Surah al-Nur (1/2)

Surah al-Nur (1/2)


بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیْمِ In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful. سُوۡرَۃٌ اَنۡزَلۡنٰہَا وَ فَرَضۡنٰہَا وَ اَنۡزَلۡنَا فِیۡہَاۤ اٰیٰتٍۭ بَیِّنٰتٍ لَّعَلَّکُمۡ تَذَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۱﴾ This is a grand surah[1] that We have revealed[2] and have made its directives mandatory[3] [upon you] and have also revealed very clear admonitions in it[4] so that you take heed. (1) اَلزَّانِیَۃُ وَ الزَّانِیۡ فَاجۡلِدُوۡا کُلَّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنۡہُمَا مِائَۃَ جَلۡدَۃٍ ۪ وَّ لَا تَاۡخُذۡکُمۡ بِہِمَا رَاۡفَۃٌ فِیۡ دِیۡنِ اللّٰہِ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ تُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ ۚ وَ لۡیَشۡہَدۡ عَذَابَہُمَا طَآئِفَۃٌ مِّنَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۲﴾ A man or a woman guilty of fornication, flog each of them with a hundred lashes[5] [if their crime is proven], and in [the implementation of] this law of God any feeling of sympathy with them should not arise in you if you in reality believe in God and in the Hereafter.[6] And at the time of their punishment a group of Muslims should also be present there.[7] (2) اَلزَّانِیۡ لَا یَنۡکِحُ اِلَّا زَانِیَۃً اَوۡ مُشۡرِکَۃً ۫ وَّ الزَّانِیَۃُ لَا یَنۡکِحُہَاۤ اِلَّا زَانٍ اَوۡ مُشۡرِکٌ ۚ وَ حُرِّمَ ذٰلِکَ عَلَی الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۳﴾ [After this punishment,] this man guilty of fornication[8] can only marry a woman guilty of fornication or an idolatress. And this woman guilty of fornication will only be wedded to a man guilty of fornication or by an idolater. This has been prohibited to Muslims.[9] (3) وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَرۡمُوۡنَ الۡمُحۡصَنٰتِ ثُمَّ لَمۡ یَاۡتُوۡا بِاَرۡبَعَۃِ شُہَدَآءَ فَاجۡلِدُوۡہُمۡ ثَمٰنِیۡنَ جَلۡدَۃً وَّ لَا تَقۡبَلُوۡا لَہُمۡ شَہَادَۃً اَبَدًا ۚ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡفٰسِقُوۡنَ ۙ﴿۴﴾ اِلَّا الَّذِیۡنَ تَابُوۡا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ ذٰلِکَ وَ اَصۡلَحُوۡا ۚ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۵﴾ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَرۡمُوۡنَ اَزۡوَاجَہُمۡ وَ لَمۡ یَکُنۡ لَّہُمۡ شُہَدَآءُ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡفُسُہُمۡ فَشَہَادَۃُ اَحَدِہِمۡ اَرۡبَعُ شَہٰدٰتٍۭ بِاللّٰہِ ۙ اِنَّہٗ لَمِنَ الصّٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۶﴾ وَ الۡخَامِسَۃُ اَنَّ لَعۡنَتَ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡہِ اِنۡ کَانَ مِنَ الۡکٰذِبِیۡنَ ﴿۷﴾ وَ یَدۡرَؤُا عَنۡہَا الۡعَذَابَ اَنۡ تَشۡہَدَ اَرۡبَعَ شَہٰدٰتٍۭ بِاللّٰہِ ۙ اِنَّہٗ لَمِنَ الۡکٰذِبِیۡنَ ۙ﴿۸﴾ وَ الۡخَامِسَۃَ اَنَّ غَضَبَ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡہَاۤ اِنۡ کَانَ مِنَ الصّٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۹﴾ وَ لَوۡ لَا فَضۡلُ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ رَحۡمَتُہٗ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ تَوَّابٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۰﴾ And those who accuse chaste women [of fornication,][10] then do not bring four witnesses [as evidence to it], flog them with eighty lashes and never accept their testimony in future[11] and it is these people who are defiant. However, those who repent and reform after this, they will not be considered defiant before God because God is gracious; His mercy is eternal. But they who accuse their wives and have no other witness except themselves then the evidence of each is that he should swear four times by God that he is truthful and the fifth time he should say that may the curse of God be on him if he lying. [After this,] the punishment[12] can be averted from the woman only [when in return] she also swears four times by God that this person is a liar and the fifth time she should say that may the wrath of God come upon her if he is truthful [in his accusation. Believers!] Had not God's mercy and blessings been upon you and had it not been that God is generous in accepting repentance and wise, then the attitude you had adopted would have invited the wrath of God instead of being given these directives.[13] (4-10) اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ جَآءُوۡ بِالۡاِفۡکِ عُصۡبَۃٌ مِّنۡکُمۡ ؕ لَا تَحۡسَبُوۡہُ شَرًّا لَّکُمۡ ؕ بَلۡ ہُوَ خَیۡرٌ لَّکُمۡ ؕ لِکُلِّ امۡرِیًٔ مِّنۡہُمۡ مَّا اکۡتَسَبَ مِنَ الۡاِثۡمِ ۚ وَ الَّذِیۡ تَوَلّٰی کِبۡرَہٗ مِنۡہُمۡ لَہٗ عَذَابٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۱﴾ Undoubtedly, those who have fabricated this slander[1] are a group among you.[2] Do not think this to be a misfortune for you; it is in fact better for you.[3] The sin each of them has earned will be placed in his account and for [the originator of this mischief] who has the greatest share in it[4] from among them there is great torment. (11) لَوۡ لَاۤ اِذۡ سَمِعۡتُمُوۡہُ ظَنَّ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ وَ الۡمُؤۡمِنٰتُ بِاَنۡفُسِہِمۡ خَیۡرًا ۙ وَّ قَالُوۡا ہٰذَاۤ اِفۡکٌ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۱۲﴾ When you people heard this, why did not believing men and believing women think graciously in favour of their people and why did they not say: "This is an open slander."[18] (12) لَوۡ لَا جَآءُوۡ عَلَیۡہِ بِاَرۡبَعَۃِ شُہَدَآءَ ۚ فَاِذۡ لَمۡ یَاۡتُوۡا بِالشُّہَدَآءِ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ ہُمُ الۡکٰذِبُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳﴾ Why did not these [accusers] bring forth four witnesses to substantiate their accusation?[19] Then, when they did not bring witnesses, then it is they who are liars in the sight of God.[20] (13) وَ لَوۡ لَا فَضۡلُ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ رَحۡمَتُہٗ فِی الدُّنۡیَا وَ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ لَمَسَّکُمۡ فِیۡ مَاۤ اَفَضۡتُمۡ فِیۡہِ عَذَابٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿ۚۖ۱۴﴾اِذۡ تَلَقَّوۡنَہٗ بِاَلۡسِنَتِکُمۡ وَ تَقُوۡلُوۡنَ بِاَفۡوَاہِکُمۡ مَّا لَیۡسَ لَکُمۡ بِہٖ عِلۡمٌ وَّ تَحۡسَبُوۡنَہٗ ہَیِّنًا ٭ۖ وَّ ہُوَ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۵﴾ وَ لَوۡ لَاۤ اِذۡ سَمِعۡتُمُوۡہُ قُلۡتُمۡ مَّا یَکُوۡنُ لَنَاۤ اَنۡ نَّتَکَلَّمَ بِہٰذَا ٭ۖ سُبۡحٰنَکَ ہٰذَا بُہۡتَانٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۶﴾ But for God's mercy on you [Muslims] in this world and in the Hereafter, some big torment would have visited you because of the path you have adopted. Remember when you were continuously spreading it with your tongues[21] and saying with your mouths which you had no knowledge of. You considered this to be something ordinary; yet it was something very grave to God. Why did not you say as soon as you heard it: "It is not befitting for us to utter such words. God forbid, this is a great slander." (14-16) یَعِظُکُمُ اللّٰہُ اَنۡ تَعُوۡدُوۡا لِمِثۡلِہٖۤ اَبَدًا اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۱۷﴾ وَ یُبَیِّنُ اللّٰہُ لَکُمُ الۡاٰیٰتِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۸﴾ God counsels you that if you are believers you must not do this again.[22] God profoundly explains His revelations for you and God is all-knowing and wise.[23] (17-18) اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یُحِبُّوۡنَ اَنۡ تَشِیۡعَ الۡفَاحِشَۃُ فِی الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ ۙ فِی الدُّنۡیَا وَ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَعۡلَمُ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۹﴾ وَ لَوۡ لَا فَضۡلُ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ رَحۡمَتُہٗ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ رَءُوۡفٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۰﴾ Indeed, those who want lewdness to spread among Muslims,[24] for them is a painful torment in this world[25] and in the Hereafter too. God knows all these people, but you do not know. In reality, were God's grace and mercy not upon you, and it was not the case that God is very gracious and ever-merciful, a great calamity would have struck you because of this sin.[26] (19-20) یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَتَّبِعُوۡا خُطُوٰتِ الشَّیۡطٰنِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّتَّبِعۡ خُطُوٰتِ الشَّیۡطٰنِ فَاِنَّہٗ یَاۡمُرُ بِالۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَ الۡمُنۡکَرِ ؕ وَ لَوۡ لَا فَضۡلُ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ رَحۡمَتُہٗ مَا زَکٰی مِنۡکُمۡ مِّنۡ اَحَدٍ اَبَدًا ۙ وَّ لٰکِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُزَکِّیۡ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ سَمِیۡعٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۱﴾ Believers! Do not follow the footsteps of Satan[27] and [remember that] he who follows the footsteps of Satan will only ruin himself because he only entices [people to] lewdness and evil. [You accuse others and regard your own selves to be very pure?] In reality, were God's grace and mercy not upon you, none of you could have ever become pure. However, it is God Who purifies whomsoever He wishes [according to His law][28] and God hears and knows all.[29] (21) وَ لَا یَاۡتَلِ اُولُوا الۡفَضۡلِ مِنۡکُمۡ وَ السَّعَۃِ اَنۡ یُّؤۡتُوۡۤا اُولِی الۡقُرۡبٰی وَ الۡمَسٰکِیۡنَ وَ الۡمُہٰجِرِیۡنَ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ۪ۖ وَ لۡیَعۡفُوۡا وَ لۡیَصۡفَحُوۡا ؕ اَلَا تُحِبُّوۡنَ اَنۡ یَّغۡفِرَ اللّٰہُ لَکُمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۲﴾ Those among you who are affluent and who have been given extensively[30] [while seeing someone entangled in this matter] should not swear that now they will not spend on the kindred, the needy and those who migrate for the cause of God.[31] [No; in fact,] they should forgive and forgo. Do you not want God to forgive you? Indeed, God is forgiving, ever-merciful.[32] (22) اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یَرۡمُوۡنَ الۡمُحۡصَنٰتِ الۡغٰفِلٰتِ الۡمُؤۡمِنٰتِ لُعِنُوۡا فِی الدُّنۡیَا وَ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ ۪ وَ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿ۙ۲۳﴾ یَّوۡمَ تَشۡہَدُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ اَلۡسِنَتُہُمۡ وَ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ وَ اَرۡجُلُہُمۡ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۲۴﴾یَوۡمَئِذٍ یُّوَفِّیۡہِمُ اللّٰہُ دِیۡنَہُمُ الۡحَقَّ وَ یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ ہُوَ الۡحَقُّ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿۲۵﴾ Those who accuse[33] chaste and decent[34] believing women stand cursed both in this world and in the Hereafter[35] and for them is a great punishment. On the Day, when their tongues, hands and feet will bear witness against them in favour of their deeds. The retribution they deserve, on that Day God will give it to them in full and they will know that only God is the truth and He reveals all truths. (23-25) اَلۡخَبِیۡثٰتُ لِلۡخَبِیۡثِیۡنَ وَ الۡخَبِیۡثُوۡنَ لِلۡخَبِیۡثٰتِ ۚ وَ الطَّیِّبٰتُ لِلطَّیِّبِیۡنَ وَ الطَّیِّبُوۡنَ لِلطَّیِّبٰتِ ۚ اُولٰٓئِکَ مُبَرَّءُوۡنَ مِمَّا یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ ؕ لَہُمۡ مَّغۡفِرَۃٌ وَّ رِزۡقٌ کَرِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۶﴾ On that Day, evil women will be for evil men and evil men will be for evil women. Similarly, pure women will be for pure men and pure men will be for pure women.[36] They will be acquitted from the evil things these people say [about them]. For them, is forgiveness and sustenance of honour there.[37] (26) یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَدۡخُلُوۡا بُیُوۡتًا غَیۡرَ بُیُوۡتِکُمۡ حَتّٰی تَسۡتَاۡنِسُوۡا وَ تُسَلِّمُوۡا عَلٰۤی اَہۡلِہَا ؕ ذٰلِکُمۡ خَیۡرٌ لَّکُمۡ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَذَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۲۷﴾ فَاِنۡ لَّمۡ تَجِدُوۡا فِیۡہَاۤ اَحَدًا فَلَا تَدۡخُلُوۡہَا حَتّٰی یُؤۡذَنَ لَکُمۡ ۚ وَ اِنۡ قِیۡلَ لَکُمُ ارۡجِعُوۡا فَارۡجِعُوۡا ہُوَ اَزۡکٰی لَکُمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۸﴾ لَیۡسَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ جُنَاحٌ اَنۡ تَدۡخُلُوۡا بُیُوۡتًا غَیۡرَ مَسۡکُوۡنَۃٍ فِیۡہَا مَتَاعٌ لَّکُمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَعۡلَمُ مَا تُبۡدُوۡنَ وَ مَا تَکۡتُمُوۡنَ ﴿۲۹﴾ Believers! [To attain this very purity] enter not the houses other than your own until you have introduced yourselves and wished peace to those in them.[38] It is this way which is better for you so that you may be heedful.[39] Then if you find no one there, enter them not until permission is given to you and if you are asked to go back, return.[40] It is this way which is purer for you and [remember that] God is well aware of all that you do.[41] It is however no sin for you to enter non-residential places[42] in which there is benefit for you. God has knowledge of what you reveal and what you conceal. (27-29) قُلۡ لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ یَغُضُّوۡا مِنۡ اَبۡصَارِہِمۡ وَ یَحۡفَظُوۡا فُرُوۡجَہُمۡ ؕ ذٰلِکَ اَزۡکٰی لَہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ خَبِیۡرٌۢ بِمَا یَصۡنَعُوۡنَ ﴿۳۰﴾ وَ قُلۡ لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنٰتِ یَغۡضُضۡنَ مِنۡ اَبۡصَارِہِنَّ وَ یَحۡفَظۡنَ فُرُوۡجَہُنَّ وَ لَا یُبۡدِیۡنَ زِیۡنَتَہُنَّ اِلَّا مَا ظَہَرَ مِنۡہَا وَ لۡیَضۡرِبۡنَ بِخُمُرِہِنَّ عَلٰی جُیُوۡبِہِنَّ ۪ وَ لَا یُبۡدِیۡنَ زِیۡنَتَہُنَّ اِلَّا لِبُعُوۡلَتِہِنَّ اَوۡ اٰبَآئِہِنَّ اَوۡ اٰبَآءِ بُعُوۡلَتِہِنَّ اَوۡ اَبۡنَآئِہِنَّ اَوۡ اَبۡنَآءِ بُعُوۡلَتِہِنَّ اَوۡ اِخۡوَانِہِنَّ اَوۡ بَنِیۡۤ اِخۡوَانِہِنَّ اَوۡ بَنِیۡۤ اَخَوٰتِہِنَّ اَوۡ نِسَآئِہِنَّ اَوۡ مَا مَلَکَتۡ اَیۡمَانُہُنَّ اَوِ التّٰبِعِیۡنَ غَیۡرِ اُولِی الۡاِرۡبَۃِ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ اَوِ الطِّفۡلِ الَّذِیۡنَ لَمۡ یَظۡہَرُوۡا عَلٰی عَوۡرٰتِ النِّسَآءِ ۪ وَ لَا یَضۡرِبۡنَ بِاَرۡجُلِہِنَّ لِیُعۡلَمَ مَا یُخۡفِیۡنَ مِنۡ زِیۡنَتِہِنَّ ؕ وَ تُوۡبُوۡۤا اِلَی اللّٰہِ جَمِیۡعًا اَیُّہَ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۳۱﴾ [O Prophet!] Tell those who believe in you to restrain their eyes[43] and guard their private parts[44] [if there are women present in these houses]. This is purer for them. Indeed, God is well aware of what they do. And tell believing women to restrain their eyes and to guard their private parts and to display of their embellishments[45] only those which are normally revealed[46] and for this they should draw their coverings over their chest and necklines.[47] And they should not reveal their embellishments[48] to anyone except their husbands or their fathers or their husbands' fathers[49] or their sons or their husbands' sons or their brothers or their brothers' sons or their sisters' sons[50] or their women of acquaintance[51] or their slaves[52] or the subservient male servants who do not feel attraction for women[53] or children who have no awareness of the hidden aspects of women. And they should not stamp their feet so that attention is drawn to their hidden ornaments. Believers! Turn to God in repentance [on the sins committed till now] that you may prosper. (30-31) وَ اَنۡکِحُوا الۡاَیَامٰی مِنۡکُمۡ وَ الصّٰلِحِیۡنَ مِنۡ عِبَادِکُمۡ وَ اِمَآئِکُمۡ ؕ اِنۡ یَّکُوۡنُوۡا فُقَرَآءَ یُغۡنِہِمُ اللّٰہُ مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۳۲﴾ وَ لۡیَسۡتَعۡفِفِ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یَجِدُوۡنَ نِکَاحًا حَتّٰی یُغۡنِیَہُمُ اللّٰہُ مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَبۡتَغُوۡنَ الۡکِتٰبَ مِمَّا مَلَکَتۡ اَیۡمَانُکُمۡ فَکَاتِبُوۡہُمۡ اِنۡ عَلِمۡتُمۡ فِیۡہِمۡ خَیۡرًا ٭ۖ وَّ اٰتُوۡہُمۡ مِّنۡ مَّالِ اللّٰہِ الَّذِیۡۤ اٰتٰىکُمۡ ؕ وَ لَا تُکۡرِہُوۡا فَتَیٰتِکُمۡ عَلَی الۡبِغَآءِ اِنۡ اَرَدۡنَ تَحَصُّنًا لِّتَبۡتَغُوۡا عَرَضَ الۡحَیٰوۃِ الدُّنۡیَا ؕ وَ مَنۡ یُّکۡرِہۡہُّنَّ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ اِکۡرَاہِہِنَّ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۳۳﴾ وَ لَقَدۡ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکُمۡ اٰیٰتٍ مُّبَیِّنٰتٍ وَّ مَثَلًا مِّنَ الَّذِیۡنَ خَلَوۡا مِنۡ قَبۡلِکُمۡ وَ مَوۡعِظَۃً لِّلۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿۳۴﴾ [Similarly, it is also essential that] you should wed[54] those among you who are single[55] and those among your slave-men and slave-women who are able to.[56] If they are poor, God will make them rich out of His grace.[57] God has great capacity and has knowledge of everything. And let those who find not an opportunity for marriage[58] restrain themselves[59] until God gives them means out of His grace.[60] And those of your slaves ask for mukatabat,[61] give it to them if you find good in them [so that they too advance in purity[62]] and [for this, if there is a need, O Muslims!] give them out of the wealth which God has given to you.[63] And do not force your slave-women[64] to prostitution merely to obtain some benefit for your worldly life when they want to remain chaste. And he who forces them will bear its sin because after this compulsion on them God is most gracious and ever-merciful [to them].[65] We have revealed to you [O Prophet!] these verses which thoroughly explain and the parable of those also who were before you[66] and counsel for those also who fear God. (33-34) اَللّٰہُ نُوۡرُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ مَثَلُ نُوۡرِہٖ کَمِشۡکٰوۃٍ فِیۡہَا مِصۡبَاحٌ ؕ اَلۡمِصۡبَاحُ فِیۡ زُجَاجَۃٍ ؕ اَلزُّجَاجَۃُ کَاَنَّہَا کَوۡکَبٌ دُرِّیٌّ یُّوۡقَدُ مِنۡ شَجَرَۃٍ مُّبٰرَکَۃٍ زَیۡتُوۡنَۃٍ لَّا شَرۡقِیَّۃٍ وَّ لَا غَرۡبِیَّۃٍ ۙ یَّکَادُ زَیۡتُہَا یُضِیۡٓءُ وَ لَوۡ لَمۡ تَمۡسَسۡہُ نَارٌ ؕ نُوۡرٌ عَلٰی نُوۡرٍ ؕ یَہۡدِی اللّٰہُ لِنُوۡرِہٖ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ یَضۡرِبُ اللّٰہُ الۡاَمۡثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿ۙ۳۵﴾ فِیۡ بُیُوۡتٍ اَذِنَ اللّٰہُ اَنۡ تُرۡفَعَ وَ یُذۡکَرَ فِیۡہَا اسۡمُہٗ ۙ یُسَبِّحُ لَہٗ فِیۡہَا بِالۡغُدُوِّ وَ الۡاٰصَالِ ﴿ۙ۳۶﴾ رِجَالٌ ۙ لَّا تُلۡہِیۡہِمۡ تِجَارَۃٌ وَّ لَا بَیۡعٌ عَنۡ ذِکۡرِ اللّٰہِ وَ اِقَامِ الصَّلٰوۃِ وَ اِیۡتَآءِ الزَّکٰوۃِ ۪ۙ یَخَافُوۡنَ یَوۡمًا تَتَقَلَّبُ فِیۡہِ الۡقُلُوۡبُ وَ الۡاَبۡصَارُ ﴿٭ۙ۳۷﴾ لِیَجۡزِیَہُمُ اللّٰہُ اَحۡسَنَ مَا عَمِلُوۡا وَ یَزِیۡدَہُمۡ مِّنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَرۡزُقُ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ بِغَیۡرِ حِسَابٍ ﴿۳۸﴾ [The parable is that] God is the light of the heavens and the earth.[67] [In the heart of a person,] the example of his light is as if there is a niche which has a lamp.[68] The lamp is in crystal. The crystal is such as if it is a shining star.[69] It is lit up by oil that comes from a lush tree which is neither eastern nor western.[70] Its oil is [so transparent] as if it will light up even without fire touching it.[71] Light upon light.[72] God grants the light of His guidance to whomsoever He wills.[73] God mentions these parables to guide people and God is aware of everything[74] – [These niches] are found in houses about which God has directed that they be built[75] and His name be mentioned in them.[76] In it those, upright people glorify Him morning and evening whom neither trade nor sale purchase divert from showing diligence in the prayer and in paying zakah.[77] They keep fearing the day on which hearts will be in anguish and eyes will remain tilted to one side so that God gives them the best reward of their deeds[78] and gives them more out of His grace. God will give immeasurably to whomsoever He desires. (35-38) وَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اَعۡمَالُہُمۡ کَسَرَابٍۭ بِقِیۡعَۃٍ یَّحۡسَبُہُ الظَّمۡاٰنُ مَآءً ؕ حَتّٰۤی اِذَا جَآءَہٗ لَمۡ یَجِدۡہُ شَیۡئًا وَّ وَجَدَ اللّٰہَ عِنۡدَہٗ فَوَفّٰىہُ حِسَابَہٗ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ سَرِیۡعُ الۡحِسَابِ ﴿ۙ۳۹﴾ اَوۡ کَظُلُمٰتٍ فِیۡ بَحۡرٍ لُّجِّیٍّ یَّغۡشٰہُ مَوۡجٌ مِّنۡ فَوۡقِہٖ مَوۡجٌ مِّنۡ فَوۡقِہٖ سَحَابٌ ؕ ظُلُمٰتٌۢ بَعۡضُہَا فَوۡقَ بَعۡضٍ ؕ اِذَاۤ اَخۡرَجَ یَدَہٗ لَمۡ یَکَدۡ یَرٰىہَا ؕ وَ مَنۡ لَّمۡ یَجۡعَلِ اللّٰہُ لَہٗ نُوۡرًا فَمَا لَہٗ مِنۡ نُّوۡرٍ ﴿۴۰﴾ On the other hand, people who deny this light,[79] the parable of their deeds is as if there is a mirage in a desolate desert which the thirsty thinks to be water until when he comes close to it, he finds it to be nothing. However, he will find God there.[80] Then He will take His account in full and it does not take long for God to take account. Or like expansive darkness in a deep sea such that it is being covered by a wave upon wave; clouds overspread from the top. [In short,] layers of darkness one top of the other. When a person takes out his hand, he is not even able to see it.[81] In reality, he whom God does not give light, for him there is no light. (39-40) اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یُسَبِّحُ لَہٗ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ الطَّیۡرُ صٰٓفّٰتٍ ؕ کُلٌّ قَدۡ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَہٗ وَ تَسۡبِیۡحَہٗ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِمَا یَفۡعَلُوۡنَ ﴿۴۱﴾ وَ لِلّٰہِ مُلۡکُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ۚ وَ اِلَی اللّٰہِ الۡمَصِیۡرُ ﴿۴۲﴾ Have you not seen that whatever is in the heavens and the earth all glorify God and the birds too with outstretched wings?[82] Each knows well its prayer and glorification. [If you do not know, then what, but] God knows whatever they do. The sovereignty of the heavens and the earth belongs to God and to God [everyone] has to return.[83] (41-42) اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یُزۡجِیۡ سَحَابًا ثُمَّ یُؤَلِّفُ بَیۡنَہٗ ثُمَّ یَجۡعَلُہٗ رُکَامًا فَتَرَی الۡوَدۡقَ یَخۡرُجُ مِنۡ خِلٰلِہٖ ۚ وَ یُنَزِّلُ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مِنۡ جِبَالٍ فِیۡہَا مِنۡۢ بَرَدٍ فَیُصِیۡبُ بِہٖ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ وَ یَصۡرِفُہٗ عَنۡ مَّنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ یَکَادُ سَنَا بَرۡقِہٖ یَذۡہَبُ بِالۡاَبۡصَارِ ﴿ؕ۴۳﴾ یُقَلِّبُ اللّٰہُ الَّیۡلَ وَ النَّہَارَ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَعِبۡرَۃً لِّاُولِی الۡاَبۡصَارِ ﴿۴۴﴾ Have[84] you not seen that God brings forth the clouds, then joins [their independent pieces] together; after that makes them into layers? Then you see that from within it the rain [of benevolence] emerges [for you] and [in a similar way when He wants to warn] He unleashes from the sky – from the mountains of [hail] in it[85] – hail. Then He makes them fall on whomsoever He likes and turns them away from whomsoever He wants.[86] Such is the flash of its lightning as if it will snatch away the eyes. The alternation of day and night is also being done by God. In reality, there is a great lesson in it for those who have sight.[87] (43-44) وَ اللّٰہُ خَلَقَ کُلَّ دَآبَّۃٍ مِّنۡ مَّآءٍ ۚ فَمِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ یَّمۡشِیۡ عَلٰی بَطۡنِہٖ ۚ وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ یَّمۡشِیۡ عَلٰی رِجۡلَیۡنِ ۚ وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ یَّمۡشِیۡ عَلٰۤی اَرۡبَعٍ ؕ یَخۡلُقُ اللّٰہُ مَا یَشَآءُ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۴۵﴾ It is God Who has created every living being from water. Then [you see that] some of them creep on their bellies, some of them walk on two feet and some on four feet.[88] God creates whatever He intends. Indeed, God has power over all things. (45) لَقَدۡ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اٰیٰتٍ مُّبَیِّنٰتٍ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَہۡدِیۡ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ اِلٰی صِرَاطٍ مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۴۶﴾ We have sent down these revelations which explain [so that people may understand. Moreover,] it is God Who guides whomsoever He wills to the straight path [according to His law]. (46) وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ اٰمَنَّا بِاللّٰہِ وَ بِالرَّسُوۡلِ وَ اَطَعۡنَا ثُمَّ یَتَوَلّٰی فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَعۡدِ ذٰلِکَ ؕ وَ مَاۤ اُولٰٓئِکَ بِالۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۴۷﴾ وَ اِذَا دُعُوۡۤا اِلَی اللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ لِیَحۡکُمَ بَیۡنَہُمۡ اِذَا فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ مُّعۡرِضُوۡنَ ﴿۴۸﴾ وَ اِنۡ یَّکُنۡ لَّہُمُ الۡحَقُّ یَاۡتُوۡۤا اِلَیۡہِ مُذۡعِنِیۡنَ ﴿ؕ۴۹﴾ اَفِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ مَّرَضٌ اَمِ ارۡتَابُوۡۤا اَمۡ یَخَافُوۡنَ اَنۡ یَّحِیۡفَ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗ ؕ بَلۡ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۵۰﴾ اِنَّمَا کَانَ قَوۡلَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ اِذَا دُعُوۡۤا اِلَی اللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ لِیَحۡکُمَ بَیۡنَہُمۡ اَنۡ یَّقُوۡلُوۡا سَمِعۡنَا وَ اَطَعۡنَا ؕ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۵۱﴾ وَ مَنۡ یُّطِعِ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ وَ یَخۡشَ اللّٰہَ وَ یَتَّقۡہِ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡفَآئِزُوۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾ [They do not understand.] They say: "We have professed faith in God and in His Messenger and We have accepted [their] obedience." Then one group among them turns away after this. In reality, these people are not believers. When they are called to God and His Messenger so that the Messenger may resolve [their mutual differences,] then one of their groups turns away right at that moment.[89] However, if they are able to obtain the truth, they come to the messenger very obediently. Is there the ailment [of hypocrisy] in their hearts or are they inflicted with doubt[90] or do they fear that God and His Messenger will be unjust to them? Certainly not! In fact, these people are themselves unjust.[91] Such are the words of the believers that when they are called to God and His Messenger so that the Messenger may decide among them, they say: "We listened and we obeyed." In reality, it is these people who will prosper. [Remember that] those who obey God and His messenger and fear God and abide by His limits,[92] it is they who will be successful. (47-52) وَ اَقۡسَمُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ جَہۡدَ اَیۡمَانِہِمۡ لَئِنۡ اَمَرۡتَہُمۡ لَیَخۡرُجُنَّ ؕ قُلۡ لَّا تُقۡسِمُوۡا ۚ طَاعَۃٌ مَّعۡرُوۡفَۃٌ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ خَبِیۡرٌۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ﴿۵۳﴾ قُلۡ اَطِیۡعُوا اللّٰہَ وَ اَطِیۡعُوا الرَّسُوۡلَ ۚ فَاِنۡ تَوَلَّوۡا فَاِنَّمَا عَلَیۡہِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ مَّا حُمِّلۡتُمۡ ؕ وَ اِنۡ تُطِیۡعُوۡہُ تَہۡتَدُوۡا ؕ وَ مَا عَلَی الرَّسُوۡلِ اِلَّا الۡبَلٰغُ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿۵۴﴾ [Such are these hypocrites that] they swear strong oaths by God that if you direct them [to wage jihad,] they will certainly march out. Say: "Do not swear oaths. Obedience in the conventional way is needed from you.[93] God indeed knows what you are doing." Tell them: "Obey God and obey His messenger. However, if you turn away, then [remember that] the responsibility on the messenger is only that which has been imposed on him and on you what is imposed on you.[94] If you obey him, you will be guided and the responsibility of the messenger is only to clearly communicate." (53-54) وَعَدَ اللّٰہُ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا مِنۡکُمۡ وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ لَیَسۡتَخۡلِفَنَّہُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ کَمَا اسۡتَخۡلَفَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ ۪ وَ لَیُمَکِّنَنَّ لَہُمۡ دِیۡنَہُمُ الَّذِی ارۡتَضٰی لَہُمۡ وَ لَیُبَدِّلَنَّہُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَعۡدِ خَوۡفِہِمۡ اَمۡنًا ؕ یَعۡبُدُوۡنَنِیۡ لَا یُشۡرِکُوۡنَ بِیۡ شَیۡئًا ؕ وَ مَنۡ کَفَرَ بَعۡدَ ذٰلِکَ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡفٰسِقُوۡنَ ﴿۵۵﴾ God's promise with those among you who have professed faith and done righteous deeds is that He will definitely grant them authority in this land[95] the way He granted it to those before them[96] and for this He will fully establish their religion which He chose for them and after this state of their fear He will certainly transform it into peace. They will worship Me; associate none with Me. And those who reject even after this, it is they who are the disobedient.[97] (55) وَ اَقِیۡمُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتُوا الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ اَطِیۡعُوا الرَّسُوۡلَ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُرۡحَمُوۡنَ ﴿۵۶﴾ لَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا مُعۡجِزِیۡنَ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ۚ وَ مَاۡوٰىہُمُ النَّارُ ؕ وَ لَبِئۡسَ الۡمَصِیۡرُ ﴿۵۷﴾ [If you want to remove your doubts,] be diligent in the prayer and pay zakah and remain obedient to the Messenger so that mercy be shown to you. Never think about these disbelievers that they will be able to defeat God in this land. [Certainly not! They themselves will be defeated] and their abode [in future also] is Hell and it is a very evil abode. (56-57) یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لِیَسۡتَاۡذِنۡکُمُ الَّذِیۡنَ مَلَکَتۡ اَیۡمَانُکُمۡ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَمۡ یَبۡلُغُوا الۡحُلُمَ مِنۡکُمۡ ثَلٰثَ مَرّٰتٍ ؕ مِنۡ قَبۡلِ صَلٰوۃِ الۡفَجۡرِ وَ حِیۡنَ تَضَعُوۡنَ ثِیَابَکُمۡ مِّنَ الظَّہِیۡرَۃِ وَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ صَلٰوۃِ الۡعِشَآءِ ۟ؕ ثَلٰثُ عَوۡرٰتٍ لَّکُمۡ ؕ لَیۡسَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ لَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ جُنَاحٌۢ بَعۡدَہُنَّ ؕ طَوّٰفُوۡنَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ بَعۡضُکُمۡ عَلٰی بَعۡضٍ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یُبَیِّنُ اللّٰہُ لَکُمُ الۡاٰیٰتِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۵۸﴾ وَ اِذَا بَلَغَ الۡاَطۡفَالُ مِنۡکُمُ الۡحُلُمَ فَلۡیَسۡتَاۡذِنُوۡا کَمَا اسۡتَاۡذَنَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یُبَیِّنُ اللّٰہُ لَکُمۡ اٰیٰتِہٖ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۵۹﴾ وَ الۡقَوَاعِدُ مِنَ النِّسَآءِ الّٰتِیۡ لَا یَرۡجُوۡنَ نِکَاحًا فَلَیۡسَ عَلَیۡہِنَّ جُنَاحٌ اَنۡ یَّضَعۡنَ ثِیَابَہُنَّ غَیۡرَ مُتَبَرِّجٰتٍۭ بِزِیۡنَۃٍ ؕ وَ اَنۡ یَّسۡتَعۡفِفۡنَ خَیۡرٌ لَّہُنَّ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ سَمِیۡعٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۶۰﴾ Believers! [If you need more explanation of the directives We gave to purify your heart and sight, then listen:] Let your slave men and women and those who have yet to reach maturity ask your permission on three occasions when they come in to see you: before the fajr prayer, when you take off your garments in the afternoon and after the 'isha prayer.[1] These three occasions are times of your privacy.[2] At other times, [if they come without permission] it shall be no offence for you or them, because you go around meeting one another.[3] God explains to you His revelations in this way and God is all-knowing and all-wise. The children among you when they reach maturity, let them still ask your permission as those before them would do.[4] God explains to you His revelations in this manner and God is all-knowing and all-wise. And it shall be no sin for aged women who have no hope of marriage to discard their cloaks from their chests and necklines[5] on the condition that they do not display their embellishments.[6] However, if they too exercise caution, it is better for them. And God hears all and knows all.[7] (58-60) لَیۡسَ عَلَی الۡاَعۡمٰی حَرَجٌ وَّ لَا عَلَی الۡاَعۡرَجِ حَرَجٌ وَّ لَا عَلَی الۡمَرِیۡضِ حَرَجٌ وَّ لَا عَلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِکُمۡ اَنۡ تَاۡکُلُوۡا مِنۡۢ بُیُوۡتِکُمۡ اَوۡ بُیُوۡتِ اٰبَآئِکُمۡ اَوۡ بُیُوۡتِ اُمَّہٰتِکُمۡ اَوۡ بُیُوۡتِ اِخۡوَانِکُمۡ اَوۡ بُیُوۡتِ اَخَوٰتِکُمۡ اَوۡ بُیُوۡتِ اَعۡمَامِکُمۡ اَوۡ بُیُوۡتِ عَمّٰتِکُمۡ اَوۡ بُیُوۡتِ اَخۡوَالِکُمۡ اَوۡ بُیُوۡتِ خٰلٰتِکُمۡ اَوۡ مَا مَلَکۡتُمۡ مَّفَاتِحَہٗۤ اَوۡ صَدِیۡقِکُمۡ ؕ لَیۡسَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ جُنَاحٌ اَنۡ تَاۡکُلُوۡا جَمِیۡعًا اَوۡ اَشۡتَاتًا ؕ فَاِذَا دَخَلۡتُمۡ بُیُوۡتًا فَسَلِّمُوۡا عَلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِکُمۡ تَحِیَّۃً مِّنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰہِ مُبٰرَکَۃً طَیِّبَۃً ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یُبَیِّنُ اللّٰہُ لَکُمُ الۡاٰیٰتِ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۶۱﴾ [God does not want to create undue restrictions on you through these directives, so] there is no harm if the blind, the lame, and the sick eat at your table nor if you eat in your own houses, your fathers' or grandfathers', your mothers', your brothers' and your sisters', your paternal uncles', your paternal aunts', your maternal uncles', your maternal aunts', or of those who are dependent on you[105] or your friends'. There is no sin on you if [men and women] eat together or apart.[106] However, when you enter a house, say "peace to you" – a blessed and noble invocation fixed by God. God thus explains to you His revelations so that you use your intellect. (61) اِنَّمَا الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ وَ اِذَا کَانُوۡا مَعَہٗ عَلٰۤی اَمۡرٍ جَامِعٍ لَّمۡ یَذۡہَبُوۡا حَتّٰی یَسۡتَاۡذِنُوۡہُ ؕ اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یَسۡتَاۡذِنُوۡنَکَ اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ ۚ فَاِذَا اسۡتَاۡذَنُوۡکَ لِبَعۡضِ شَاۡنِہِمۡ فَاۡذَنۡ لِّمَنۡ شِئۡتَ مِنۡہُمۡ وَ اسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَہُمُ اللّٰہَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۶۲﴾ [This same purity is also needed in your deeds because] believers are in fact those who have true faith in God and His messenger[107] and when they are with the Messenger for some collective task, they do not go away from there unless they seek permission. Those who go after seeking permission from you [O Prophet] only they are the ones who believe in God and His messenger. So, when they seek permission from you for some of their work you can give permission to whomsoever you like and keep praying for their forgiveness before God.[108] Indeed, God is forgiving and ever-merciful. (62) لَا تَجۡعَلُوۡا دُعَآءَ الرَّسُوۡلِ بَیۡنَکُمۡ کَدُعَآءِ بَعۡضِکُمۡ بَعۡضًا ؕ قَدۡ یَعۡلَمُ اللّٰہُ الَّذِیۡنَ یَتَسَلَّلُوۡنَ مِنۡکُمۡ لِوَاذًا ۚ فَلۡیَحۡذَرِ الَّذِیۡنَ یُخَالِفُوۡنَ عَنۡ اَمۡرِہٖۤ اَنۡ تُصِیۡبَہُمۡ فِتۡنَۃٌ اَوۡ یُصِیۡبَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۶۳﴾ اَلَاۤ اِنَّ لِلّٰہِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ قَدۡ یَعۡلَمُ مَاۤ اَنۡتُمۡ عَلَیۡہِ ؕ وَ یَوۡمَ یُرۡجَعُوۡنَ اِلَیۡہِ فَیُنَبِّئُہُمۡ بِمَا عَمِلُوۡا ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۶۴﴾ Do not regard the way you call the messenger among yourselves to be similar to how you address one another. God fully knows those among you who secretly slip away while hiding behind others.[109] So, those people should have fear who evading the Messenger's directive have been opposing him[110] that a trial may afflict them or a painful punishment visit them. Listen! Whatever is in the heavens and the earth belongs to God. God is aware of the situation which you are in. The day they are returned to Him, He will tell them whatever they had done. And [remember that] God is aware of everything.[111] (63-64) Kuala Lumpur ____________ 1. The inchoative (mubtada') is suppressed in the verse. This has directed all attention to the enunciative (khabar) from which is evident the exaltedness and significance of the surah. The translation keeps this aspect in consideration. 2. Ie., it should not be regarded as something ordinary. It has been revealed by the Almighty. Hence it is mandatory for every Muslim to obey it and hence its directives should be followed in this capacity. 3. This has been stated because such directives have proven to be a pitfall for previous nations and they have tried to find ways and means to evade them. Thus it is warned that these are not recommendations; they are obligations and definite directives of God which have to be obeyed at every place and in every period of time without the slightest hesitation. There is not the slightest possibility of any slackness or indifference in following them. 4. This is a reference to the admonitions which are stated repeatedely after directives are mentioned in the surah. 5. According to the Qur'an, fornication is the third greatest sin after polytheism and murder. In the shari'ahs revealed by God to His prophets, it has been regarded as a punishable offence. Thus because of the special status of the Israelites and because of being directly governed by God, adultery was regarded as an offence of the category of waging war against God. If the woman was a virgin, a concession was given in punishment and it was made incumbment on the man to pay a penalty for it and keep that women as his wife for the rest of his life. (See: Deuteronomy, 22:23-29). As the institution of prophethood was to be terminated on Muhammad (sws), and since the situation was to be changed, hence the law was changed. Thus initially it was said that the criminals of this offence were to be given physical punishment without determining its extent and nature. This directive is stated in verse 16 of Surah al-Nisa'. After this, the punishment of a hundred lashes was fixed as an eternal law of God. This is an extreme punishment for this offence. The reason for this is that adjectives are used in the Qur'an in stating this punishment, which express the ultimate nature of the act. Hence this punishment is to be given only when the crime has been committed in its ultimate form and the criminal does not deserve any lenience as far as the circumstances of the crime are concerned. Consequently, criminals who are foolish, insane, have been compelled by circumstances, are without the necessary protection required to abstain from committing a crime, or cannot bear the punishment are all exempt from this punishment. About the women whom their masters force to take to prostitution, the Qur'an (24:33) clearly says that God is Forgiving and Merciful to them, they being compelled to it. Similarly, about the slave women who were present in the Prophet's times, the Qur'an (4:25) says that they also cannot be administered this punishment because of improper upbringing and education and because of a lack of family protection – so much so that if their husbands and masters have done all they can to keep them chaste and in spite of this they commit the crime, they shall be given only half this punishment ie. fifty lashes instead of a hundred. 6. This harsh treatment given to the criminal is necessary because the stability of a society relies on the sanctity of the relationships in a family and on their protection from every type of disorder. Fornication, a little deliberation shows, makes a society unstable and turns it into a herd of animals. It, therefore, deprives a society of its well-being and prosperity. Writes Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi in his celebrated commentary of the Qur'an: ... Ie. no lenience should be shown in the implementation of this punishment; softness should be shown to neither a woman nor a man, to neither the rich nor the poor. The limits set by God should be observed without granting any alleviation or showing partiality, for this is a requirement of belief in God and in the Hereafter. The faith in God and in the Hereafter of those who show weakness in this regard cannot be trusted. A noteworthy point in the statement of this punishment is that the woman is mentioned before the man. One reason for this is that without a woman's consent fornication cannot take place; secondly, there is a strong possibility that being the weaker sex, feelings of compassion may arise for her; the Qur'an, therefore, has mentioned her before the man so that it becomes evident from the style of the verse that in the Almighty's eyes no lenience should be shown to either the woman or the man. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 362) 7. So that this punishment is a humiliation for the criminals and those who watch it are taught a lesson and as a result the Muslim society is protected from the disruption which can be created by fornication. 8. Ie., the one mentioned earlier. After the first mention of اَلزَّانِیَۃُ وَ الزَّانِیۡ, a repetition of the word الزَّانِیۡ here bears evidence to this. A restriction on the marriage of a man or a woman guitly of fornication obviously can only be imposed when their crime is proven in a court of law. 9. In Islamic law, a condition for marriage is that it can only take place between chaste people or those who become chaste after repentance and reformation. The directive stated in the above verse is a corollary of this law. It is evident from the verse that if the man guilty of fornication is punished once his crime has been proven, he will not be allowed to marry a chaste woman. The same will be the case of a woman guilty of fornication. Thus it is said that after this they should find someone similarly guilty of fornication or polytheism. The Qur'an does not allow in any case that a believing woman marry a person guilty of fornication nor does it allow a believer to bring home such filth. Every marriage of this sort is prohibited. 10. Here and in the succeeding verses also though only the accusation of women is mentioned, yet in the Arabic language this style which can be termed as عَلَي سَبِيْلِ الْتَغْلِيْب ('ala sabil al-taghlib: addressing the dominant element) is adopted because normally in a society only women become targets of such allegations, and the society is also sensitive about them. Consequently, there is no doubt that on the grounds of "similarity of basis" this directive pertains to both men and women and cannot be restricted to women only. Similar is the case with the directive of li'an ahead. 11. The implication is that the accuser shall have to produce four witnesses in all circumstances. Anything less than this will not prove his accusation. Mere circumstantial evidence or mere medical examination in this case is of absolutely no importance. If a person is of lewd and loose character, such things have a very important role, but if he has a morally sound reputation, Islam wants that even if he has faltered, his crime should be concealed and he should not be disgraced in the society. Consequently, in this case, it wants four eye-witnesses for the testimony to initiate the hearing, and if the accuser fails to produce them, he should be flogged eighty times and his testimony should never be accepted in future in any matter and in this way his reputation should be permanently dented in the society. 12. I.e., the punishment of a hundred lashes stated earlier. The word used in the verse is الْعَذَابَ. To convey the same meaning, the word used is عَذَابَهُمَا in verse 2 just prior to these verses. Scholars of Arabic know that according to grammatical principles, whenever a noun has been defined by alif-lam and is repeated later, then if something within the context does not pose a hindrance, the repeated noun shall have the same meaning as the first. Consequently, here, no other punishment than a hundred lashes can be regarded as implied. Thus it is absolutely certain that if any absolute difference is considered between the punishment for a married and an unmarried person guilty of this offence, then this would be totally against the Qur'an. 13. This is the answer to the conditional sentence which is suppressed in accordance with linguistic principles. In verse 14, it is revealed and the translation here keeps this in consideration. 14. Which slander is being referred to here? The Qur'an has not mentioned it but it is evident from various narratives that it refers to the mischief worked up by the Hypocrites to defame 'Ā'ishah (rta) at the time of the battle of Bani Mustaliq. Most of its details found in the narratives invoke serious question. However, the context and the way in which the Qur'an has mentioned this incident and referred to its various characters shows that the matter related to slander against some such personality. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... It is evident from books of history and biographies that the only thing that happened was that in 6 AH, the Prophet (sws) was returning to Madinah from the battle of Bani Mustaliq. 'Ā'ishah (rta) was traveling on a separate camel. During the journey, the caravan stopped at a place to spend the night. Before the caravan departed, 'Ā'ishah (rta) had gone out to relieve herself. During this time, the army was ordered to march ahead. The caravan departed and her camel-driver also walked off with them thinking that she was sitting in the camel-cubicle. When 'Ā'ishah (rta) returned she found no option in the dark of night but to stay there until God created some way out for her. Safwan (rta), a companion of the Prophet (sws) was given the task of walking behind the caravan to detect anything that may have been left behind. When in the morning he reached the place where the caravan had stopped and saw 'Ā'ishah (rta) there, he spontaneously uttered: .... إِنّا للّٰہِ. Ultimately, he made her sit on her camel. She climbed on it while he took hold of the camel's bridle and led away the animal. Finally, they reached the caravan. It was not something extra-ordinary for such an incident to have taken place during a caravan journey. However, the Hypocrites worked great propaganda on the basis of this small incident. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 382) The Qur'an has rejected this propaganda by using the word إِفْك, which means an absolute falsehood and a fake blame. God did not deem it appropriate to describe the nature of the incident or to mention its characters. This is because the addressees of those times were aware of all the details and the later ones did not need to be informed of a filthy blame. 15. Ie., apparently they belonged to the Muslims and to his group but in reality are Hypocrites who are always on the lookout to avail such an opportunity to harm him. 16. What are the good aspects found in this incident. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: The greatest good concealed in it was that Muslims were able to fully detect a dissident group that was hiding among them. Had this not been the case, who knows what this cancerous growth could have ended up in and the disorder it could have created. The second good found in it was that the weaknesses that were concealed among Muslims were fully highlighted as a result of this trial and were reformed at the right time. The importance this has for the spiritual purification of the society is absolutely evident. The third good found in it is that it created a very appropriate atmosphere for the revelation of many directives for the reformation and organization of the society. Had these directives been revealed without these conducive circumstances, their real significance would not have become evident to many people. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 382) 17. It is evident from various narratives that this is a reference to 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy who had worked such mischief earlier as well. 18. This is the right of every Muslim man and woman and it is incumbent on every person to respect this right. Hence, unless an offence is proven, he should keep giving the alleged guilty the benefit of the doubt and continue to say this. 19. This is said because it is stated in verse 15 of Surah al-Nisa' that four witnesses are required even for women who habitually commit fornication. 20. Ie., in accordance with God's law otherwise God knows that this was a false blame and concomitant indications clearly showed that whatever was being said had no basis. 21. Ie., continuing to report it from person to another without critically investigating it. It is evident from this that without evaluating the substance of a report, its mere narration can result in grave mistakes. 22. The actual words are: أَنْ تَعُوْدُوْا لِمِثْلِهِ أَبَدًا. Though they connote a negation, yet لاَ does not occur here after أَنْ. This is because the word وَعْظ evidences it with regard to its meaning. 23. For this reason, He only knows better what to tell and teach them on their mistake. 24. Ie., men and women start doing what they are slandered about so that the moral superiority which Muslims now have ends as soon as possible. 25. There is a painful torment for them in the world because they are committing this sin under the direct rule of God and His messenger and according to the Qur'an this is waging war against these authorities. The punishment of this offence is mentioned in verses 33-34 of Surah al-Ma'idah. 26. Ie., God would have seized them and instead of the respite of repentance and reformation that is now being given to them, His punishment would have descended on them. 27. This is a reference to the attitude of spreading slander which the people who were influenced by the propaganda of the Hypocrites had adopted. 28. This is a very subtle admonition. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... There are people who carelessly accept all kinds of baseless things that relate to the honour and integrity of others and on this basis make evil estimations about them. This attitude of such people shows that they have an excessively good opinion about their own selves – in fact, lay claim to spiritual advancement, whether they have any comprehension of their inner selves or not. These people are being informed of this hidden thief – people who accepted the rumour spread by the enemies without any condemnation. It is stated that everyone must remember that whoever attains purification does so merely because of God's grace. If His graciousness is not present none can be purified. So no one should show such pride and vanity on his purity and piety that he accepts accusations on others without any investigation. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 387) 29. The implication is that if they have such a claim then they must be well advised: God is aware of the pure and the evil among them. Hence, He knows the most hidden of their secrets. 30. These words are meant to remind people of their rights and obligations: there is no one without blemishes. And if in spite of their own faults, God has blessed them with sustenance, their attitude too should be no different. 31. This is a statement of entitlement. The implication is that the needy are worthy of help because of their needs. They must not be deprived of help merely because they have intentionally or unintentionally committed a mistake. It is mentioned in various narratives that among those who had spread slander and mischief against 'Ā'ishah (rta) was a poor companion called Misthah ibn Uthathah (rta) who was a relative of Abu Bakr (rta). Abu Bakr (rta) helped him financially and was naturally very hurt at his attitude. He swore that he would never help him again. A similar attitude was expected from other honourable Muslims. Hence God advised them to abstain from this attitude. 32. This also is a reference to the subtle reality mentioned earlier. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... Just as making evil estimations about someone merely on the basis of rumours is an evidence to one's own excessive superiority, in fact a claim to self-purification, in a similar way not forgiving a person for his mistake and absolving one's self in supporting him is tantamount to thinking that one is flawless, even though a person may not be aware of this hidden thought. Viewed thus, a little deliberation shows that with regard to the philosophy of religion both these mistakes belong to the same category. Hence both were adjacently mentioned. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 388) 33. Ie., simple and decent women who are unaware of the deceptions of the world. A subtle reference is also found in this to the pure and chaste lady who faced the aforementioned slander and allegation. 34. The actual word is: يَرْمُوْنَ. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... Here there is a special eloquence in using this word for accusing an innocent woman. Hidden in this expression is the purport that those who accuse innocent and chaste women of fornication in fact make them a target of their arrows while they are sleeping. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 389) 35. It is a result of this curse that even before the Hereafter they have been disgraced in this world as well and they have been totally wiped out from the land of Arabia. The Qur'an has mentioned this at many instances that once the truth is conclusively conveyed to the disbelievers, this is the fate they meet, in accordance with the established practice of the Almighty. 36. This is precisely the same as what has been stated in Surah al-Takwir by the words: إِذَا النُّفُوْسُ زَوِّجَتْ: on that day, people will be united together on the basis of their faith and conduct. 37. This is a comprehensive term adopted by the Qur'an for all the favours of the Hereafter. 38. The implication is that if a need arises to visit one another, suddenly barging into a house without introducing one's self is improper. On such occasions, the visitor should first of all properly introduce himself. A decent and polite way to do this is to pay salutations to the residents of the house, while standing at the door. This will make the residents aware of the visitor, provide them with the opportunity to determine the purpose of his visit and whether it is appropriate for them to let him in. If the visitor hears a reply to his salutations and is given permission, only then should he enter; otherwise he should return. In this regard, while explaining this directive, the Prophet (sws) has directed the visitor to seek permission three times and if he hears no reply even after his third call, he should turn back. (Al-Bukhari, (no. 6245); Muslim, (no. 5633)) Similarly, the Prophet (sws) is reported to have said that the permission to enter must not be sought by standing right at the front door of the house and peeping in because the very reason for seeking permission is that the visitor should not catch a glimpse of the residents. (Al-Bukhari, (no. 6241); Muslim, (no. 5638)) 39. Ie., the reminder of the fact that a person is entering the sacred abode of someone, where a code of conduct must be followed, and those present in the house should also be reminded that there is a person present among them about whom a certain decorum should be followed. 40. The implication is that if there is no one present in the house to give him permission or if someone is present and the visitor is told on his behalf that meeting him is not possible, he should retreat without any feelings of ill-will. 41. This warning with regard to God's attribute of knowledge is repeated twice ahead as well. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... This repeated reminder is being sounded because what is being asked to be abstained from is something for which there are many subterfuges found in one's inner self. Unless one is fully aware and cognizant of God's absolute knowledge, mere directives and commands will not be able to plug these fissures. Satan finds one way or the other and a person succumbs to his guiles. However, if a person's heart is always overwhelmed with the concept that God is watching all the time, it will protect a person from the most concealed ploys of Satan. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 395) 42. The Qur'an uses the words بُیُوۡتًا غَیۡرَ بُیُوۡتِکُمۡ for such places. They include hotels, rest-houses, guest-houses, shops, offices and male-meeting places. A person can enter such places because of some need or benefit without seeking permission. The restriction of seeking permission does not relate to such places. 43. This directive is also given for women ahead. The words used for it are یَغُضُّوۡا مِنۡ اَبۡصَارِہِمۡ. If there is modesty in the gaze, and men and women refrain from feasting their eyes on the physical attributes of one another and ogling each other, then no doubt the purport of the directive stands fulfilled. The expression غَضِّ بَصَرْ does not mean that men and women should not look at each other or have to constantly stare at the floor while interacting with one another. It means to guard one's gaze from taking undue liberty and to refrain from staring at one another. If this vigil on the eyes is not kept, then in the words of the Prophet (sws), this would be tantamount to adultery of the eyes. Once a person indulges in it, his sexual organ either fulfils the ultimate objective of what his eyes initiated or is unable to do so. (Al-Bukhari, (no. 6243); Muslim, (no. 6754)) It is regarding this first accidental gaze about which the Prophet (sws) has directed the believers to turn it away. (Al-Bukhari, (no. 1855); Muslim, (no. 5644, 3251) 44. Ie., one must guard them. The implication is that they should neither have any inclination for others nor should they be revealed to others; in fact, on occasions of gender intermingling, body parts which need to be covered must be covered even more carefully and always a dress should be worn which besides covering adornments also fully covers sexual organs. 45. Ie., jewellery, make up and party outfits which women specially wear on occasions of dressing-up. 46. The actual words used for this are: اِلَّا مَا ظَہَرَ مِنۡہَا. Their correct meaning is: جَرَتِ الْعَادَة وَ الْجِبِلَّة عَلي ظُهُورِهِ وَ الْاَصْل فِيِهِ الْظُهُوْر اِلَّا مَا, as pointed out by al-Zamakhshari, (Al-Kashshaf, vol. 3, 236). It means the embellishments of the body parts which a person does not cover generally and instinctively and they are always left bare. These include hands, feet, face etc. The reason for this is that according to syntactical consideration, it is: الظاهر منها. It cannot be taken in the meaning of أن يظهر منها شئ as has been done by some scholars.




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