Surah al-Shu‘ara’ (1/2)

Surah al-Shu‘ara’ (1/2)


بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ In the name of God, the Most-Gracious, the Ever-Merciful. طٰسٓمّٓ ﴿۱﴾ تِلۡکَ اٰیٰتُ الۡکِتٰبِ الۡمُبِیۡنِ ﴿۲﴾ لَعَلَّکَ بَاخِعٌ نَّفۡسَکَ اَلَّا یَکُوۡنُوۡا مُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۳﴾ اِنۡ نَّشَاۡ نُنَزِّلۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ اٰیَۃً فَظَلَّتۡ اَعۡنَاقُہُمۡ لَہَا خٰضِعِیۡنَ ﴿۴﴾ وَ مَا یَاۡتِیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡ ذِکۡرٍ مِّنَ الرَّحۡمٰنِ مُحۡدَثٍ اِلَّا کَانُوۡا عَنۡہُ مُعۡرِضِیۡنَ ﴿۵﴾فَقَدۡ کَذَّبُوۡا فَسَیَاۡتِیۡہِمۡ اَنۡۢبٰٓؤُا مَا کَانُوۡا بِہٖ یَسۡتَہۡزِءُوۡنَ ﴿۶﴾ This is Surah Ṭa Sin Mim.[1] These are the verses of the Book which clearly states its contention.[2] Perhaps you will lose your life because of the grief that these people are not accepting faith. If We want, We can send down a sign to them from the heavens so that their necks bend down before it.[3] [But We are trying to make them understand and] such are they that whatever fresh reminder comes to them from the most-merciful God, they keep evading it. Thus, they have rejected it; so the news of that thing [with its reality] which they are making fun of will soon manifest itself before them.[4] (1-6) اَوَ لَمۡ یَرَوۡا اِلَی الۡاَرۡضِ کَمۡ اَنۡۢبَتۡنَا فِیۡہَا مِنۡ کُلِّ زَوۡجٍ کَرِیۡمٍ ﴿۷﴾ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً ؕوَ مَا کَانَ اَکۡثَرُ ہُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۸﴾ وَ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ لَہُوَ الۡعَزِیۡزُ الرَّحِیۡمُ ﴿۹﴾ [They are waiting for signs.] Have they not seen the earth how We have sprouted from it an assortment of beneficial things. Indeed, there is a great sign in it but most of them are not ones who believe. And your Lord, there is no doubt, is powerful and very affectionate.[5] (7-9) وَ اِذۡ نَادٰی رَبُّکَ مُوۡسٰۤی اَنِ ائۡتِ الۡقَوۡمَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۰﴾ قَوۡمَ فِرۡعَوۡنَ ؕ اَلَا یَتَّقُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱﴾قَالَ رَبِّ اِنِّیۡۤ اَخَافُ اَنۡ یُّکَذِّبُوۡنِ ﴿ؕ۱۲﴾ وَ یَضِیۡقُ صَدۡرِیۡ وَ لَا یَنۡطَلِقُ لِسَانِیۡ فَاَرۡسِلۡ اِلٰی ہٰرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳﴾ وَلَہُمۡ عَلَیَّ ذَنۡۢبٌ فَاَخَافُ اَنۡ یَّقۡتُلُوۡنِ ﴿ۚ۱۴﴾ Narrate to them the anecdote when your Lord called Moses:[6] "Go to that unjust nation, to the Pharaoh's nation – Will they not fear?"[7] He replied: "Lord! I fear that they will deny me and such is my situation that [because of my sensitivity towards my responsibility] my chest is in distress[8] and my language is also not fluent;[9] so send prophethood to Aaron [that he may help me in this task.[10]] And there is also one crime for them to which I am liable;[11] So, I fear that they might slay me." (10-14) قَالَ کَلَّا ۚ فَاذۡہَبَا بِاٰیٰتِنَاۤ اِنَّا مَعَکُمۡ مُّسۡتَمِعُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵﴾ فَاۡتِیَا فِرۡعَوۡنَ فَقُوۡلَاۤ اِنَّا رَسُوۡلُ رَبِّ الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۶﴾ اَنۡ اَرۡسِلۡ مَعَنَا بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ ﴿ؕ۱۷﴾ قَالَ اَلَمۡ نُرَبِّکَ فِیۡنَا وَلِیۡدًا وَّ لَبِثۡتَ فِیۡنَا مِنۡ عُمُرِکَ سِنِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۸﴾ وَ فَعَلۡتَ فَعۡلَتَکَ الَّتِیۡ فَعَلۡتَ وَ اَنۡتَ مِنَ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹﴾ God said: "Certainly not! [They cannot kill you.] So, now both of you go with Our signs; We will be with you hearing everything.[12] So, go both of you go to the Pharaoh [without any hesitation] and tell him: 'We are the messengers of the Lord of worlds and have come to you so that you let the Israelites go with us.'"[13] [When they went and said these words to the Pharaoh,] he replied: "Did we not bring you up in childhood by keeping you with us. And [are you not the one that] you spent many years of your life among us and then did what you did[14] [and then ran away]? You are very ungrateful."[15] (15-19) قَالَ فَعَلۡتُہَاۤ اِذًا وَّ اَنَا مِنَ الضَّآلِّیۡنَ ﴿ؕ۲۰﴾ فَفَرَرۡتُ مِنۡکُمۡ لَمَّا خِفۡتُکُمۡ فَوَہَبَ لِیۡ رَبِّیۡ حُکۡمًا وَّ جَعَلَنِیۡ مِنَ الۡمُرۡسَلِیۡنَ ﴿۲۱﴾ وَ تِلۡکَ نِعۡمَۃٌ تَمُنُّہَا عَلَیَّ اَنۡ عَبَّدۡتَّ بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ ﴿ؕ۲۲﴾ Moses replied: "I had done this and [I confess that] I had committed a mistake at that time.[16] Then I feared you people [that because of this crime you will kill me;] so, I ran away from you. Then my Lord blessed me with wisdom and sagacity and made me [a prophet] from among His prophets. And is this a favour you are impressing upon me that you have enslaved the Israelites?"[17] (20-22) قَالَ فِرۡعَوۡنُ وَ مَا رَبُّ الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿ؕ۲۳﴾ قَالَ رَبُّ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ مَا بَیۡنَہُمَا ؕ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مُّوۡقِنِیۡنَ ﴿۲۴﴾ قَالَ لِمَنۡ حَوۡلَہٗۤ اَلَا تَسۡتَمِعُوۡنَ ﴿۲۵﴾ قَالَ رَبُّکُمۡ وَ رَبُّ اٰبَآئِکُمُ الۡاَوَّلِیۡنَ ﴿۲۶﴾ قَالَ اِنَّ رَسُوۡلَکُمُ الَّذِیۡۤ اُرۡسِلَ اِلَیۡکُمۡ لَمَجۡنُوۡنٌ ﴿۲۷﴾ قَالَ رَبُّ الۡمَشۡرِقِ وَ الۡمَغۡرِبِ وَ مَا بَیۡنَہُمَا ؕ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۲۸﴾ قَالَ لَئِنِ اتَّخَذۡتَ اِلٰـہًا غَیۡرِیۡ لَاَجۡعَلَنَّکَ مِنَ الۡمَسۡجُوۡنِیۡنَ ﴿۲۹﴾ قَالَ اَوَ لَوۡ جِئۡتُکَ بِشَیۡءٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿ۚ۳۰﴾ قَالَ فَاۡتِ بِہٖۤ اِنۡ کُنۡتَ مِنَ الصّٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۳۱﴾ فَاَلۡقٰی عَصَاہُ فَاِذَا ہِیَ ثُعۡبَانٌ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿ۚۖ۳۲﴾ وَّ نَزَعَ یَدَہٗ فَاِذَا ہِیَ بَیۡضَآءُ لِلنّٰظِرِیۡنَ ﴿۳۳﴾ قَالَ لِلۡمَلَاِ حَوۡلَہٗۤ اِنَّ ہٰذَا لَسٰحِرٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿ۙ۳۴﴾ یُّرِیۡدُ اَنۡ یُّخۡرِجَکُمۡ مِّنۡ اَرۡضِکُمۡ بِسِحۡرِہٖ ٭ۖ فَمَا ذَا تَاۡمُرُوۡنَ ﴿۳۵﴾ The Pharaoh said: "And what is this Rabb al-'alamin?"[18] Moses replied: "The Lord of the heavens and the earth and what is between them, if you are ones who can have conviction." The Pharaoh said to the people around him: "Do you not hear?"[19] [At this,] Moses [took a step ahead in his preaching and] said: "Your Lord and the Lord of your forefathers also."[20] The Pharaoh said: "This messenger who has been sent to you is totally mad." Moses said: "[And furthermore] whatever is in the East and the West and between them belongs to Him, if you could understand.[21] [Hearing this,] the Pharaoh cried out: "If you make anyone else except me as God, I shall imprison you." Moses asked: "Even if I have brought a clear sign to you?" The Pharaoh said: "Then present it." At this, Moses placed his staff [on the ground;] then suddenly it was like a living serpent[22] and when he drew out his hand, it thereupon appeared shining for the onlookers.[23] [When] the Pharaoh [saw this,] he said to the chiefs around him: "This person surely is an adept magician. He wants to turn you out of your land through his magic.[24] So, what do you advise?"[25] (23-35) قَالُوۡۤا اَرۡجِہۡ وَ اَخَاہُ وَ ابۡعَثۡ فِی الۡمَدَآئِنِ حٰشِرِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۳۶﴾ یَاۡتُوۡکَ بِکُلِّ سَحَّارٍ عَلِیۡمٍ ﴿۳۷﴾ فَجُمِعَ السَّحَرَۃُ لِمِیۡقَاتِ یَوۡمٍ مَّعۡلُوۡمٍ ﴿ۙ۳۸﴾وَّ قِیۡلَ لِلنَّاسِ ہَلۡ اَنۡتُمۡ مُّجۡتَمِعُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۳۹﴾ لَعَلَّنَا نَتَّبِعُ السَّحَرَۃَ اِنۡ کَانُوۡا ہُمُ الۡغٰلِبِیۡنَ ﴿۴۰﴾ فَلَمَّا جَآءَ السَّحَرَۃُ قَالُوۡا لِفِرۡعَوۡنَ اَئِنَّ لَنَا لَاَجۡرًا اِنۡ کُنَّا نَحۡنُ الۡغٰلِبِیۡنَ ﴿۴۱﴾ قَالَ نَعَمۡ وَ اِنَّکُمۡ اِذًا لَّمِنَ الۡمُقَرَّبِیۡنَ ﴿۴۲﴾ They said: "Put him off and his brother for now[26] and send summoners in the city who should bring all prominent skilful magicians to you." Thus at the prescribed time of an appointed day,[27] the magicians were gathered and it was proclaimed among the people: "Will you people gather? So that we can support the magicians if they remain dominant."[28] Then when the magicians came [forward for the contest,] they said to the Pharaoh: "Is there a reward for us if we remain dominant?"[29] The Pharaoh replied: "Yes and at that time you will be included in our favoured ones." (36-42) قَالَ لَہُمۡ مُّوۡسٰۤی اَلۡقُوۡا مَاۤ اَنۡتُمۡ مُّلۡقُوۡنَ ﴿۴۳﴾ فَاَلۡقَوۡا حِبَالَہُمۡ وَ عِصِیَّہُمۡ وَ قَالُوۡا بِعِزَّۃِ فِرۡعَوۡنَ اِنَّا لَنَحۡنُ الۡغٰلِبُوۡنَ ﴿۴۴﴾ فَاَلۡقٰی مُوۡسٰی عَصَاہُ فَاِذَا ہِیَ تَلۡقَفُ مَا یَاۡفِکُوۡنَ ﴿ۚۖ۴۵﴾ فَاُلۡقِیَ السَّحَرَۃُ سٰجِدِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۴۶﴾ قَالُوۡۤا اٰمَنَّا بِرَبِّ الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۴۷﴾ رَبِّ مُوۡسٰی وَ ہٰرُوۡنَ ﴿۴۸﴾ [Thus when the contest began,] Moses asked the magicians: "Throw what you have to throw."[30] At this, they threw their ropes and sticks and said: "By the Pharaoh's majesty![31] We alone will remain dominant." Then Moses threw his staff; so it suddenly began devouring the spell they had woven.[32] Thus, [seeing this sign of God,] the magicians fell down in prostration.[33] They [spontaneously] said: "We profess faith in the Lord of the worlds, in the Lord of Moses and Aaron."[34] (43-48) قَالَ اٰمَنۡتُمۡ لَہٗ قَبۡلَ اَنۡ اٰذَنَ لَکُمۡ ۚ اِنَّہٗ لَکَبِیۡرُکُمُ الَّذِیۡ عَلَّمَکُمُ السِّحۡرَ ۚ فَلَسَوۡفَ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ۬ؕ لَاُقَطِّعَنَّ اَیۡدِیَکُمۡ وَ اَرۡجُلَکُمۡ مِّنۡ خِلَافٍ وَّ لَاُوصَلِّبَنَّکُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۴۹﴾ قَالُوۡا لَا ضَیۡرَ ۫ اِنَّاۤ اِلٰی رَبِّنَا مُنۡقَلِبُوۡنَ ﴿ۚ۵۰﴾ اِنَّا نَطۡمَعُ اَنۡ یَّغۡفِرَ لَنَا رَبُّنَا خَطٰیٰنَاۤ اَنۡ کُنَّاۤ اَوَّلَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿ؕ۵۱﴾ The Pharaoh said: "You believed in him before I gave you permission! Indeed, he is your guru who has taught magic to you. So, soon you will come to know of its consequences. I will have your limbs severed from alternate sides and crucify all of you."[35] The magicians answered: "No fear! We will return only to our Lord. We hope that our Lord will forgive our sins; so, we have accepted faith the foremost."[36] (49-51) وَ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلٰی مُوۡسٰۤی اَنۡ اَسۡرِ بِعِبَادِیۡۤ اِنَّکُمۡ مُّتَّبَعُوۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾ فَاَرۡسَلَ فِرۡعَوۡنُ فِی الۡمَدَآئِنِ حٰشِرِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۵۳﴾ اِنَّ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ لَشِرۡ ذِمَۃٌ قَلِیۡلُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۵۴﴾ وَ اِنَّہُمۡ لَنَا لَغَآئِظُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۵۵﴾ وَ اِنَّا لَجَمِیۡعٌ حٰذِرُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۵۶﴾ [After this, many years passed until the truth was conclusively delivered to them; Then] We revealed to Moses to set off with My servants by night because you will be pursued.[37] At this, the Pharaoh sent messengers in the city [to gather the armies] that these are some people in small numbers and no doubt they are angering us [because of what they are doing] and we are a group whose trait is to always remain vigilant. [Hence, we will not give them any opportunity to spread disorder.[38]] (52-56) فَاَخۡرَجۡنٰہُمۡ مِّنۡ جَنّٰتٍ وَّ عُیُوۡنٍ ﴿ۙ۵۷﴾ وَّ کُنُوۡزٍ وَّ مَقَامٍ کَرِیۡمٍ ﴿ۙ۵۸﴾ کَذٰلِکَ ؕ وَ اَوۡرَثۡنٰہَا بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ ﴿ؕ۵۹﴾ In this way, We took out the people of the Pharaoh from [their] orchards, fountains, treasures and from an abode of honour. Thus do We do[39] and We made the Israelites the inheritors of all these things [in the land of Palestine.][40] (57-59) فَاَتۡبَعُوۡہُمۡ مُّشۡرِقِیۡنَ ﴿۶۰﴾ فَلَمَّا تَرَآءَ الۡجَمۡعٰنِ قَالَ اَصۡحٰبُ مُوۡسٰۤی اِنَّا لَمُدۡرَکُوۡنَ ﴿ۚ۶۱﴾ قَالَ کَلَّا ۚ اِنَّ مَعِیَ رَبِّیۡ سَیَہۡدِیۡنِ ﴿۶۲﴾ [It happened thus that when Moses set off,] right at daybreak these people set out to pursue them. Then when both groups faced each other, the companions of Moses shouted: "We have been caught." Moses said: "Certainly not! Because with me is my Lord; He will surely guide us."[41] (60-62) فَاَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلٰی مُوۡسٰۤی اَنِ اضۡرِبۡ بِّعَصَاکَ الۡبَحۡرَ ؕ فَانۡفَلَقَ فَکَانَ کُلُّ فِرۡقٍ کَالطَّوۡدِ الۡعَظِیۡمِ ﴿ۚ۶۳﴾ وَ اَزۡلَفۡنَا ثَمَّ الۡاٰخَرِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۶۴﴾ وَ اَنۡجَیۡنَا مُوۡسٰی وَ مَنۡ مَّعَہٗۤ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۶۵﴾ ثُمَّ اَغۡرَقۡنَا الۡاٰخَرِیۡنَ ﴿ؕ۶۶﴾ At this, We sent a revelation to Moses: "Strike your staff on the sea." When he struck it, it rent asunder and each part became as if it was a huge mountain. [In the meantime,] We brought the other group also near that place and saved Moses and all those who were with him. Then We had the others drowned right there.[42] (63-66) اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً ؕ وَ مَا کَانَ اَکۡثَرُہُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۶۷﴾ وَ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ لَہُوَ الۡعَزِیۡزُ الرَّحِیۡمُ ﴿۶۸﴾ Indeed, there is a great sign in this but most of them are not ones who believe.[43] And undoubtedly, your Lord is mighty and very merciful.[44] (67-68) وَ اتۡلُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ نَبَاَ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ ﴿ۘ۶۹﴾ اِذۡ قَالَ لِاَبِیۡہِ وَ قَوۡمِہٖ مَا تَعۡبُدُوۡنَ ﴿۷۰﴾ قَالُوۡا نَعۡبُدُ اَصۡنَامًا فَنَظَلُّ لَہَا عٰکِفِیۡنَ ﴿۷۱﴾ And narrate to them the account of Abraham when he had asked his father and [the people of] of his nation: "What is this you worship?"[45] They replied: "We worship idols. So [whatever you may say] we will continue to diligently adhere to their worship." (69-71) قَالَ ہَلۡ یَسۡمَعُوۡنَکُمۡ اِذۡ تَدۡعُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۷۲﴾ اَوۡ یَنۡفَعُوۡنَکُمۡ اَوۡ یَضُرُّوۡنَ ﴿۷۳﴾ قَالُوۡا بَلۡ وَجَدۡنَاۤ اٰبَآءَنَا کَذٰلِکَ یَفۡعَلُوۡنَ ﴿۷۴﴾ Abraham said: "Do they listen to you when you call them?" Or can they benefit or harm you?" They replied: "No [we do not know all this;] in fact, we have seen our forefathers doing this." (72-74) قَالَ اَفَرَءَیۡتُمۡ مَّا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡبُدُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۷۵﴾ اَنۡتُمۡ وَ اٰبَآؤُکُمُ الۡاَقۡدَمُوۡنَ ﴿۫ۖ۷۶﴾ فَاِنَّہُمۡ عَدُوٌّ لِّیۡۤ اِلَّا رَبَّ الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۷۷﴾ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَنِیۡ فَہُوَ یَہۡدِیۡنِ ﴿ۙ۷۸﴾ وَ الَّذِیۡ ہُوَ یُطۡعِمُنِیۡ وَ یَسۡقِیۡنِ ﴿ۙ۷۹﴾ وَ اِذَا مَرِضۡتُ فَہُوَ یَشۡفِیۡنِ ﴿۪ۙ۸۰﴾ وَ الَّذِیۡ یُمِیۡتُنِیۡ ثُمَّ یُحۡیِیۡنِ ﴿ۙ۸۱﴾ وَ الَّذِیۡۤ اَطۡمَعُ اَنۡ یَّغۡفِرَ لِیۡ خَطِیۡٓئَتِیۡیَوۡمَ الدِّیۡنِ ﴿ؕ۸۲﴾ Abraham said: "Then have you also reflected on what you have been worshipping?" You and your forefathers also. So, all these are my enemies[46] except for God, Lord of the worlds who created me; then it is He Who guides me.[47] And Who makes me eat and drink[48] and when I get sick, it is He Who cures me,[49] and He who will give me death; then He will bring me back to life[50] and from whom I have hope that on the Day of Judgement He will forgive my sins.[51] (75-82) رَبِّ ہَبۡ لِیۡ حُکۡمًا وَّ اَلۡحِقۡنِیۡ بِالصّٰلِحِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۸۳﴾ وَ اجۡعَلۡ لِّیۡ لِسَانَ صِدۡقٍ فِی الۡاٰخِرِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۸۴﴾ وَ اجۡعَلۡنِیۡ مِنۡ وَّرَثَۃِ جَنَّۃِ النَّعِیۡمِ ﴿ۙ۸۵﴾ وَ اغۡفِرۡ لِاَبِیۡۤ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ مِنَ الضَّآلِّیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۸۶﴾ وَ لَا تُخۡزِنِیۡ یَوۡمَ یُبۡعَثُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۸۷﴾ [When Abraham had uttered all this, he supplicated:] "My Lord! Grant me the power of decision making[52] and include me among the righteous[53] and let those who come later fondly remember me[54] and also make me an inheritor among the inheritors of the orchard of comfort and forgive my father; indeed, he is among those who have strayed away. And on the Day, people will be raised up [on that Day, My Lord!] do not disgrace me."[55] (83-87) یَوۡمَ لَا یَنۡفَعُ مَالٌ وَّ لَا بَنُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۸۸﴾ اِلَّا مَنۡ اَتَی اللّٰہَ بِقَلۡبٍ سَلِیۡمٍ ﴿ؕ۸۹﴾ وَ اُزۡلِفَتِ الۡجَنَّۃُ لِلۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۹۰﴾ وَ بُرِّزَتِ الۡجَحِیۡمُ لِلۡغٰوِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۹۱﴾ وَ قِیۡلَ لَہُمۡ اَیۡنَمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡبُدُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۹۲﴾ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ ؕ ہَلۡ یَنۡصُرُوۡنَکُمۡ اَوۡ یَنۡتَصِرُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۹۳﴾ فَکُبۡکِبُوۡا فِیۡہَا ہُمۡ وَ الۡغَاوٗنَ ﴿ۙ۹۴﴾ وَ جُنُوۡدُ اِبۡلِیۡسَ اَجۡمَعُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۹۵﴾ [God said:[56]] The Day when neither wealth will be of benefit nor children;[57] only they will succeed who come to God with a pure heart.[58] [On that Day,] Paradise will be brought near those who fear God[59] and Hell will be exposed to those who have gone astray and they shall be asked: "Where are those who you worshipped besides God? Will they help you in some way or be able to save themselves [today]?" Then they also and these people who have strayed and the armies of Satan as well, all of them will be flung face down into it.[60] (88-95) قَالُوۡا وَ ہُمۡ فِیۡہَا یَخۡتَصِمُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۹۶﴾ تَاللّٰہِ اِنۡ کُنَّا لَفِیۡ ضَلٰلٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿ۙ۹۷﴾ اِذۡ نُسَوِّیۡکُمۡ بِرَبِّ الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿۹۸﴾ وَ مَاۤ اَضَلَّنَاۤ اِلَّا الۡمُجۡرِمُوۡنَ ﴿۹۹﴾ فَمَا لَنَا مِنۡ شَافِعِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰۰﴾ۙ وَ لَا صَدِیۡقٍ حَمِیۡمٍ ﴿۱۰۱﴾ فَلَوۡ اَنَّ لَنَا کَرَّۃً فَنَکُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰۲﴾ There while arguing among themselves they will say [to their leaders]: "By God! We were in open error when we used to make you partners of God."[61] [Then they will express sorrow on their misfortune:] "We were led astray by these wrongdoers. So, now there is neither any intercessor for us nor any loving enthusiastic friend! Now would that we can return once so that we can become believers! (96-102) اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً ؕ وَ مَا کَانَ اَکۡثَرُہُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰۳﴾ وَ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ لَہُوَ الۡعَزِیۡزُ الرَّحِیۡمُ ﴿۱۰۴﴾ Indeed, there is a great sign in this, but most of them are not going to believe. And your Lord, without any doubt, is mighty and very merciful.[62] (103-104) ________ [1]. This is the name of the surah. What does it mean? I have explained in detail my view about it while discussing verse 2 of Surah al-Baqarah. [2]. This is a prelude to the assurance sounded to the Prophet (sws) in the succeeding verses. The implication is that so clear and evident is the purport of the Qur'an that it does not need any external evidence. It is an evidence on its own self. Thus the Prophet (sws) should totally ignore their demand for signs and miracles. [3]. The implication is that God can do this but when the purpose is to test their will and intention, sending a sign is not appropriate. Thus when God is trying to make them understand, the Prophet (sws) too should not be worried because of their demands. The word خَاضِعِيْنَ occurs in the verse instead of خاضعةin deference to the governed noun (muḍaf ilayh). This is a common Arabic style. [4]. Ie., the consequences they will have to face about which they had been warned by the Qur'an. [5]. What is said above is restated here in the light of God's attributes: He is powerful and hence can send down torment on them if He intends to; yet at the same time He is very affectionate and merciful; thus He does not show haste in punishing people and in spite of their rebelliousness gives them respite so that they take heed of the reminders and turn back to their Lord. [6]. At another place, it is explained that this incident took place in the sacred valley of Ṭuwa, when Moses (sws) was coming back from his exile in Madyan. [7]. Ie., they will continue to increase in their rebelliousness and arrogance and not fear the wrath and anger of God? In the words of Amin Ahsan Islahi, the lament, anger, rebuke and the threat of nearness of God's punishment found in this style of address does not need any elaboration. [8]. This is an expression of the anxiety and hesitancy which he as a conscientious individual felt regarding the responsibilities of the great position which was being bestowed upon him. [9]. He meant that he was not a very eloquent orator who could very effectively convey his message to people. This in reality is a very down to earth expression of one's humility and has nothing to do with any physical defect. [10]. It is evident from Jewish traditions that Aaron (sws) was a very eloquent speaker. It is also evident from the confidence with which Moses (sws) nominated him that he considered his brother to be worthy of the position because of his character and conduct as well. Thus he presented this extra-ordinary petition before God. It is not known about any prophet prior to him who was made a companion to another in this way. [11]. This is a reference to the incident in which a Copt was accidentally killed by him and to remain secure from any revenge he left the country and went off to Madyan. Details are mentioned ahead in Surah al-Qasas. [12]. Ie., listening and watching. This is a very eloquent sentence to assure Moses (sws). The detail which is concealed in its brevity and the majesty and splendour, protection and assurance which are apparent from it do not need any elaboration. [13]. The actual words are: أَنْ أَرْسِلْ مَعَنَا بَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ . The letter ب is suppressed before أَنْ in accordance with linguistic considerations. Besides entrusting him with preaching responsibilities, there is a specific reason for which the Almighty asked Moses (sws) to make this demand: it was to implement a special scheme in which the progeny of Abraham (sws) had been chosen by Him for global preaching and conclusive communication of the truth. According to this scheme it was essential that they be settled in a specific territory which was to be made the centre of this communication. It is evident from a study of the Book of Exodus that Moses (sws) did not disclose his full scheme to the Pharaoh and his courtiers and only said that he wanted to take the Israelites with him to a desert for the worship ritual of animal sacrifice. This is because if what was meant to be sacrificed was slaughtered in Egypt its people would stone them to death. [14]. This is a reference to the incident mentioned earlier. [15]. The implication is: what status does he occupy to make such demands of the Pharaoh? this is sheer ingratitude because he has been raised by the Pharaoh and is also a criminal of his country; hence, he must realize his status. On the contrary, he should show gratitude that nothing is being done against him in retaliation. [16]. The word ضَآلّ occurs in the verse in precisely the same meaning as it occurs in verse 282 of Surah al-Baqarah. [17]. This is a very subtle answer given to the Pharaoh by Moses (sws). The impication is that is it in return for this favour that he forces the Israelites to bonded labour, whips them with lashes, slays their male off spring so that mothers are forced to consign them to sea waves in baskets and he is able to express his favour by bringing them up? [18]. The Pharaoh was left speechless by Moses' (sws) reply. So in order to maintain his dignity he began making fun of Moses (sws): if he claimed to be a messenger of a Rabb al-'alamin then who was this being? At another instance, the mental perspective with which this question has been posed is stated by the Qur'an. If this question is understood in the light of this background, the purport of the Pharaoh was that the whole of Egypt regarded him to be an avatar of the sun god, so which God was Moses (sws) referring to and regarded himself to be the messenger of? Such a God had been unheard of who was able to interfere with the Pharaoh's rule and ask him to let the Israelites go with Moses (sws); if there was a creator of the heavens and the earth, let him be; as far as he was concerned, he (the Pharaoh) was the lord and god of the people of the earth. [19]. Ie., do not these people hear what he is saying? It is apparent from this question of the Pharaoh that he was really disturbed. [20]. Ie., the Lord also of those relying on whose traditions he has become the avatar of the sun god. These were very strong words and the Pharaoh responded with words that are cited in the next sentence. [21]. The implication is that if he uses his intellect, he can come out of this foolishness that because of his reign over Egypt he is claiming divinity. The Rabb al-'alamin Moses is talking about is the Lord of the East and the West and all that is between them. [22]. Ie., such a distinct serpent that no one could doubt it. The attribute of مُبِيْنُ occurs precisely for this reason to qualify the noun ثُعْبَانٌ. [23]. The actual words are: بَيْضَاءُ لِلنَّاظِريْنَ. In Arabic, the word نَظْر primarily means to look at something with deliberation. The implication is that the shine which appeared on the hand of Moses (sws) was not some delusion. A deeper look at it will show that its shine was real. [24]. Ie., he is not an ordinary magician. He is very skilful and has the ability to influence people to follow him. Thus he is demanding to take the Israelites with him so that he can organize them into an army and turn them out of their land by attacking them and setting up his own rule there. The Pharaoh said these words, first to do away with the effect of the miracles shown by Moses (sws) and second by regarding them to be a political threat, to incite his nation and its chiefs so much that they do not pay any heed to his message. Here only the Pharaoh is mentioned. At another instance, it is specified that some of his courtiers were also with him in this regard. This could be something very logical keeping in view the formidable personality of Moses (sws) and the large number of the Israelites and people could easily believe it. However, there is a possibility that the Pharaoh and his courtiers actually regarded this to be so. [25]. It is evident from this sentence that the Pharaoh no longer had that forcefulness he formerly had. Thus he is seen asking his courtiers that he is not able to come up with a scheme to deal with this danger and that they should help him in this matter. [26]. The actual words are: أَرْجِهْ وَأَخَاهُ. أَرْجِهْ is actually أَرْجِئْهُ. Such reductions often occur in Arabic to diminish words. [27]. At another instance it is specified that it was a day of festivity or a national occasion and the time fixed for the contest was mid-morning so that people could gather in large numbers. [28]. It is evident from this that people were also highly incited to make them gather: their magicians were entering the contest to protect their national dignity; so everyone needed to desire that they be victorious and in order to encourage them everyone was also to be present there. For this, the interrogative style هَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُجْتَمَعُوْنَ may be noted. [29]. The Qur'an has cited this sentence to point out the moral degradation and meanness of the magicians. The implication is like the general custom of professionals they obsequiously expressed their expectation of being rewarded. [30]. When magicians want to display their skill, they throw something for the onlookers similar to the arrows of gambling and then show their magic on it. The word إِلْقَاء (throw) is used to describe this act for this very reason. [31]. The actual words are: بِعِزَّةِ فِرْعَوْنَ. Here ب denotes an oath. The Bible mentions that the people of Egypt would swear by the honour and majesty of the Pharaoh in his capacity of a deity. [32]. At another place, it is specified that when the magicians threw down their staffs and ropes, they appeared waving and moving forth in the form of many serpents. In response, Moses (sws) threw down his staff which transformed into a snake and started to devour their ropes and staffs and made them into ropes and staffs the way they actually were. Thus the whole spell was done away with. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has directed our attention to another aspect of the words used in the verse to convey this meaning. He writes: ... It is evident from the style مَا يَأفِكُوْنَ that not only did it transpire that the staff of Moses (sws) exposed the trick played by the magicians, at the same time it totally bared what they had done till that time. This was because this was their ultimate trick. When it met this fate, then it meant that the staff of Moses (sws) had actually done away with their whole stunt of magic and sorcery. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 443) [33]. The actual words are: السَّحَرَةُ سَاجِدِينَ فَأُلْقِيَ. The verb أُلْقِيَ occurs in the passive. It is used to express the sentiments of reverence of the magicians. Only the experts of magic and sorcery understand these disciplines well. Thus this is a litmus test between feats of magic and miracles. Their experts are forced to acknowledge miracles. [34]. The magicians declared their faith in the Lord of the Worlds who was being made fun of by the Pharaoh and that too with the specifying words that He is the Lord of Moses (sws) and Jesus (sws). This was an open rejection of the Pharaoh's divinity and sovereignty which obviously he could not have tolerated easily. [35]. The acknowledgement of the magicians had a powerful effect on the gathering and totally disgraced the Pharaoh and his courtiers before them. So, in order to salvage the situation and to get rid of the embarassment, like clever politicians, he immediately blamed the magicians for a conspiracy and went on to announce a punishment for them. He stated that all that had happened because they had connived with Moses (sws), who had forced them to join him by threatening them; now they wanted to rebel against him. He contended that they had done all this because by accepting defeat at the hands of their guru in an open arena, people would be over-awed by Moses (sws) and they would succeed in their conspiracy against his government; it is for this reason that they did not even wait for his permission and declared their faith in Moses (sws); now they will be punished the way rebels are. [36]. The letter ل is suppressed before أَنْ in the verse in accordance with linguistic principles. It can seen from the answer of the magicians how true faith takes people to great heights. In the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi, they were the same magicians who were pleading to the Pharaoh to reward them if they won the contest. Now faith had made their hearts so radiant that for these same people nothing carried any weight against God and the Hereafter. So much so, they were even prepared to give up their lives for the cause of their faith. [37]. After successive admonitions from God, the Pharaoh allowed the Israelites to leave Egypt. But later, he changed his opinion and decided to pursue them. It is evident from the verse that the Almighty had already informed Moses (sws) of this change of plans and for this reason had directed him to lead away the Israelites by night. [38]. The Copts had become fully over-awed by the personality of Moses (sws) and the miracles worked by him. Thus these statements were made by the Pharaoh at the time of gathering his armies to do away with this influence. The implication was though the Israelites are very small in number, the Pharaoh did not want anyone to be left unpunished when they dared to even slightly rise against him. [39]. Ie., this is how God deals with such wrongdoers. Words to the effect نفعل بالمجرمين are suppressed after كَذَالِكَ. Those who have a flair for language well know the emphasis that has been added as a result of this suppression. [40]. The words أَوْرَثْنَاهَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ occur in the verse. The pronoun هَا in them occurs in precisely the same way as it occurs in verse 102 of Surah al-Ma'idah thus: قَدْ سَأَلَهَا قَوْمٌ مِّن قَبْلِكُمْ for the questions of the Israelites. The students of the Qur'an should know that in the exalted classical Arabic of the Qur'an, pronouns do occur in such a way. [41]. In the book of Exodus of the Bible, this incident has been narrated thus: When the king of Egypt was told that the people had fled, Pharaoh and his officials changed their minds about them and said, "What have we done? We have let the Israelites go and have lost their services!" So he had his chariot made ready and took his army with him ... As Pharaoh approached, the Israelites looked up, and there were the Egyptians, marching after them. They were terrified and cried out to the Lord. They said to Moses, "Was it because there were no graves in Egypt that you brought us to the desert to die? What have you done to us by bringing us out of Egypt? Didn't we say to you in Egypt, 'Leave us alone; let us serve the Egyptians'? It would have been better for us to serve the Egyptians than to die in the desert!" Moses answered the people, "Do not be afraid. Stand firm and you will see the deliverance the Lord will bring you today. The Egyptians you see today you will never see again. The Lord will fight for you; you need only to be still." (14:5-14) [42]. This was a great miracle. The book of Exodus of the Bible mentions it in detail thus: Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and all that night the Lord drove the sea back with a strong east wind and turned it into dry land. The waters were divided, and the Israelites went through the sea on dry ground, with a wall of water on their right and on their left. The Egyptians pursued them, and all Pharaoh's horses and chariots and horsemen followed them into the sea. During the last watch of the night the Lord looked down from the pillar of fire and cloud at the Egyptian army and threw it into confusion. He jammed the wheels of their chariots so that they had difficulty driving. And the Egyptians said, "Let's get away from the Israelites! The Lord is fighting for them against Egypt." Then the Lord said to Moses, "Stretch out your hand over the sea so that the waters may flow back over the Egyptians and their chariots and horsemen." Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and at daybreak the sea went back to its place. The Egyptians were fleeing toward it, and the Lord swept them into the sea. (14:21-27) [43]. Ie., the Quraysh of Makkah who are the addressees of the surah. [44]. This is the same repetitive verse which has been explained earlier under footnote: 5. [45]. This question was meant to deprecate them and for this reason its answer was given by his nation with full frenzy of vested interests. [46]. It is because through them Satan takes his revenge from the progeny of Adam and leads them astray so that Hell becomes their final abode. This conversation of Abraham (sws) with his nation clearly shows that he had conclusively conveyed the truth to it in every manner and before migrating was now making his last speech to them. Obviously, the tone here cannot be the same as when in the beginning people are invited to accept the call. [47]. Ie., it is He Who has arranged to fulfil his intellectual and spiritual needs first through innate guidance and then through divine guidance. [48]. Ie., he fulfils all his material needs as well. [49]. A little deliberation shows that granting health is ascribed to God but ailment is not ascribed to Him. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... This is in deference to regard for God and also to the expression of the fact that all favours which people receive are through His blessing and graciousness; however, if they are afflicted with some calamity, at times, this is because of their own faults. Although it is with God's permission that it afflicts them but since its reason is their negligence hence it is attributed to them and not to God. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 525) [50]. This is the greatest favour which can be imagined for a human being who has been created with the cognizance of his own self. [51]. Without actually expressing the obvious reality that God will bring about a Day of Judgement, Abraham (sws) here has directed attention to the graciousness of his Lord that if a person comes to Him giving up rebelliousness, his sins are forgiven by God to the ultimate extent. [52]. This supplication has been made at the time of migration which is a very important phase of the preaching mission of God's messengers. For this reason, it begins with the request that in the subsequent phases Abraham (sws) is able to take the right decision. [53]. Ie., in the Herein and in the Hereafter. [54]. The actual words are: لِسَانَ صِدْقٍ. They refer to persistently mentioning someone in a praiseworthy way. This supplication was accepted for Abraham (sws) in such a way that no parallel can be cited about it from the history of God's prophets. [55]. The implication is that if the father is cast into Hell, it will be humiliating for Abraham (sws) as his son; hence, he is requesting that though his father has gone astray, he may be forgiven as a favour to Abraham (sws). At another place, it is pointed out that since this request was against the unbiased justice of God, it was not granted. [56]. It is evident from the nature of the discourse from here till the end of the paragraph that these words are not part of Abaham's supplication; they are from God. [57]. Abraham (sws) had requested his father's forgiveness. Here in very subtle words God has told him that even a son like him will not be of any benefit there to his father. [58]. This refers to the heart which exists with its pure nature and is free of every contamination of polytheism and hypocrisy. [59]. Ie., just as something is presented before guests for their hospitality, in a similar way, it will be presented before them. [60]. The actual words is: كُبْكِبُوْا. It is the binary of كب as result of which the meaning of exaggeration and repetitiveness has been incorporated in it. [61]. Ie., they followed them the way they should follow the Almighty. [62]. This is the same repetitive verse that has occured earlier. ____________




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