his companions.

[24]. What is said about the hereafter earlier is here brought in conformity with the circumstances of those times. The implication is that if the hereafter does not come, do these people think that those who have been tormented because of treading the path of God shall not be rewarded by Him and God will not question others for their disobedience. What is this decision they have taken? Also evident from this is the essence of migration: not every change of place is migration. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... Migration means that a person persecuted because of his religion is compelled to leave his dear place of residence and seek asylum in some other land. Steadfastness in this cause means even if his life is mercilessly threatened, he is not willing to give up the gift of the true religion of God. Trust means that however adverse the circumstances, he has full confidence in God that he will not be left alone by Him and shall be helped by Him. It is this steadfastness and trust which is his real provision in migration. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 412)

[25]. I.e., from the People of the Book who know the law of God regarding prophethood and messengerhood. They know that this position has always been bestowed on human beings. Never have angels been chosen for this.

[26]. I.e., this reminder has been revealed to him that he may faithfully deliver it to people and they reflect on it so that in its light they are able to understand the realities which God wants to make them understand. The words لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ occur in the verse. The word تُبَيِّنَ here is in precisely the same meaning as the word عَلَّمَ in verse 2 of Surah al-Rahman: عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ. It does not mean "explanation and elucidation," just as in Surah al-Rahman the word عَلَّمَ does not mean to teach and instruct in a detailed way.

[27]. The shadow of everything stretches out on the earth. This state has been called prostration here. It is a symbolic expression of the fact that whether willingly or unwillingly everything is prostrating before God. This is explained ahead. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... It needs to be noted that this prostration of the shadow is always opposite to the sun. If the sun is in the west, the shadow is in the east and vice versa. This is a subtle reference to the fact that a shadow is Abrahamic in nature. It also shuns sun-worship. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 416)

[28]. I.e., they are helpless and feeble – so much so that if any of them shows arrogance before God, then at the very time it shows this arrogance, it can be seen that the whole of its body is prostrating before God. This is because in the sphere it does not have free will, he is not able to violate the law of God in the slightest way.

[29]. Earlier monotheism was substantiated through the sphere ordained by God. Now it is substantiated through God's testimony which has reached people through His prophets and books.

[30]. This is an argument in favour of monotheism based on human nature. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

… This is evidence to the fact that pure human nature only knows of one God. Other deities these people have set up have no place in human nature. Thus whenever a person is struck by a calamity, all these false deities vanish. Only one God remains whose belief is ordained within human nature. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 417)

[31]. I.e., the deities about which whatever they say is without any knowledge.

[32]. This is a mention of the fixed share which these people specifically devote to their deities as vows and offerings.

[33]. The implication is that to suggest daughters for God in itself is great ignorance on their part. However, such is their idiocy that they ascribe to God what they regard with such dislike for their own selves.

[34].If an example is cited to make people understand the attributes and works of God, it should be better than the best because this is what is befitting for Him. It is the death of knowledge and reflection that the relationship of God and His creatures is understood and taught on the basis of sons and daughters.

[35].This refers to the disbelief and polytheism which is under discussion. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

The word ظُلْم actual means to suppress rights. Since polytheism and disbelief are the greatest suppression of rights by which a person suppresses the greatest right of his Lord and also inflicts oppression on his own self, the Qur'an has called polytheism and disbelief ظُلْم. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 417)

[36].They would obviously say this on the basis of their deities which they regarded to be daughters of God.

[37].I.e., guidance with regard to the beginning and mercy with regard to the consequence.

[38].The actual word is: عِبْرَة. It means to reach a reality from another. If a person reflects on this, he will come to know that it is this process which is the key to all his knowledge.

[39].I.e., on the one hand blood is produced and on the other, faeces. Yet from the females of these animals a third thing is also produced which has not the slightest trace of blood or faeces in it. It is absolutely pure and very tasty for those who drink it.

[40].Also evident from this statement is that things which intoxicate are not good. It is a wrong use of dates, grapes and other such fruits when people make drinks from them which inebriate a person and make him lose his senses.

[41].I.e., a great sign of monotheism and the hereafter. This is because each of these objects by their very existence shows that the intention of only one powerful and wise being is operative in the heavens and the earth. Just as He enlivens barren lands from water, in a similar way, He will enliven the dead. This is not the slightest difficult for him. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... The Almighty has placed such variety and diversity in what He has created so that those who can think should think and those who can understand should understand. It is obvious that this world is not dependent on this variety for its existence. It could have been very simple, monotone and in fact without any tone. Yet its creator wanted it to be a reflection and a manifestation of His own attributes so that those who can reflect should reflect and have some idea about the noble attributes of its creator, His unparalleled providence and His perfect singularity from each and every object of it and in their light also realize their obligations and responsibilities. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 417)

[42].This word is used here for the instincts found in human nature which are innately ordained in every creature by birth. It does not refer to the revelation which is sent to messengers of God.

[43].This is a reference to the whole system and methodology according to which honey bees have been working for millions of years. It is indeed an amazing system. While obeying mathematical rules, honey bees make hives of a very high quality. Then in accordance with a formal plan suck juice from the flowers and store it in these hives. Then they produce a very useful and delicious substance called honey. The Qur'an has called this process as "following the trodden paths of their Lord."

[44].The actual word is يَتَفَكَّرُوْنَ. Before it, the words يَسْمَعُوْنَand يَعْقِلُوْنَ are used for this purpose. I.e. hear, use intellect and reflect. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

It is these attributes which are the real substance of humanity and there exists a gradual ascending sequence in them which is based on wisdom.

There are several realities of this universe which are self-evident. No great effort is required to understand them. A reasonable person in the first place understands them by himself and if this is not so, then since his ears are always open to what is logical, as soon as he hears them from some other reasonable person, it takes root in his heart.

The second stage is of يَعْقِلُوْنَ in which reflection and using one's intellect are needed. It is one in which premises are found in a sequence and then inferences are made from them. This stage is higher than the first and its results are also more substantial as far as knowledge is concerned. However, they can be accessed by ordinary intellect. Those who value their intellect and use this favour, are not deprived of its blessings.

The third stage is يَتَفَكَّرُوْنَ. This is the highest one. This is the status of people who continue to reflect on the secrets of the universe and increase their knowledge. This status is occupied by sages. Just as the honey bee through its matchless efforts sucks juice from various flowers and makes honey from it which has nutrition and cure in it, similarly these people also gather the honey of wisdom through their efforts of reflection and deliberation. This honey has remedies for ailments of the heart and intellect. They also remain blissful because of it and others also benefit from it. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 429)

[45].The implication is that all die but all have different times. Some die in childhood, some in adulthood and there are others who are made to reach old age to show that in this world all power and knowledge belong to God. What human beings get are gifts from him. Thus it can be seen that a person who regards himself to be an ultimate repository of knowledge and intellect, he too ultimately becomes devoid of knowledge, intellect and power and becomes dependent on others. All his capabilities return to God Who is their bestower. Thus in reality, it is He Who is knowledgeable and powerful.

[46].This is stated because if the favours given by God are attributed to others and they are thanked for this, then this is an absolute rejection of His favours. This topic is discussed at many places in the Qur'an.

[47].Earlier it was said that they believe in evil. This is its elucidation.

[48].I.e., by regarding God to be analogous to kings, chiefs and leaders they should not ascribe courtiers and nobles to Him without whose mediation no one can access His court or present his pleadings.

[49].I.e., on the one hand is God, the wise and discerning. He reveals His Books for the guidance of mankind and teaches justice and fairness to people. No only this, all His works are based on justice and whatever He does is upright and correct. On the other hand are the deities that these people have set up for themselves which are deaf and dumb. Neither can they hear the calls of these people nor can they respond to them. Nor can they grant any of their wishes. So, with what logic do they regard both to be equal?

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