Surah al-Naml (2/2)

Surah al-Naml (2/2)

وَ کَانَ فِی الۡمَدِیۡنَۃِ تِسۡعَۃُ رَہۡطٍ یُّفۡسِدُوۡنَ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لَا یُصۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۴۸﴾ قَالُوۡا تَقَاسَمُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ لَنُبَیِّتَنَّہٗ وَ اَہۡلَہٗ ثُمَّ لَنَقُوۡلَنَّ لِوَلِیِّہٖ مَا شَہِدۡنَا مَہۡلِکَ اَہۡلِہٖ وَ اِنَّا لَصٰدِقُوۡنَ ﴿۴۹﴾ وَ مَکَرُوۡا مَکۡرًا وَّ مَکَرۡنَا مَکۡرًا وَّ ہُمۡ لَا یَشۡعُرُوۡنَ ﴿۵۰﴾ فَانۡظُرۡ کَیۡفَ کَانَ عَاقِبَۃُ مَکۡرِہِمۡ ۙ اَنَّا دَمَّرۡنٰہُمۡ وَ قَوۡمَہُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿۵۱﴾ فَتِلۡکَ بُیُوۡتُہُمۡ خَاوِیَۃًۢ بِمَا ظَلَمُوۡا ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾ وَ اَنۡجَیۡنَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ کَانُوۡا یَتَّقُوۡنَ ﴿۵۳﴾ There were nine families in his city that would spread disorder in the land and were not ready to any sort of reform.[61] They made a mutual promise by swearing upon God:[62] "We will kill Ṣalih and his people at night and then tell his heir: 'We were not present at the time of his person's death and we are absolutely truthful.'"[63] They schemed and We also chalked out a scheme and they did not even know. Then see the fate of their scheme that We destroyed them and their whole nation. So, these are their houses, ruined[64] because they were unjust to themselves. Indeed, there is a lesson in it for those who want to know.[65] And We saved all those people who had accepted faith [from among them] and feared God. (48-53) وَ لُوۡطًا اِذۡ قَالَ لِقَوۡمِہٖۤ اَتَاۡتُوۡنَ الۡفَاحِشَۃَ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ تُبۡصِرُوۡنَ ﴿۵۴﴾ اَئِنَّکُمۡ لَتَاۡتُوۡنَ الرِّجَالَ شَہۡوَۃً مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ النِّسَآءِ ؕ بَلۡ اَنۡتُمۡ قَوۡمٌ تَجۡہَلُوۡنَ ﴿۵۵﴾ فَمَا کَانَ جَوَابَ قَوۡمِہٖۤ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ قَالُوۡۤا اَخۡرِجُوۡۤا اٰلَ لُوۡطٍ مِّنۡ قَرۡیَتِکُمۡ ۚ اِنَّہُمۡ اُنَاسٌ یَّتَطَہَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۵۶﴾ فَاَنۡجَیۡنٰہُ وَ اَہۡلَہٗۤ اِلَّا امۡرَاَتَہٗ ۫ قَدَّرۡنٰہَا مِنَ الۡغٰبِرِیۡنَ ﴿۵۷﴾ وَ اَمۡطَرۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ مَّطَرًا ۚ فَسَآءَ مَطَرُ الۡمُنۡذَرِیۡنَ ﴿۵۸﴾ And had sent Lot[66] also with this message when he said to his nation: "Do you engage in this shameful act with open eyes? [Alas!] Do you fulfill your desire from men leaving aside women?[67] [In reality, you are totally foolish;] in fact, overwhelmed with frenzy."[68] But the only answer his nation gave was: "Turn out Lot and his people from the settlement; these people think that they are very noble."[69] So, We saved him and his family except his wife. We had counted her among those left behind.[70] And We unleashed on his nation a horrible shower [of stones]. Then how horrible was the rain for those who had been informed.[71] (54-58) قُلِ الۡحَمۡدُ لِلّٰہِ وَ سَلٰمٌ عَلٰی عِبَادِہِ الَّذِیۡنَ اصۡطَفٰی ؕ آٰللّٰہُ خَیۡرٌ اَمَّا یُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۵۹﴾ Tell them [O Prophet!]: "Gratitude is for God alone [Who has shown His splendour in this way] and peace be on His servants who He selected [for the manifestation of His justice]. Is that God better, or these deities of theirs which they associate with Him?"[72] (59) اَمَّنۡ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ وَ اَنۡزَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً ۚ فَاَنۡۢبَتۡنَا بِہٖ حَدَآئِقَ ذَاتَ بَہۡجَۃٍ ۚ مَا کَانَ لَکُمۡ اَنۡ تُنۡۢبِتُوۡا شَجَرَہَا ؕ ءَ اِلٰہٌ مَّعَ اللّٰہِ ؕ بَلۡ ہُمۡ قَوۡمٌ یَّعۡدِلُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۶۰﴾ Are[73] they better or [the Lord!] Who created the heavens and the earth and sent down water for you from the sky; then from it We sprouted beautiful orchards. It was not possible for you to make their trees sprout? [74] Is there any other deity also with God [who has a share in all these tasks]? Certainly not! In fact, it is these people who have deviated from the path of truth. [75] (60) اَمَّنۡ جَعَلَ الۡاَرۡضَ قَرَارًا وَّ جَعَلَ خِلٰلَہَاۤ اَنۡہٰرًا وَّ جَعَلَ لَہَا رَوَاسِیَ وَ جَعَلَ بَیۡنَ الۡبَحۡرَیۡنِ حَاجِزًا ؕ ءَ اِلٰہٌ مَّعَ اللّٰہِ ؕ بَلۡ اَکۡثَرُہُمۡ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۶۱﴾ Are they better or that [Lord] Who made the earth a place of stay[76] and made streams to flow between it and created mountains [to keep it in its orbit] and He placed a barrier between two seas?[77] Is there any other deity with God [who has a share in all these tasks]? Certainly not! In fact, most of their people do not know.[78] (61) اَمَّنۡ یُّجِیۡبُ الۡمُضۡطَرَّ اِذَا دَعَاہُ وَ یَکۡشِفُ السُّوۡٓءَ وَ یَجۡعَلُکُمۡ خُلَفَآءَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ ءَ اِلٰہٌ مَّعَ اللّٰہِ ؕ قَلِیۡلًا مَّا تَذَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۶۲﴾ Are they better or that [Lord] Who listens to the oppressed when he calls Him and relieves him from his grief[79] and [takes away the earlier ones from you and] makes you the heir of the earth?[80] Is there another deity also with God [who has a share in all these tasks]? Seldom do you people receive a reminder. [81] (62) اَمَّنۡ یَّہۡدِیۡکُمۡ فِیۡ ظُلُمٰتِ الۡبَرِّ وَ الۡبَحۡرِ وَ مَنۡ یُّرۡسِلُ الرِّیٰحَ بُشۡرًۢا بَیۡنَ یَدَیۡ رَحۡمَتِہٖ ؕ ءَ اِلٰہٌ مَّعَ اللّٰہِ ؕ تَعٰلَی اللّٰہُ عَمَّا یُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۶۳﴾ Are they better or that [Lord] Who guides you in the darkness of the land and sea?[82] And Who sends winds as glad tidings before His rain of mercy? Is there another deity with God also [who has a share in all these tasks]? In reality, God is exalted from all the things which they associate with Him. (63) اَمَّنۡ یَّبۡدَؤُا الۡخَلۡقَ ثُمَّ یُعِیۡدُہٗ وَ مَنۡ یَّرۡزُقُکُمۡ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ ءَ اِلٰہٌ مَّعَ اللّٰہِ ؕ قُلۡ ہَاتُوۡا بُرۡہَانَکُمۡ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۶۴﴾ Are they better or that [Lord] Who initiates creation; then will do it again[83] and Who provides sustenance to you from the heavens and the earth?[84] Is there another deity also with God [who has a share in all these tasks]? As them: "Bring your argument if you are truthful."[85] (64) قُلۡ لَّا یَعۡلَمُ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ الۡغَیۡبَ اِلَّا اللّٰہُ ؕ وَ مَا یَشۡعُرُوۡنَ اَیَّانَ یُبۡعَثُوۡنَ ﴿۶۵﴾ [They ask the punishment to be hastened.] Tell them: "[These are matters of the unknown and] whoever are in the heavens and earth besides God, they do not know these matters and neither do they know when they will raised to life [after they die]."[86] (65) بَلِ ادّٰرَکَ عِلۡمُہُمۡ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ ۟ بَلۡ ہُمۡ فِیۡ شَکٍّ مِّنۡہَا ۫۟ بَلۡ ہُمۡ مِّنۡہَا عَمُوۡنَ ﴿۶۶﴾ وَ قَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا ءَ اِذَا کُنَّا تُرٰبًا وَّ اٰبَآؤُنَاۤ اَئِنَّا لَمُخۡرَجُوۡنَ ﴿۶۷﴾ لَقَدۡ وُعِدۡنَا ہٰذَا نَحۡنُ وَ اٰبَآؤُنَا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ ۙ اِنۡ ہٰذَاۤ اِلَّاۤ اَسَاطِیۡرُ الۡاَوَّلِیۡنَ ﴿۶۸﴾ [You think that these people do not understand this]? Certainly not! In fact, their knowledge of the Hereafter is inflicted with confusion;[87] in fact, they are in a doubt from it; in fact, they have become blind from it.[88] These disbelievers say: "When we and our forefathers become dust, will we be taken out of the graves? We have been threatened by these words and before us our forefathers too were similarly threatened. Nothing! These are only tales of the ancients." (66-68) قُلۡ سِیۡرُوۡا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ فَانۡظُرُوۡا کَیۡفَ کَانَ عَاقِبَۃُ الۡمُجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿۶۹﴾ Tell them: "[If you do not believe,] just roam about in this land; then see the fate of [those] wrongdoers [who before you would say similar things."[89]] (69) وَ لَا تَحۡزَنۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَ لَا تَکُنۡ فِیۡ ضَیۡقٍ مِّمَّا یَمۡکُرُوۡنَ ﴿۷۰﴾ وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ مَتٰی ہٰذَا الۡوَعۡدُ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۷۱﴾ قُلۡ عَسٰۤی اَنۡ یَّکُوۡنَ رَدِفَ لَکُمۡ بَعۡضُ الَّذِیۡ تَسۡتَعۡجِلُوۡنَ ﴿۷۲﴾ وَ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ لَذُوۡ فَضۡلٍ عَلَی النَّاسِ وَ لٰکِنَّ اَکۡثَرَہُمۡ لَا یَشۡکُرُوۡنَ ﴿۷۳﴾ وَ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ لَیَعۡلَمُ مَا تُکِنُّ صُدُوۡرُہُمۡ وَ مَا یُعۡلِنُوۡنَ ﴿۷۴﴾ وَ مَا مِنۡ غَآئِبَۃٍ فِی السَّمَآءِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ اِلَّا فِیۡ کِتٰبٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿۷۵﴾ Do not grieve for them [O Prophet!] nor fret over the schemes they are plotting.[90] They ask: "If you are truthful, when will this promise be fulfilled?" Tell them: "The [Hereafter] you want to hasten, it is very much possible that some of it is right behind you."[91] [The respite you are enjoying at the moment is for your own benefit.] In reality, your Lord is prone to show mercy to people but most of them are ungrateful. Your Lord definitely knows what their chests hide in themselves and what they reveal. There is no hidden thing in the heavens and the earth which is not written in an open book.[92] (70-75) اِنَّ ہٰذَا الۡقُرۡاٰنَ یَقُصُّ عَلٰی بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ اَکۡثَرَ الَّذِیۡ ہُمۡ فِیۡہِ یَخۡتَلِفُوۡنَ ﴿۷۶﴾ وَ اِنَّہٗ لَہُدًی وَّ رَحۡمَۃٌ لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۷۷﴾ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ یَقۡضِیۡ بَیۡنَہُمۡ بِحُکۡمِہٖ ۚ وَ ہُوَ الۡعَزِیۡزُ الۡعَلِیۡمُ ﴿ۙۚ۷۸﴾ فَتَوَکَّلۡ عَلَی اللّٰہِ ؕ اِنَّکَ عَلَی الۡحَقِّ الۡمُبِیۡنِ ﴿۷۹﴾ [They should not be led astray by what these people say because] definitely this Qur'an is also explaining many things to the Israelites in which they are differing[93] and there is no doubt that it is guidance in entirety and mercy for those who believe.[94] [On the Day of Judgement,] your Lord through His decisive directive will definitely decide between them.[95] He is powerful, very knowledgeable. So, trust God; indeed, you are on absolute truth. (76-79) اِنَّکَ لَا تُسۡمِعُ الۡمَوۡتٰی وَ لَا تُسۡمِعُ الصُّمَّ الدُّعَآءَ اِذَا وَلَّوۡا مُدۡبِرِیۡنَ ﴿۸۰﴾ وَ مَاۤ اَنۡتَ بِہٰدِی الۡعُمۡیِ عَنۡ ضَلٰلَتِہِمۡ ؕ اِنۡ تُسۡمِعُ اِلَّا مَنۡ یُّؤۡمِنُ بِاٰیٰتِنَا فَہُمۡ مُّسۡلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۸۱﴾ In reality, you cannot make the dead hear nor make your call reach the deaf when while turning their backs they are running away nor can you guide the blind out of their error.[96] You can only make those listen who want to profess belief in Our revelations. Then only they will be obedient too.[97] (80-81) وَ اِذَا وَقَعَ الۡقَوۡلُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ اَخۡرَجۡنَا لَہُمۡ دَآبَّۃً مِّنَ الۡاَرۡضِ تُکَلِّمُہُمۡ ۙ اَنَّ النَّاسَ کَانُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا لَا یُوۡقِنُوۡنَ ﴿۸۲﴾ وَ یَوۡمَ نَحۡشُرُ مِنۡ کُلِّ اُمَّۃٍ فَوۡجًا مِّمَّنۡ یُّکَذِّبُ بِاٰیٰتِنَا فَہُمۡ یُوۡزَعُوۡنَ ﴿۸۳﴾ حَتّٰۤی اِذَا جَآءُوۡ قَالَ اَکَذَّبۡتُمۡ بِاٰیٰتِیۡ وَ لَمۡ تُحِیۡطُوۡا بِہَا عِلۡمًا اَمَّا ذَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۸۴﴾ وَ وَقَعَ الۡقَوۡلُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ بِمَا ظَلَمُوۡا فَہُمۡ لَا یَنۡطِقُوۡنَ ﴿۸۵﴾ [At this time O Prophet! you are trying to make them understand, but] when Our word becomes conclusive on them[98] We will bring out for them an animal from the earth who will tell them that people did not believe in Our revelations; [so, now they have come before them in the form of God's wrath.][99] They should remember the day when from each ummah We will gather a whole army of people who had denied Our revelations. Then they will be categorized.[100] Finally, when they come together, God will ask them: "Did you deny My revelations even though your knowledge could not embrace them or speak up: 'what had you been doing?'"[101] So, the word will be fulfilled on them[102] because they had been unjust to their souls; then they will not be able to say anything. (82-85) اَلَمۡ یَرَوۡا اَنَّا جَعَلۡنَا الَّیۡلَ لِیَسۡکُنُوۡا فِیۡہِ وَ النَّہَارَ مُبۡصِرًا ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّقَوۡمٍ یُّؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۸۶﴾ [They ask for signs?] Have they not seen that We have made the night dark so that they can rest in it and made the day radiant so that they may do work in it?[103] In reality, there are a lot of signs in this for those who want to believe.[104] (86) وَ یَوۡمَ یُنۡفَخُ فِی الصُّوۡرِ فَفَزِعَ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَنۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ اِلَّا مَنۡ شَآءَ اللّٰہُ ؕ وَ کُلٌّ اَتَوۡہُ دٰخِرِیۡنَ ﴿۸۷﴾ وَ تَرَی الۡجِبَالَ تَحۡسَبُہَا جَامِدَۃً وَّ ہِیَ تَمُرُّ مَرَّ السَّحَابِ ؕ صُنۡعَ اللّٰہِ الَّذِیۡۤ اَتۡقَنَ کُلَّ شَیۡءٍ ؕ اِنَّہٗ خَبِیۡرٌۢ بِمَا تَفۡعَلُوۡنَ ﴿۸۸﴾ مَنۡ جَآءَ بِالۡحَسَنَۃِ فَلَہٗ خَیۡرٌ مِّنۡہَا ۚ وَ ہُمۡ مِّنۡ فَزَعٍ یَّوۡمَئِذٍ اٰمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۸۹﴾ وَ مَنۡ جَآءَ بِالسَّیِّئَۃِ فَکُبَّتۡ وُجُوۡہُہُمۡ فِی النَّارِ ؕ ہَلۡ تُجۡزَوۡنَ اِلَّا مَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹۰﴾ [People!] Remember the day on which the trumpet is blown so whatever is in the heavens and in the earth all will be gripped by fear except those about whom God wills and all will come before him with heads lowered. You will think that the mountains are firmly fixed whereas they will be flying about like clouds. This will be a marvel of God's creativity[105] Who has made every thing sturdy. Indeed, He knows what you do.[106] They who bring virtue on that day, for them is a better reward than it and on that day they will remain secure from every worry. And they who bring vice will be cast into Hell headlong – you are getting the same return what you have been doing. (87-90) اِنَّمَاۤ اُمِرۡتُ اَنۡ اَعۡبُدَ رَبَّ ہٰذِہِ الۡبَلۡدَۃِ الَّذِیۡ حَرَّمَہَا وَ لَہٗ کُلُّ شَیۡءٍ ۫ وَّ اُمِرۡتُ اَنۡ اَکُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُسۡلِمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۹۱﴾ وَ اَنۡ اَتۡلُوَا الۡقُرۡاٰنَ ۚ فَمَنِ اہۡتَدٰی فَاِنَّمَا یَہۡتَدِیۡ لِنَفۡسِہٖ ۚ وَ مَنۡ ضَلَّ فَقُلۡ اِنَّمَاۤ اَنَا مِنَ الۡمُنۡذِرِیۡنَ ﴿۹۲﴾ وَ قُلِ الۡحَمۡدُ لِلّٰہِ سَیُرِیۡکُمۡ اٰیٰتِہٖ فَتَعۡرِفُوۡنَہَا ؕ وَ مَا رَبُّکَ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹۳﴾ [Tell them O Prophet!:] "I have only been directed to worship the Lord of this city Who has made it sacred[107] and whose authority alone is everything. And I have been directed to remain among His obedient and have been directed to read out this Qur'an to you.[108] Then he who is guided is guided for his own self and he who chooses to go astray will also do it for his own self." So, say: "I am only a warner,"[109] and say: "Gratitude is for God alone. Soon He will show His signs to you and you will recognize[110] them and your Lord is not unaware of whatever you are doing.[111] (91-93) (Translated by Dr Shehzad Saleem) ______________ [61]. The implication is that on the one hand is Ṣalih and a few of his companions and on the other nine factions of miscreants. [62]. The actual words are قَالُوْ تَقَاسَمُوْا بِاللهِ. In my opinion, تَقَاسَمُوْا بِاللهِ are in the capacity of badal (permututative) and have been translated thus. [63]. This scheme was contrived because in tribal life, such killings could start endless wars. It is evident from various narratives that in the case of the Prophet (sws) also, the chiefs of the Quraysh had plotted such a scheme so that his family was not able to point to a single tribe as the perpetrator and it would become impossible for them to demand life for life. [64]. Ie., they are present before them to narrate their exemplary account from which a lesson can be learnt. This has been stated because the caravans of the Quraysh would often pass through these wrecked and ruined areas. [65]. The actual words are: لِقًومٍ يَعْلَمُونَ. In them, the verb expresses intention and has been translated keeping in view this aspect. [66]. He was a nephew of Abraham (sws). His nation lived in the area to the south of Syria in between Iraq and Palestine and which today is called Transjordan. [67]. This interrogative style is meant to express amazement, hate and wonder: why are they committing such a heinous act when they are allowed a very natural act? [68]. Ie., being overwhelmed by emotions, they have turned senseless and silly. [69]. This is the last stage in the decadence of a nation. Once it is reached, evil becomes a requisite of fashion and culture and good becomes something blameworthy. In spite of knowing what purity is, people do not tolerate it among themselves and want to cast out its advocates from their settements so that just as they have become shameless, others too become shameless and there is none to remind them that clothing is something which human beings used to wear. [70]. Ie., has specially demarcated her as one who will meet an evil fate because in spite of being in the house of a messenger she had chosen to be among this lewd nation. This is an expression of the unbiased justice of God. Lot's (sws) wife could not gain anything because of being a prophet's wife. Like Noah's (sws) son and Abraham's (sws) father she met the same fate that was destined for her nation. [71]. Ie., to whom the truth was delivered in a conclusive manner by a messenger of God and now they had no excuse to present. [72]. This verse is a comment on the preceding topic and also a very beautiful digression, which has become an appropriate prelude for the topic ahead. [73]. From here onwards, a sermon on monotheism is delivered. In order to understand its true emphasis, the repetitive style of interrogation adopted in it must be comprehended. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... In such interrogative sentences, the purpose is not to actually pose questions; on the contrary, it is to silence the addressee, to conclusively communicate the truth to him, to reprimand and admonish. The speaker goes on to raise questions to present facts with full force and without waiting for any response from the addressee moves forward. It is as if the addressee at the very outset does not even have anything to say in response. In deference to this forceful presentation, some parts of his discourse are suppressed which the addressee is able to understand himself or should understand. This gap in the discourse is filled by the stress in his words. There are many examples of such suppression in the orations found in classical Arabic. To present them before the Qur'an would be like holding a candle to the sun. Since these styles are not found in Urdu, I have attempted to unfold these suppressions. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 623) [74]. The address in this sentence is direct instead of being indirect. The purpose is to express favour, affection and providence. [75]. Here again the style has become indirect. It is meant to express hate, aversion and sorrow. In the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi, it is as if words are said while turning away the face. [76]. Ie., made it conducive for life in a highly elaborate way and with extra-ordinary correlations based on wisdom so that it can become a place of living for human beings. [77]. This refers to the invisible wall which at the some places has been erected by the Almighty between sweet and sour water. [78]. Here again the style has become indirect to express sorrow. [79]. Ie., has such power that when He decides to help someone all sources found in the universe needed for it are gathered by Him in the blink of an eye and He delivers that person from his grief and difficulty. [80]. This is a reference to the established practice of God in accordance with which a nation becomes prominent, plays its role and then permanently leaves the stage of this world to vacate its place for the next. It is as if nations also follow the law of life and death which we observe among human beings. This obviously is a task in the plane of God which can only be carried out by the creator of the heavens and the earth. [81]. Ie., they neither learn from the signs of God within themselves nor from the history of nations. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: There is a very deep coherence between أَمَّن يُجِيبُ الْمُضْطَرَّ إِذَا دَعَاهُ and وَيَجْعَلُكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ الْأَرْضِ, the two parts of the verse. The implication is that they do not learn a lesson from these difficulties which they face in their lives nor from the rise and fall of nations. So, who can teach those who have such a weak memory? (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 623) [82]. This is a reference to the guidance which human beings acquire from the various signposts found in the earth and from the rising, setting and orbiting of the sun, the moon and the stars. [83]. Ie., will do it again in the way He initiated it. This is a declaration of the obvious consequence of an obvious fact: when no one refutes the creation of this universe, how can there be any doubt in its recreation. [84]. Ie., makes available all those means and resources from which the whole of mankind arranges sustenance for itself. It is not an ordinary arrangement that people should attribute to some demi god or to some blind physical law and become satisfied. [85]. Ie., if they are truthful in the claim that there are some other deities as well who share the divinity of God. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: All this discussion can be briefly summarized: he who does not believe in God should answer the questions cited earlier. And if he believes in God but associates others with Him should present an argument in their favour. The onus of proof nevertheless rests with disbelievers and polytheists. Those who believe in God do not have any responsibility to prove anything. They believe in an obvious reality. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 623) [86]. Ie., neither is the time of the Hereafter known to anyone nor of the punishment which visits a nation after the truth is conclusively delivered to it. The Prophet (sws) is also among these people and hence can only say that if they do not believe they will be visited by a torment; he knows nothing beyond this. [87]. Ie., neither can they blatantly deny nor do they want to believe. Hence, they have been inflicted by a kind of mental confusion. [88]. Here the Qur'an has mentioned the gradual evolution of the ailment that afflicts them. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: It is a fact that the real reason of aversion and indifference to facts is aversion to the Hereafter. Since believing in it entails great responsibilities, human beings run away from it. And since there is no escape route, a person tries to find back-doors. This creates great mental confusion for him. He tries to doubt facts in order to evade them. This unnatural quest afflicts him the with the syndrome of doubt the result of which is that he has to close his eyes to blatant facts and live as a blind person. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 629) [89]. Ie., the 'Ād and the Thamud etc whose accounts were mentioned in the Qur'an at various instances and of which the devastated ruins were present right in the land of Arabia. [90]. An assurance is sounded to the Prophet (sws) here: he should not feel sorrow at their obstinacy and stubbornness nor should he be grieved by their pranks. He should discharge his duty; these people are being seized by God and they have no place to run away from Him. [91]. Ie., the lesser day of judgement which is ever in pursuit of the disbelievers after conclusive communication to them by messengers of God. [92]. The threat and admonition found in these words are not hidden from a student of the Qur'an. The purport is: the Almighty has written all their misdeeds; nothing will remain hidden from Him. What they are asking to be hastened is going to come precisely to reveal their accounts to them; hence they should think about what they are asking to hasten. [93]. This is a reference to the differences the Israelites had regarding certain facts about the messengerhood of Muhammad (sws). [94]. This is because as soon as they will believe in it, it will lead them away from the labyrinth of differences to the straight path and make them worthy of God's mercy both in this world and in the next. [95]. Ie., if they do not accept God's verdict here, they will have to listen to the same verdict in the Hereafter and at that time none will have a chance to speak. [96]. The preposition عَنْ occurs with هَادِي. This shows there exists here another verb that collocates with this preposition. The translation has been done keeping in view this aspect. [97]. This is a reference to the established practice of God regarding providing guidance to people: only those receive guidance who are ready to welcome it while disregarding all biases; those who run away from it becoming blind and deaf to it are deprived of this favour. [98]. Ie., when the truth will have been communicated and the time of the verdict arrives. [99]. Ie., it will make evident these facts by its existence. The word تُكَلِّمُهُمْ occurs to convey this meaning. It occurs here in the same meaning as in verse 35 of Surah al-Rum. This will happen because those who are not prepared to listen to the last messenger of God should then only be borne witness to by animals. However, this never happened because most of the Quraysh professed faith in Muhammad (sws). It is evident from various narratives that a similar situation will be created for people near the end of time, and an animal will be taken out from the earth (دَآبَةُ الاَرْضِ) to stand before them. [100]. Ie., each group will be categorized with respect to its crimes and their extent. [101]. The implication is that there would have been some logic in their attitude if all the secrets of the universe had been unveiled and then they had denied them. On the contrary, they have tried to raze down an edifice by throwing pebbles at it. There is also a great admonition in this for the scientists of current times. They are showing a similar audacity after they have discovered some laws of matter. Whereas a great universe that extends over distances of many light years still offers a huge world for their study. [102]. Ie., the verdict of God will be delivered to cast them into Hell. [103]. In the first part of the sentence مُظْلِمًا and in the second part لِتًعْلَمُوْا or words to this effect are suppressed in accordance with linguistic principles. They have been expressed in the translation. The implication is that if not anything else people should only reflect on the alternation of day and night: very apparent in it is such wisdom, meaningfulness and planning. At the same time, both these are parables of life and death as well. People should see how punctually they are reminding them of the Day of Judgement. Does any doubt remain even after this about resurrection and the hereafter? [104]. It is evident from the style of the verse that the verb here expresses intention. [105]. The actual words are: صُنۡعَ اللّٰہِ الَّذِیۡۤ اَتۡقَنَ کُلَّ شَیۡءٍ ۚ. This expression is similar to وَعْدَ اللّٰہِ and صِبْغَةِ اللّٰہِ. This style is adopted in Arabic when the purpose is to direct attention towards something specially. [106]. Thus will definitely give its reward and punishment. The succeeding verses provide details. [107]. At the end of the surah, the Quraysh are reminded in a very decisive way that the Prophet (sws) has been sent for the same purpose for which God had directed their forefather Abraham (sws) to make this city a global centre of monotheism. Thus they must uphold this belief in both worship and obedience and the master of this city has directed the Prophet (sws) precisely towards this. [108]. Ie., through the Qur'an the Prophet (sws) should call them to the belief of monotheism which he has adopted and explained its requisites to them. [109]. Ie., the only responsibility of the Prophet (sws) is to remind people and he is discharging this responsibility and is not concerned with any of what these people are demanding. [110]. Ie., they will get to know that these are the same signs about which the Prophet (sws) had warned them. Thus it is known that all these signs manifested themselves after migration and the people saw with their very eyes how true his claims were. [111]. Ie., when He is not unaware, then they should be warned that He will definitely call them to account. ____________

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