Surah al-Tawbah (61-129) (1/2)

Surah al-Tawbah (61-129) (1/2)


Qur'anic Exegesis

وَ مِنۡہُمُ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡذُوۡنَ النَّبِیَّ وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ ہُوَ اُذُنٌؕ قُلۡ اُذُنُ خَیۡرٍ لَّکُمۡ یُؤۡمِنُ بِاللّٰہِ وَ یُؤۡمِنُ لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ وَ رَحۡمَۃٌ لِّلَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا مِنۡکُمۡؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡذُوۡنَ رَسُوۡلَ اللّٰہِ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ﴿۶۱﴾ یَحۡلِفُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ لَکُمۡ لِیُرۡضُوۡکُمۡۚ وَ اللّٰہُ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗۤ اَحَقُّ اَنۡ یُّرۡضُوۡہُ اِنۡکَانُوۡا مُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ﴿۶۲﴾ اَلَمۡ یَعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّہٗ مَنۡ یُّحَادِدِ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ فَاَنَّ لَہٗ نَارَ جَہَنَّمَ خَالِدًا فِیۡہَاؕ ذٰلِکَ الۡخِزۡیُ الۡعَظِیۡمُ﴿۶۳﴾

Among them are those also who aggrieve the Prophet [through their conversations] and say: "This person believes all that he hears."[1]Tell them: "He intently hears what is good for you.[2]He believes in God, trusts the believers and is mercy in entirety for those among you who sincerely accept faith."[3][Listen up:] "Those who are aggrieving God's Messenger, there is a painful punishment for them." They swear in the name of God before you to please you.[4]Yet if they are believers, God and His Messenger are more worthy of being pleased. Do they not know that he who opposes God and His Messenger, for him is the fire of Hell where he will abide forever?[5]This is a great humiliation.[6](61-63)

یَحۡذَرُ الۡمُنٰفِقُوۡنَ اَنۡتُنَزَّلَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ سُوۡرَۃٌ تُنَبِّئُہُمۡ بِمَا فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ ؕ قُلِ اسۡتَہۡزِءُوۡ اۚاِنَّ اللّٰہَ مُخۡرِجٌ مَّا تَحۡذَرُوۡنَ﴿۶۴﴾ وَ لَئِنۡ سَاَلۡتَہُمۡ لَیَقُوۡلُنَّ اِنَّمَا کُنَّا نَخُوۡضُ وَ نَلۡعَبُؕ قُلۡ اَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ اٰیٰتِہٖ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ کُنۡتُمۡ تَسۡتَہۡزِءُوۡنَ﴿۶۵﴾ لَا تَعۡتَذِرُوۡا قَدۡ کَفَرۡتُمۡ بَعۡدَ اِیۡمَانِکُمۡؕ اِنۡ نَّعۡفُ عَنۡ طَآئِفَۃٍ مِّنۡکُمۡ نُعَذِّبۡ طَآئِفَۃًۢ بِاَنَّہُمۡ کَانُوۡا مُجۡرِمِیۡنَ﴿۶۶﴾

These Hypocrites fear that a surah may be revealed to them which exposes the secrets of their hearts.[7]Tell them: "Make fun [for a little more time]. God is going to expose what you fear." If you ask them [about this attitude of theirs], they will say: "We were only jesting and entertaining [ourselves]." Tell them: "Were you jesting with God, His revelations and His Messenger? Don't put forth lame excuses. You have renounced faith after accepting it. Even if We pardon a faction of yours,[8]We will definitely punish another [in this world] because they in fact are wrongdoers."[9](64-66)

اَلۡمُنٰفِقُوۡنَ وَ الۡمُنٰفِقٰتُ بَعۡضُہُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَعۡضٍۘ یَاۡمُرُوۡنَ بِالۡمُنۡکَرِ وَ یَنۡہَوۡنَ عَنِ الۡمَعۡرُوۡفِ وَ یَقۡبِضُوۡنَ اَیۡدِیَہُمۡؕ نَسُوا اللّٰہَ فَنَسِیَہُمۡؕ اِنَّ الۡمُنٰفِقِیۡنَ ہُمُ الۡفٰسِقُوۡنَ﴿۶۷﴾ وَعَدَ اللّٰہُ الۡمُنٰفِقِیۡنَ وَالۡمُنٰفِقٰتِ وَ الۡکُفَّارَ نَارَ جَہَنَّمَ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَاؕ ہِیَ حَسۡبُہُمۡۚ وَ لَعَنَہُمُ اللّٰہُۚ وَ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ مُّقِیۡمٌ﴿ۙ۶۸﴾ کَالَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِکُمۡ کَانُوۡۤا اَشَدَّ مِنۡکُمۡ قُوَّۃً وَّ اَکۡثَرَ اَمۡوَالًا وَّ اَوۡلَادًاؕ فَاسۡتَمۡتَعُوۡا بِخَلَاقِہِمۡ فَاسۡتَمۡتَعۡتُمۡ بِخَلَاقِکُمۡ کَمَا اسۡتَمۡتَعَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِکُمۡ بِخَلَاقِہِمۡ وَ خُضۡتُمۡ کَالَّذِیۡ خَاضُوۡاؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ حَبِطَتۡ اَعۡمَالُہُمۡ فِی الدُّنۡیَا وَ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ ۚوَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡخٰسِرُوۡنَ﴿۶۹﴾ اَلَمۡ یَاۡتِہِمۡ نَبَاُ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ قَوۡمِ نُوۡحٍ وَّ عَادٍ وَّ ثَمُوۡدَ۬ۙ وَ قَوۡمِ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ وَ اَصۡحٰبِ مَدۡیَنَ وَ الۡمُؤۡتَفِکٰتِؕ اَتَتۡہُمۡ رُسُلُہُمۡ بِالۡبَیِّنٰتِۚ فَمَا کَانَ اللّٰہُ لِیَظۡلِمَہُمۡ وَ لٰکِنۡ کَانُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ یَظۡلِمُوۡنَ﴿۷۰﴾

Hypocrite men and hypocrite women are all the same type of people. They urge evil and forbid good and withhold their hands [from all good]. They forgot God; so, God also forgot them.[10]In reality, it is these Hypocrites who do not fulfil their promises at all.[11]God has promised the fire of Hell to these Hypocrite men and Hypocrite women and open disbelievers in which they will abide forever. It is sufficient for them. The curse of God be on them. And for them is an eternal torment. [O False claimants to faith![12]] like the ones who lived before you. They were mightier and blessed with greater wealth and more children than you. So, they benefited from their share and you benefited from your share in the very way those before you did and you indulged in the same debates as they did. It is these people whose deeds went waste in this world and in the Hereafter and they are the ones who will lose. Has not the news of those before them reached them[13]– the people of Noah, the 'Ad, the Thamud, the nation of Abraham,[14]the residents of Madyan and the inhabitants of settlements that were overturned.[15]Their messengers brought before them veritable signs. So, it was not that God was unjust to them; they, in fact, remained unjust to themselves. (67-70)

وَ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ وَ الۡمُؤۡمِنٰتُ بَعۡضُہُمۡ اَوۡلِیَآءُ بَعۡضٍۘ یَاۡمُرُوۡنَ بِالۡمَعۡرُوۡفِ وَ یَنۡہَوۡنَ عَنِ الۡمُنۡکَرِ وَیُقِیۡمُوۡنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ یُؤۡتُوۡنَ الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ یُطِیۡعُوۡنَ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ سَیَرۡحَمُہُمُ اللّٰہُؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَزِیۡزٌ حَکِیۡمٌ﴿۷۱﴾ وَعَدَ اللّٰہُ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ وَ الۡمُؤۡمِنٰتِ جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَا وَ مَسٰکِنَ طَیِّبَۃً فِیۡ جَنّٰتِ عَدۡنٍؕ وَ رِضۡوَانٌ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ اَکۡبَرُؕ ذٰلِکَ ہُوَ الۡفَوۡزُ الۡعَظِیۡمُ﴿۷۲﴾

Believers, both men and women, [they also] are friends to one another. [Contrary to these Hypocrites,] they urge one another to what is good and forbid what is evil, are diligent in the prayer, pay zakah and obey God and His Messenger.It is these people whom God will very soon bless with His mercy. There is no doubt that God is powerful, very wise. God has promised these believing men and women orchards below which rivers flow; they will live there forever and pure abodes in eternal orchards and the pleasure of God. This is the greatest of all. This is supreme success. (71-72)

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یٰۤاَیُّہَا النَّبِیُّ جَاہِدِ الۡکُفَّارَ وَ الۡمُنٰفِقِیۡنَ وَ اغۡلُظۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡؕ وَ مَاۡوٰىہُمۡ جَہَنَّمُؕ وَ بِئۡسَ الۡمَصِیۡرُ﴿۷۳﴾ یَحۡلِفُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ مَا قَالُوۡاؕ وَ لَقَدۡ قَالُوۡا کَلِمَۃَ الۡکُفۡرِ وَ کَفَرُوۡا بَعۡدَ اِسۡلَامِہِمۡ وَ ہَمُّوۡا بِمَا لَمۡ یَنَالُوۡ اۚوَ مَا نَقَمُوۡۤا اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ اَغۡنٰہُمُ اللّٰہُ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗ مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ ۚفَاِنۡ یَّتُوۡبُوۡا یَکُ خَیۡرًا لَّہُمۡۚ وَاِنۡ یَّتَوَلَّوۡا یُعَذِّبۡہُمُ اللّٰہُ عَذَابًا اَلِیۡمًاۙ فِی الدُّنۡیَا وَالۡاٰخِرَۃِ ۚوَ مَا لَہُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مِنۡ وَّلِیٍّ وَّ لَا نَصِیۡرٍ﴿۷۴﴾

O Prophet![16]Wage jihad against all these disbelievers and hypocrites and be stern with them.[17]Hell is their abode and it is a very evil abode. They swear oaths by God that they did not utter that statement whereas they have definitely uttered that statement of disbelief[18]and [in this manner] are guilty of renouncing faith after embracing it. And they wanted what they could not get.[19]This enmity of theirs is nothing but the consequence of God and His Messenger rewarding them with riches.[20]So, even if they now repent, it is better for them and if they show indifference, God will punish them in a painful way in this world and in the next also. And they will not have any supporter or helper in the land. (73-74)

وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ عٰہَدَ اللّٰہَ لَئِنۡ اٰتٰىنَا مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ لَنَصَّدَّقَنَّ وَ لَنَکُوۡنَنَّ مِنَ الصّٰلِحِیۡنَ﴿۷۵﴾ فَلَمَّاۤ اٰتٰہُمۡ مِّنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ بَخِلُوۡا بِہٖ وَ تَوَلَّوۡا وَّ ہُمۡ مُّعۡرِضُوۡنَ﴿۷۶﴾ فَاَعۡقَبَہُمۡ نِفَاقًا فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ اِلٰی یَوۡمِ یَلۡقَوۡنَہٗ بِمَاۤ اَخۡلَفُوا اللّٰہَ مَا وَعَدُوۡہُ وَ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَکۡذِبُوۡنَ﴿۷۷﴾ اَلَمۡ یَعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یَعۡلَمُ سِرَّہُمۡ وَ نَجۡوٰىہُمۡ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلَّامُ الۡغُیُوۡبِ﴿ۚ۷۸﴾ اَلَّذِیۡنَ یَلۡمِزُوۡنَ الۡمُطَّوِّعِیۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ فِی الصَّدَقٰتِ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یَجِدُوۡنَ اِلَّا جُہۡدَہُمۡ فَیَسۡخَرُوۡنَ مِنۡہُمۡؕ سَخِرَ اللّٰہُ مِنۡہُمۡ۫ وَ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ﴿۷۹﴾ اِسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَہُمۡ اَوۡ لَا تَسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَہُمۡؕ اِنۡ تَسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَہُمۡ سَبۡعِیۡنَ مَرَّۃً فَلَنۡ یَّغۡفِرَ اللّٰہُ لَہُمۡؕ ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمۡ کَفَرُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ ؕوَ اللّٰہُ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الۡفٰسِقِیۡنَ﴿۸۰﴾

There are also those among them[21]who promised God: "If He blesses us with His bounty, we will surely spend in charity and will be among those who do very virtuous deeds." But when God gave them out of His bounty, they started to show stinginess in it and turned their faces while walking away.[22]So, as a consequence, God lodged hypocrisy in their hearts till the day they will meet Him because they went back on their promise with God and because they continued to lie.[23]Do they not know that God is aware of their secrets and their whisperings and God knows very well everything that is hidden?[24]They who censure Muslims regarding charity[25]who spend it willingly and whatever they spend they earn from their hard work; so, they make fun of them.[26]God makes fun of these who make fun and for them is a painful torment. Whether you ask forgiveness for them or not. Even if you ask seventy times for their forgiveness, God will not forgive them. This is because they committed disbelief with God and His Messenger and God does not guide such people who breach promises.[27](75-80)

فَرِحَ الۡمُخَلَّفُوۡنَ بِمَقۡعَدِہِمۡ خِلٰفَ رَسُوۡلِ اللّٰہِ وَ کَرِہُوۡۤا اَنۡ یُّجَاہِدُوۡا بِاَمۡوَالِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ وَ قَالُوۡا لَا تَنۡفِرُوۡا فِی الۡحَرِّؕ قُلۡ نَارُ جَہَنَّمَ اَشَدُّ حَرًّاؕ لَوۡ کَانُوۡا یَفۡقَہُوۡنَ﴿۸۱﴾ فَلۡیَضۡحَکُوۡا قَلِیۡلًا وَّ لۡیَبۡکُوۡا کَثِیۡرًاۚ جَزَآءًۢ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَکۡسِبُوۡنَ﴿۸۲﴾ فَاِنۡ رَّجَعَکَ اللّٰہُ اِلٰی طَآئِفَۃٍ مِّنۡہُمۡ فَاسۡتَاۡذَنُوۡکَ لِلۡخُرُوۡجِ فَقُلۡ لَّنۡ تَخۡرُجُوۡا مَعِیَ اَبَدًا وَّ لَنۡ تُقَاتِلُوۡا مَعِیَ عَدُوًّاؕ اِنَّکُمۡ رَضِیۡتُمۡ بِالۡقُعُوۡدِ اَوَّلَ مَرَّۃٍ فَاقۡعُدُوۡا مَعَ الۡخٰلِفِیۡنَ﴿۸۳﴾

[In the journey for Tabuk] those who had been left behind[28]were very happy at being left behind from God and His Messenger, and they did not like that they wage jihad for the cause of God with their persons and their wealth. They told [people]: "Do not go out in this heat." Tell them: "The fire of Hell is far hot." Would that they understood! Now they should laugh a little and shed more tears because of what they had been doing.[29]So, [O Prophet!] If God takes you back to any of their groups[30]and they seek permission from you to go out for jihad, clearly say: "You shall never go out with me nor will you fight along with me with any enemy. You preferred to sit earlier; so, now also sit with them who were left behind." (81-83)

وَ لَا تُصَلِّ عَلٰۤی اَحَدٍ مِّنۡہُمۡ مَّاتَ اَبَدًا وَّ لَا تَقُمۡ عَلٰی قَبۡرِہٖ ؕ اِنَّہُمۡ کَفَرُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ وَ مَا تُوۡا وَ ہُمۡ فٰسِقُوۡنَ﴿۸۴﴾ وَ لَا تُعۡجِبۡکَ اَمۡوَالُہُمۡ وَ اَوۡلَادُہُمۡؕ اِنَّمَا یُرِیۡدُ اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یُّعَذِّبَہُمۡ بِہَا فِی الدُّنۡیَا وَتَزۡہَقَ اَنۡفُسُہُمۡ وَ ہُمۡ کٰفِرُوۡنَ﴿۸۵﴾ وَاِذَاۤ اُنۡزِلَتۡ سُوۡرَۃٌ اَنۡ اٰمِنُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ جَاہِدُوۡا مَعَ رَسُوۡلِہِ اسۡتَاۡذَنَکَ اُولُوا الطَّوۡلِ مِنۡہُمۡ وَ قَالُوۡا ذَرۡنَا نَکُنۡ مَّعَ الۡقٰعِدِیۡنَ﴿۸۶﴾ رَضُوۡا بِاَنۡ یَّکُوۡنُوۡا مَعَ الۡخَوَالِفِ وَ طُبِعَ عَلٰی قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ فَہُمۡ لَا یَفۡقَہُوۡنَ﴿۸۷﴾ لٰکِنِ الرَّسُوۡلُ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا مَعَہٗ جٰہَدُوۡا بِاَمۡوَالِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡؕ وَاُولٰٓئِکَ لَہُمُ الۡخَیۡرٰتُ۫ وَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُفۡلِحُوۡنَ﴿۸۸﴾ اَعَدَّ اللّٰہُ لَہُمۡ جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَاؕ ذٰلِکَ الۡفَوۡزُ الۡعَظِیۡمُ﴿۸۹﴾

And when in future any of them dies, never pray [the funeral] for him and never stand [to supplicate] on his grave because they have rejected God and His Messenger and have died while breaching their promise.[31]Do not give any importance to their wealth or children. God intends to punish them through these in the life of this world and their souls depart in the state of disbelief.[32]When a surah is revealed: "Profess faith in God the way it should be professed[33]and wage jihad alongside His messenger," those who are able to do so, also come to you to ask for reprieve, and say: "Leave us! We will stay with those who stay here."[34]They preferred to sit with these [women] who sit behind in the houses.[35]And [as a result of this] their hearts were sealed; so, they understand nothing. The Messenger of God, however, has waged jihad with his person and his wealth and they too who accepted faith with him. And it is they for whom there is good [in this world and the next] and it is they who will succeed. God has prepared for them orchards beneath which canals flow. They will live in them forever. This is supreme success. (84-89)

وَ جَآءَ الۡمُعَذِّرُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡاَعۡرَابِ لِیُؤۡذَنَ لَہُمۡ وَ قَعَدَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَذَبُوا اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ ؕ سَیُصِیۡبُ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا مِنۡہُمۡ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ﴿۹۰﴾

From among the Bedouin Arabs[36]also came those who made excuses that they be permitted [to stay behind], and who had made a false promise [to profess faith] in God and His Messenger; they sat [in their homes without this].[37]Soon a painful torment will seize their disbelievers.[38](90)

لَیۡسَ عَلَی الضُّعَفَآءِ وَلَا عَلَی الۡمَرۡضٰی وَ لَا عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یَجِدُوۡنَ مَا یُنۡفِقُوۡنَ حَرَجٌ اِذَا نَصَحُوۡا لِلّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ ؕ مَا عَلَی الۡمُحۡسِنِیۡنَ مِنۡ سَبِیۡلٍؕ وَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ﴿ۙ۹۱﴾ وَّ لَا عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ اِذَا مَاۤ اَتَوۡکَ لِتَحۡمِلَہُمۡ قُلۡتَ لَاۤ اَجِدُ مَاۤ اَحۡمِلُکُمۡ عَلَیۡہِ ۪تَوَلَّوۡا وَّ اَعۡیُنُہُمۡ تَفِیۡضُ مِنَ الدَّمۡعِ حَزَنًا اَلَّا یَجِدُوۡا مَا یُنۡفِقُوۡنَ﴿ؕ۹۲﴾ اِنَّمَا السَّبِیۡلُ عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ یَسۡتَاۡذِنُوۡنَکَ وَ ہُمۡ اَغۡنِیَآءُ ۚ رَضُوۡا بِاَنۡ یَّکُوۡنُوۡا مَعَ الۡخَوَالِفِۙ وَ طَبَعَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ فَہُمۡ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ﴿۹۳﴾

There is no blame, however, on those who are weak and those who are sick and on those also who do not find anything to spend when they remain well-wishers of God and His Messenger.[39]There is no blame on such pious people. And God is forgiving; He is ever-merciful. Similarly, they are also not to blame that when they come to you to make arrangements for their conveyance, you say: "I cannot arrange for your conveyance," they return with eyes shedding tears in this sorrow that they do not have the ability to travel at their own expense. Only they are to blame who seek reprieve from you even though they are wealthy. They were satisfied to remain with those [women] who remain behind [sitting in their houses] and [as a result of this] God put a seal on their hearts. Now they do not know [about the fate they are heading for]. (91-93)

یَعۡتَذِرُوۡنَ اِلَیۡکُمۡ اِذَا رَجَعۡتُمۡ اِلَیۡہِمۡؕ قُلۡ لَّا تَعۡتَذِرُوۡا لَنۡ نُّؤۡمِنَ لَکُمۡ قَدۡ نَبَّاَنَا اللّٰہُ مِنۡ اَخۡبَارِکُمۡؕ وَ سَیَرَی اللّٰہُ عَمَلَکُمۡ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗ ثُمَّ تُرَدُّوۡنَ اِلٰی عٰلِمِ الۡغَیۡبِ وَ الشَّہَادَۃِ فَیُنَبِّئُکُمۡ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ﴿۹۴﴾ سَیَحۡلِفُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ لَکُمۡ اِذَا انۡقَلَبۡتُمۡ اِلَیۡہِمۡ لِتُعۡرِضُوۡا عَنۡہُمۡؕفَ اَعۡرِضُوۡا عَنۡہُمۡؕ اِنَّہُمۡ رِجۡسٌ۫ وَّ مَاۡوٰىہُمۡ جَہَنَّمُۚ جَزَآءًۢ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَکۡسِبُوۡنَ﴿۹۵﴾ یَحۡلِفُوۡنَ لَکُمۡ لِتَرۡضَوۡا عَنۡہُمۡۚ فَاِنۡ تَرۡضَوۡا عَنۡہُمۡ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یَرۡضٰی عَنِ الۡقَوۡمِ الۡفٰسِقِیۡنَ﴿۹۶﴾ اَلۡاَعۡرَابُ اَشَدُّ کُفۡرًا وَّ نِفَاقًا وَّ اَجۡدَرُ اَلَّا یَعۡلَمُوۡا حُدُوۡدَ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی رَسُوۡلِہٖ ؕوَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ﴿۹۷﴾

When you people return to them [after this journey] they will present before you all sorts of excuses. Say clearly to them: "Do not make excuses; we will not believe in anything you say. God has informed us of your circumstances.[40] Now God and His Messenger will observe your deeds. Then you will be brought before Him who knows what is open and what is hidden, and He will inform you what you have been doing." On your return, they will now swear oaths by God that you ignore them. So, ignore them[41]because they are filth in totality, and Hell is their abode because of what they used to earn. They will swear in front of you to become happy with them. So, even if you become happy with them, God will never be happy with such people who break their promises. These Bedouin Arabs are stronger in their disbelief and hypocrisy and are only worthy that they not be aware of the bounds of what God has revealed to His Messenger.[42]God knows everything. He is full of wisdom. (94-97)

وَمِنَ الۡاَعۡرَابِ مَنۡ یَّتَّخِذُ مَا یُنۡفِقُ مَغۡرَمًا وَّ یَتَرَبَّصُ بِکُمُ الدَّوَآئِرَؕ عَلَیۡہِمۡ دَآئِرَۃُ السَّوۡءِؕ وَ اللّٰہُ سَمِیۡعٌ عَلِیۡمٌ﴿۹۸﴾ وَ مِنَ الۡاَعۡرَابِ مَنۡ یُّؤۡمِنُ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ وَ یَتَّخِذُ مَا یُنۡفِقُ قُرُبٰتٍ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ وَ صَلَوٰتِ الرَّسُوۡلِ ؕ اَلَاۤ اِنَّہَا قُرۡبَۃٌ لَّہُمۡ ؕ سَیُدۡخِلُہُمُ اللّٰہُ فِیۡ رَحۡمَتِہٖ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ﴿۹۹﴾

Among these Bedouins, there are those also regard spending in the way of God to be a penalty and await for you a turn of fortune. Let bad fortune fall on them and God hears and knows all. And among these Bedouins, there are those also truly believe in God and in the last day and regard what they spend and the supplications[43]of the Messenger as means of nearness[44]to God. So, there is no doubt that both these are a means of nearness for them. God will definitely admit them into His mercy. Indeed, God is forgiving; ever-merciful. (98-99)

وَ السّٰبِقُوۡنَ الۡاَوَّلُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُہٰجِرِیۡنَ وَ الۡاَنۡصَارِ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اتَّبَعُوۡہُمۡ بِاِحۡسَانٍ ۙ رَّضِیَ اللّٰہُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَرَضُوۡا عَنۡہُ وَ اَعَدَّ لَہُمۡ جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِیۡ تَحۡتَہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَاۤ اَبَدًا ؕ ذٰلِکَ الۡفَوۡزُ الۡعَظِیۡمُ ﴿۱۰۰﴾

God was pleased with those muhajirun and ansar and they were pleased with God who took the initiative the foremost, and with those also who have befittingly followed them.[45]God has prepared for them orchards below which streams flow. They will abide in them forever. This is great success. (100)

وَ مِمَّنۡ حَوۡلَکُمۡ مِّنَ الۡاَعۡرَابِ مُنٰفِقُوۡنَ ؕۛ وَ مِنۡ اَہۡلِ الۡمَدِیۡنَۃِ ۟ۛؔ مَرَدُوۡا عَلَی النِّفَاقِ ۟ لَا تَعۡلَمُہُمۡ ؕ نَحۡنُ نَعۡلَمُہُمۡ ؕ سَنُعَذِّبُہُمۡ مَّرَّتَیۡنِ ثُمَّ یُرَدُّوۡنَ اِلٰی عَذَابٍ عَظِیۡمٍ ﴿۱۰۱﴾ۚ

There are many hypocrites in the Bedouins who live around you and among the inhabitants of Madinah also. They have become adept in their hypocrisy. You do not know them; We know them.[46]Soon We will punish them twice.[47]Then they will be pushed towards a great torment. (101)

[1]. This is a sentence of condemnation that apparently appears as one of praise. In the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi, this meaning is incorporated in this sentence because just as listening to everyone is the sign of a person's benevolence and graciousness, it is also a sign of a person's naivety, gullibility and lack of insight. He writes:

The hypocrites would use these words for the Prophet (sws) keeping in view this meaning. They would make fun of God and His messenger in their gatherings. When news of this behaviour would reach the Prophet (sws) through some means and he would express his displeasure at it, the hypocrites clarified their position before people by saying: he is pious person; whatever he hears, he believes in it and on this basis becomes disillusioned from such sincere and obedient people as ourselves; otherwise, how can words of disrespect be uttered by us? And by way of jest and entertainment, if some words of disrespect are uttered by us intentionally, then this is an entirely different thing. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 593)

[2]. This is a reply to the hypocrites in a very subtle style. It means that he indeed is an embodiment of listening to others, but for whom? If they had duly valued this benevolent and gracious personality, they would have understood that he is an embodiment of listening for their welfare and benefit. When news of their good deeds and good intentionsreaches him, he is always ready to believe in it. He does not after listening to their bad behaviour, conspiracies and whisperings think that he should save in his heart as a prized possession whatever reaches him.

[3]. Ie., he does not believe in any bad news about them that he hears from every Tom, Dick and Harry. Obviously, he does believe in God and trusts true believers. Thus when he hears anything through them, he does believe in it. He does not wish ill for them. They can see that he is an embodiment of mercy for all those who have adopted the right attitude. By God's grace, they too can be worthy of his affection and mercy by reforming their ways. Here it may be noted that the prepositions بand لboth are used in this verse. With the former, the word إيمانmeans to have belief in something and with the latter it means to merely to accept and understand something. The translation has been done while giving due consideration to this.

[4]. The actual word is: يَرْضُوْهُ. Earlier both God and His messenger are mentioned but here the pronoun used is singular. It directs our attention to the fact that pleasing God and the messenger is the same. Deliberation shows that the hypocrites are very aptly rebuked here. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... At times, a person's excuse for a sin becomes worse than the sin itself. The attitude adopted by the hypocrites in trying to justify their wrongdoing made them even worse sinners. Had they been upright they would have tried to please God and His messenger and not tried to go after convincing Muslims through false oaths that they are truthful and the Prophet (sws) on the contrary is gullible. This is a very cunning campaign of propaganda against him. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 599)

[5]. In this verse, the word فَأَنَّ is coordinated to أَنَّهُand يُحَادِد expresses the opposition in which a person becomes an enemy of someone.

[6].Ie., that humiliation is much greater than the one from which they are trying to save themselves at this time. They should think what they should do to save themselves from that humiliation.

[7]. The actual words are: اَنۡ تُنَزَّلَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ سُوۡرَۃٌ تُنَبِّئُہُمۡ بِمَا فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ. The preposition عَلَيْ in them shows that تُنَزَّلَ encompasses the meaning of تقرء عليهم, ie., it is read out to them. Earlier it was said that the hypocrites would swear by God to convince Muslims of their innocence. Here its historical background is made evident: all this is happening because of the fear they see in the change of tone in this surah. Hence, they are worried that all their secrets may be exposed.

[8]. Ie., pardon them in this world and defer their matter to the Hereafter. This is stated because there were many factions of the hypocrites and the nature of hypocrisy of each and the disorder they spread was not of the same extent.

[9]. Ie., they are not merely naive jokers, the real purpose of their jest is to dent the courage of the Muslims so that they fail in the struggle they are undertaking under the leadership of the Prophet (sws).

[10]. Ie., God while ignoring them has deprived them of the will and urge to do good. Here the reason of this deprivation is stated: when they forgot God, they were consigned by God to Satan in accordance with His established practice. Thus it can be seen that it is now Satan who holds their reins and drives them to wherever he wants.

[11]. This is because they made a promise of "to listen and to obey" to the Prophet (sws) and then have broken it. They appear as Muslims outwardly, yet in secret they are making an effort to rout Islam and Muslims.

[12]. From here, the discourse has become direct. This has increased its intensity.

[13]. This is an explanation of the rather concise expression: كَلَّذِيْنَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ.

[14]. This refers to the nation of Abraham (sws) which was called upon by him to the truth, but which rejected his message and which was abandoned by him at the behest of God. Besides being a prophet (nabi), Abraham (sws) was also a messenger (rasul). The way the Qur'an has mentioned his nation shows that it was punished after his migration the way the nations of messengers are once the truth is conclusively communicated to them.

[15]. This refers to the settlements of the people of Lot. This becomes evident from other instances in the Qur'an.

[16]. From here begins the fifth instalment of the surah. It is evident from its contents that it was revealed during Tabuk or some time during the return journey from Tabuk.

[17]. The word jihad covers war as well as stern accountability. The implication is that the disbelievers and the hypocrites are of the same category. The Prophet (sws) has been told that they have become audacious in their pranks because of his gracious nature. He should now totally change his attitude with them and undertake the measure he has been asked to take about them respectively. Thus he should kill the disbelievers wherever he finds them as directed earlier. As for the hypocrites, he should wage the jihad of stern accountability and seize them and instead of showing affection to them, he should deal with them very strictly so that it becomes evident to them that they will now have to live like true Muslims otherwise they will face the same fate which has become destined for those who have disbelieved in the Prophet (sws).

[18]. This is a reference to some statement of theirs that has already been alluded to earlier: the hypocrites would make fun of God, His messenger and His revelations in their gatherings. However, when they were called to account, they would totally deny it and say that they were only jesting.

[19]. This is an allusion to the plans of the hypocrites which they had made to uproot Islam but God exposed them at the right time and they were not able to succeed. They faced defeat at every instance. In the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi, here the Qur'an has very eloquently and concisely referred to all their evil schemes as well as to their deprivations and failures.

[20]. This is a reference to the spoils of war that were acquired by the Muslims in various victories and of which the greatest benefit was reaped by these hypocrites. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... In the first place, the Prophet (sws) in order to show affection to them would give them more than the rest and they too because of their immense greed would try to grab as much as they could through many excuses. Morever, they only had recipients among them. None of them was a giver. Whenever an opportunity would arise to spend for the cause of God ... they would totally abstain from it. In this manner, these people had become wealthy and in return for this wealth they conspired and connived against Islam because of which they had gained these riches. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 610)

[21]. Ie., from these people who had become rich because of Islam.

[22]. The actual words are: تَوَلَّوْا وَ هُمْ مُعْرِضُوْنَ. It is evident from the words هُمْ مُعْرِضُوْنَafter تَوَلَّوْا that whenever charity was mentioned to them, they would turn back on their heels and not even look back.

[23]. This is in accordance with the established practice God has prescribed about providing guidance: when a person continues to do a wrong and makes it a part of his life, he is forever deprived of the urge to repent and reform.

[24]. Ie., He practically knows and His attribute is also that He is the knower of all secrets.

[25]. The verse begins with the words: الَّذِيْنَ يَلْمِزُوْنَ. This الَّذِيْنَis the permutative (badal) of هُمْin نَجْواهُم of the previous verse. It has been translated thus.

[26]. Ie., while they themselves do nothing, they writhe in anger and boil in jealousy at what others spend for the cause of God. Thus they censure and rebuke the rich and make fun of the poor. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... As for the generous and sincere Muslims who spent with generosity and large-heartedness, they would call them people who were fame-greedy and show-offs and that they did it to over-awe others with their religiosity and generosity. As for the poor Muslims who did not have anything to spend and spent whatever little they could earn from their hard labour, they would make fun of them and make sarcastic remarks to discourage them. Typically they would say that these people had become more generous than the proverbial Ḥatim Ṭa'i. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 613)

[27]. Ie., he does not show them the path which takes them away from Hell and puts them on the path that leads to the destination which the believers will reach. It is evident from this verse how affectionate and merciful the Prophet (sws) was and how emphatically he would pray for the forgiveness and salvation of such hypocrites.

[28]. Ie., though they kept back themselves by asking for concessions, they were in reality left back because by presenting lame excuses they had not remained worthy of being fortunate enough to wage jihad for the cause of God.

[29]. The implication is that they desired to tread the path that leads to Hell by running away from the hardships encountered in waging jihad for the cause of God. So, this attitude is not something they should be happy about: it is something they should mourn. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... Generally our exegetes have taken this statement of regret as a statement of information. I do not agree with this interpretation. Here both the deed and its fate have been made evident. This is because a person who has insight can see his fate in the mirror of his deeds done in this world and is affected by it the way he should be. Yet, the blind and deaf are deprived of this. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 618)

[30]. If the style of this sentence is kept in mind, then the purport of the verse is that if God with His power shows the Prophet (sws) the faces of the people who he would not like to see and if against the wishes of those who think that he will not be able to save himself from the mighty Roman army, God makes him successfully return to these people.

[31]. Prior to this, the Prophet (sws) was stopped from praying for their for forgiveness. Now he has been stopped from taking them with him for jihad as well as to not offer the funeral prayer for any of them who dies and from standing at his grave. What could be more humiliating and what could be more grave a punishment for a person in a Muslim society in the presence of God's messenger.

[32]. This intention of God is in accordance with His established practice that He has prescribed for providing guidance to people.

[33]. The actual words are: اَنۡ اٰمِنُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ. Here the verb is in its complete meaning and has been translated as such.

[34]. This is an expression of their thoughts. At some other instances, a mental thought has been regarded as a statement (qawl). The implication is that they think that if their excuse is accepted, they will remain behind with those who have a genuine excuse and who sit here in comfort.

[35]. Ie., instead of venturing forth in the battlefield and thereby fulfilling their obligation to faith, they desired for themselves to stay behind like women.

[36]. Earlier the attitude of the urban hypocrites who lived in Madinah and its environs was under discussion. From here onwards begins the mention of the hypocrites who lived in villages.

[37]. Ie., did not even bother to present a false excuse.

[38]. Ie., the disbelievers among these rural hypocrites. This is stated because there were also true believers among them who took the lead to offer sacrifice to help the cause of religion at every instance.

[39]. The condition spelled out here is very important. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... This is because there can be many sick and poor who can try to cause harm to Islam and to the Muslims whilst sitting in their homes through their conspiracies and connivances. Such people will not be absolved of the blame of staying back. Only those will be absolved of this blame who though are not able to reach the battlefield because of their weakness, ailment or poverty, yet wherever they are, try as far as they can to serve Islam and the Muslims. And if they are not able to do anything, then at least in their homes they sincerely pray for the victory of Islam and the Muslims and express grief at their own deprivation of being able to participate in jihad. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 626)

[40]. The verse addresses the Muslims and that it is why plural verbs and nouns are used at every instance. However, the word قُلْoccurs in the singular. What is the reason? Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has explained it. He writes:

... It is evident from this that an answer is given to the hypocrites on behalf of all the Muslims through the tongue of the Prophet (sws). It is as if the Prophet's tongue represents the hearts of all sincere believers. This style also subtly portrays the trust, positive sentiments and complete harmony between the Prophet (sws) and the ummah. Also evident from it is the sarcasm found for the hypocrites. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 627)

[41]. The actual word is اِعْرَاَض. Deliberation shows that it is very eloquently used in two different, in fact, opposite meanings. In the first instances, it is used "to forgive" and in the second "to turn away." In other words, these hypocrites will try to convince Muslims to ignore whatever has happened. So fine. Muslims should ignore them. It is but better to ignore such filth.

[42]. This is because they never tried to understand these bounds and create insight about them and God blesses only those people with understanding and insight who prove themselves worthy of it.

[43]. Ie., supplications which they become entitled to because of their faith, sincerity and charitable behaviour.

[44]. The actual words are: أَلاَ إِنَّهَا قُرْبَةٌ لَهُمْ. No one should have any misconception about the feminine pronoun in them. A linguistic principle of the language in which the Qur'an has been revealed is that when an accusative or genitive pronoun is employed to refer to both a masculine and feminine noun, then just as that pronoun should be in the dual (muthanna) according to the general rule, it can also be in the feminine singular if no ambiguity exists in the meaning and it is very evident that the pronoun is referring to both the masculine and feminine noun. In fact, a recourse to classical Arabic shows that on such instances this pronoun is generally in the feminine singular.

[45]. Here those people are presented as examples to weak Muslims and hypocrites who were the most outstanding among the companions of the Prophet (sws) and his real assets. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... It is stated that the leading battalion of this ummah is those among the muhajirun and the ansar who were the foremost to respond to the call of the messenger of God. They were the ones who accepted it when even taking a step towards it was not possible without facing a lot of hardships. They supported and defended the messenger when this meant inviting the enmity of the whole of Arabia.

At the second tier were those who though did not occupy the status of being the foremost in responding to the call of the messenger, yet they followed the foremost with full sincerity and uprightness. In this attitude they never allowed any pretension, compromise, vested-interest or any type of hesitancy or hypocrisy to creep in. Once they took a step forward, they never thought of going back. Those whom they had to sever themselves from, they did so completely and those whom they needed to join themselves to, they did so completely. In fact, such was this union that the two became one. This sincerity, veracity and complete harmony between their inner and outerselves has been called ihsan here. At another instance in this exegesis it has been explained that ihsan means to do something in a thorough and befitting way.

... It is stated that God was pleased with them and they were pleased with God. God was pleased with them because they went to the ultimate extent in showing the patience, perseverance, valour and selflessness He expected from people for the cause of the truth. Similarly, they fully abided by the covenant they made with God in spite of all the hardships and opposition they had to encounter. Furthermore they perfected their abilities and potentials that God had placed in them and expended them in pleasing God alone. They never let Satan creep into this sincerity to God.

The meaning of God being pleased with them is that they regarded every dealing of God with them to be based on His justice, wisdom and mercy in every sense. If they faced some trial, they regarded it to be a remedy to some shortcoming they had. If they were confronted with a hardship, they regarded it to be a test of their patience and steadfastness. If good times befell them, they showed gratitude and if they were afflicted with sorrow, they showed perseverance and satisfaction. They never lost hope in any situation. Storms erupted, thunder lit up the heavens and lightning even struck their belongings to reduce them to ashes, yet nothing could disrupt their satisfied souls. They remain pleased with God and God remains pleased with them and this ultimately made them worthy of the glad tidings:فَادْخُلِي فِي عِبَادِي وَادْخُلِي جَنَّتِي (89: 29-30)(enter among My servants and enter My Paradise, (89: 29-30)). (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 635)

[46]. These words sound an admonition to both the Muslims and to the hypocrites: Muslims must remain fully alert about the hypocrites and hypocrites must know that Muslims can be deceived in recognizing them but God knows full well the garb they have camouflaged themselves in.

[47]. Ie., once at the hands of the Muslims and second in Barzakh when they will depart from this world.

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