بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ
اَلۡحَمۡدُ لِلّٰہِ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ وَ جَعَلَ الظُّلُمٰتِ وَالنُّوۡرَ ۬ؕ ثُمَّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا بِرَبِّہِمۡ یَعۡدِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱﴾ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَکُمۡ مِّنۡ طِیۡنٍ ثُمَّ قَضٰۤی اَجَلًا ؕ وَ اَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّی عِنۡدَہٗ ثُمَّ اَنۡتُمۡ تَمۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۲﴾ وَہُوَ اللّٰہُ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ یَعۡلَمُ سِرَّکُمۡ وَ جَہۡرَکُمۡ وَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا تَکۡسِبُوۡنَ ﴿۳﴾وَ مَا تَاۡتِیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡ اٰیَۃٍ مِّنۡ اٰیٰتِ رَبِّہِمۡ اِلَّا کَانُوۡا عَنۡہَا مُعۡرِضِیۡنَ ﴿۴﴾فَقَدۡ کَذَّبُوۡا بِالۡحَقِّ لَمَّا جَآءَہُمۡ ؕ فَسَوۡفَ یَاۡتِیۡہِمۡ اَنۡۢبٰٓؤُا مَا کَانُوۡا بِہٖ یَسۡتَہۡزِءُوۡنَ ﴿۵﴾اَلَمۡ یَرَوۡا کَمۡ اَہۡلَکۡنَا مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ مِّنۡ قَرۡنٍ مَّکَّنّٰہُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مَا لَمۡ نُمَکِّنۡ لَّکُمۡ وَ اَرۡسَلۡنَا السَّمَآءَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ مِّدۡرَارًا ۪ وَّ جَعَلۡنَا الۡاَنۡہٰرَ تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہِمۡ فَاَہۡلَکۡنٰہُمۡ بِذُنُوۡبِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡشَاۡنَا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہِمۡ قَرۡنًا اٰخَرِیۡنَ ﴿۶﴾
Gratitude be to God alone, Who made the heavens and the earth and created light and expansive darkness. Then it is strange that these disbelievers set up other deities with their Lord. And it is He who has created you from clay, then decreed a term [for you] and another one is also decreed with Him. It is strange that even after this you engage in quibbling. He is God in the heavens and on the earth also. He has knowledge of what you conceal and what you reveal and knows what you are earning. Yet every time a sign from the signs of their Lord comes to them, they ignore it. Thus, [now also] they have denied the truth when it has come to them. So, very soon the news of what they used to make fun of will come to them. Have they not seen how many a nation we have destroyed before them whom We granted such authority in the land which We did not grant you? We sent down abundant water for them and made rivers flow below them [but they still insisted on denying]. So because of their sins We at last destroyed them and after them raised up other nations in their place. (1-6)
وَلَوۡ نَزَّلۡنَا عَلَیۡکَ کِتٰبًا فِیۡ قِرۡطَاسٍ فَلَمَسُوۡہُ بِاَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ لَقَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اِنۡ ہٰذَاۤ اِلَّا سِحۡرٌ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۷﴾وَ قَالُوۡا لَوۡلَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ عَلَیۡہِ مَلَکٌ ؕ وَ لَوۡ اَنۡزَلۡنَا مَلَکًا لَّقُضِیَ الۡاَمۡرُ ثُمَّ لَا یُنۡظَرُوۡنَ ﴿۸﴾وَلَوۡ جَعَلۡنٰہُ مَلَکًا لَّجَعَلۡنٰہُ رَجُلًا وَّلَلَبَسۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ مَّا یَلۡبِسُوۡنَ ﴿۹﴾وَلَقَدِ اسۡتُہۡزِیَٔ بِرُسُلٍ مِّنۡ قَبۡلِکَ فَحَاقَ بِالَّذِیۡنَ سَخِرُوۡامِنۡہُمۡ مَّا کَانُوۡا بِہٖ یَسۡتَہۡزِءُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰﴾ قُلۡ سِیۡرُوۡا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ثُمَّ انۡظُرُوۡا کَیۡفَ کَانَ عَاقِبَۃُ الۡمُکَذِّبِیۡنَ ﴿۱۱﴾
If We had revealed to you [O Prophet!] a Book that was written on parchment and they were also able to touch it with their own hands, even then these disbelievers would still assert: "This is but plain magic." They ask: "Why was not an angel [openly] sent down to him?" [These fools do not understand that] if We had sent down an angel, a verdict would have been delivered by now; then they would not have been given any respite. And [they do not understand that] if We had sent him as an angel, We would have sent him in the form of a human. And [in this way] would have inflicted them with the very doubt they are now in. In reality, before you also messengers were made fun of; so these people were destroyed by what they would make fun of. Tell them: "Roam a bit in the land to see the fate of those who disbelieved." (7-11)
قُلۡ لِّمَنۡ مَّا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالۡاَرۡضِ ؕ قُلۡ لِّلّٰہِ ؕ کَتَبَ عَلٰی نَفۡسِہِ الرَّحۡمَۃَ ؕ لَیَجۡمَعَنَّکُمۡ اِلٰی یَوۡمِ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ لَا رَیۡبَ فِیۡہِ ؕ اَلَّذِیۡنَ خَسِرُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ فَہُمۡ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲﴾ وَلَہٗ مَا سَکَنَ فِی الَّیۡلِ وَالنَّہَارِ ؕ وَہُوَ السَّمِیۡعُ الۡعَلِیۡمُ ﴿۱۳﴾
Ask them: "To whom belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth?" Say: "To God alone." He has made mercy mandatory on Himself. After gathering all of you, He will definitely take you to the Day of Judgement about which there is no doubt. Only those who have inflicted themselves with loss do not believe in it. [In reality,] whatever is stationed in the night or [moves in] the day is under His control. He hears all and knows all. (12-13)
قُلۡ اَغَیۡرَ اللّٰہِ اَتَّخِذُ وَلِیًّا فَاطِرِ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ ہُوَ یُطۡعِمُ وَ لَا یُطۡعَمُ ؕ قُلۡ اِنِّیۡۤ اُمِرۡتُ اَنۡ اَکُوۡنَ اَوَّلَ مَنۡ اَسۡلَمَ وَلَا تَکُوۡنَنَّ مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴﴾ قُلۡ اِنِّیۡۤ اَخَافُ اِنۡ عَصَیۡتُ رَبِّیۡ عَذَابَ یَوۡمٍ عَظِیۡمٍ ﴿۱۵﴾ مَنۡ یُّصۡرَفۡ عَنۡہُ یَوۡمَئِذٍ فَقَدۡ رَحِمَہٗ ؕ وَذٰلِکَ الۡفَوۡزُ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿۱۶﴾
Say: "Should I make anyone else but God my protector Who is the Creator of the heavens and the earth and gives nourishment to all and is nourished by none." Say: "I was directed to be the first to submit to Him," and [it was emphasized:] "You should never become among the polytheists." Say: "If I disobey my Lord, I fear to face the torment of a fateful day." In reality, he who is spared from torment that day is the one who has received God's mercy, and this is open success. (14-16)
وَ اِنۡ یَّمۡسَسۡکَ اللّٰہُ بِضُرٍّ فَلَا کَاشِفَ لَہٗۤ اِلَّا ہُوَ ؕ وَ اِنۡ یَّمۡسَسۡکَ بِخَیۡرٍ فَہُوَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۱۷﴾وَ ہُوَ الۡقَاہِرُ فَوۡقَ عِبَادِہٖ ؕ وَ ہُوَ الۡحَکِیۡمُ الۡخَبِیۡرُ ﴿۱۸﴾ قُلۡ اَیُّ شَیۡءٍ اَکۡبَرُ شَہَادَۃً ؕ قُلِ اللّٰہُ ۟ۙ شَہِیۡدٌۢ بَیۡنِیۡ وَ بَیۡنَکُمۡ ۟ وَ اُوۡحِیَ اِلَیَّ ہٰذَا الۡقُرۡاٰنُ لِاُنۡذِرَکُمۡ بِہٖ وَمَنۡۢ بَلَغَ ؕ اَئِنَّکُمۡ لَتَشۡہَدُوۡنَ اَنَّ مَعَ اللّٰہِ اٰلِہَۃً اُخۡرٰی ؕ قُلۡ لَّاۤ اَشۡہَدُ ۚ قُلۡ اِنَّمَا ہُوَ اِلٰہٌ وَّاحِدٌ وَّ اِنَّنِیۡ بَرِیۡٓءٌ مِّمَّا تُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿ۘ۱۹﴾
[Rest assured that] if God afflicts you with a sorrow, none except Him can take it away, and if He blesses you with some good fortune, then He has power over all things. He is dominant on His servants in every respect and is Wise, All-Knowing. Ask them: "Whose witness is the greatest?" Say: "God's; He is a witness between you and me." And this Qur'an has been revealed to me that I may warn you through it and all whom it may reach. Do you bear witness with this that there are deities besides God? Say: "I cannot bear witness to this." Say: "He is but one God and I certainly disown those you associate with Him." (17-19)
اَلَّذِیۡنَ اٰتَیۡنٰہُمُ الۡکِتٰبَ یَعۡرِفُوۡنَہٗ کَمَا یَعۡرِفُوۡنَ اَبۡنَآءَہُمۡ ۘ اَلَّذِیۡنَ خَسِرُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ فَہُمۡ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۲۰﴾وَ مَنۡ اَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ افۡتَرٰی عَلَی اللّٰہِ کَذِبًا اَوۡ کَذَّبَ بِاٰیٰتِہٖ ؕ اِنَّہٗ لَا یُفۡلِحُ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۲۱﴾وَیَوۡمَ نَحۡشُرُہُمۡ جَمِیۡعًا ثُمَّ نَقُوۡلُ لِلَّذِیۡنَ اَشۡرَکُوۡۤا اَیۡنَ شُرَکَآؤُکُمُ الَّذِیۡنَ کُنۡتُمۡ تَزۡعُمُوۡنَ ﴿۲۲﴾ثُمَّ لَمۡ تَکُنۡ فِتۡنَتُہُمۡ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ قَالُوۡا وَاللّٰہِ رَبِّنَا مَا کُنَّا مُشۡرِکِیۡنَ ﴿۲۳﴾اُنۡظُرۡ کَیۡفَ کَذَبُوۡا عَلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ وَضَلَّ عَنۡہُمۡ مَّا کَانُوۡا یَفۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۲۴﴾
Those to whom We have given the Book recognize this [Qur'an] the way the way they recognize their own children. However, those who have chosen to become losers do not believe in it [and insist on polytheism] even though who can be more unjust than the one who invents a falsehood about God or denies His revelations? Indeed, such unjust can never succeed. [For this reason,] remember the day when We will gather all of them. After this, We will ask these idolaters: "Where are your idols now, those whom you considered [partners of God?]" Then their deception will end, but will say: "By God, our Lord! We were never Idolaters." See how these [wrongdoers] have told a lie on themselves and what they had been fabricating has vanished away. (20-24)
(Translated by Dr Shehzad Saleem)
. The actual word is: اَلۡحَمۡد. In the Arabic language, this word is used to acknowledge the qualities and excellence of someone and if the person who expresses this word also benefits from the said qualities and excellence, the element of gratitude automatically enters the meaning of the word. It is evident from verse 43 of Surah A'raf, verse 10 of Surah Yunus and verse 39 of Surah Ibrahim that in the expression اَلۡحَمۡدُ لِلّٰہِ the word اَلۡحَمۡد is used to connote gratitude.
. The argument presented here is based on a fact acknowledged by the idolaters of Arabia: when they regarded God to be the creator of the heavens and the earth, darkness and light, then how strange was it that they were audacious enough to set up other deities with Him. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
… One aspect of expressing wonder at polytheism is that when everything has been created by God, from where has the possibility of polytheism arisen? Another aspect is that in the apparent conflict found in the opposing elements of nature, to fulfill a higher objective there exists tremendous harmony between them as well. This can be seen for example in the sky and the earth, light and darkness, cold and heat. Such is this harmony between these opposing elements that no sane person can think that they can have separate creators. In fact, every person of insight is compelled to accept that this Universe is working on the basis of a single aim and intent. Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 17).
. The implication is that it is the same God Who created man from clay. This is a fact that people cannot deny. They also know that each individual has been prescribed a time to live. If they understand all this, then how can they doubt that the God Who created them the first time without any difficulty, can create them a second time as well from this very clay? If there is a term for each of them after which they will die, there is another term for each of them after which they will be raised to life again.
. I.e. if this attitude of theirs is founded on the fact that the earth is run by some other gods and that if they worship these gods, the latter will be able to secure salvation for them in the Hereafter, then they should remove this misconception. The God of both the heavens and the earth is the same and He is governing both. All their apparent and hidden circumstances are in His notice and He is also fully aware of their deeds. No one can dare increase His knowledge. They should be on guard that no one can wrongly intercede for anyone before Him.
. The word "truth" here signifies the Qur'an.
. Ie., the punishment of God with which every messenger has threatened his respective people.
. Historical evidence is cited here on the claim made above. Details of this will be found in Surah A'raf which is the counterpart of this surah.
. From here onwards, answers are given to the objections raised by the disbelievers and presented as an excuse for paying no heed to them.
. Ie., the reason for their aversion is not the one they cite; the fact is that they do not want to hear anything against their desires. So even if this wish of theirs is granted, they will continue to put up such excuses. It may be kept in mind that this is the response to a demand that was similarly made by the People of the Book and that was mentioned in verse 154 of Surah Nisa'.
. This is a reference to the established practice of God: this world has been created to test the knowledge and intellect, intention and will of people. When the veil will be lifted and people will see the reality with their own eyes, professing faith will not be of avail to anyone. Only faith which is professed without seeing God, merely on the basis of evidence drawn from intellect and human nature is of benefit – something to which prophets called.
. This is because humans can only see him when he is in the form of a human and then benefit from him.
. God has ascribed the affliction of doubt to Himself. This is actually an ascription to the law of guidance and error that He has prescribed for people.
. This is only a fleeting reference. Details will found in Surah A'raf ahead.
. The style of answering a question without waiting for an answer from an addressee is adopted when the addressee is left with no option to deny it and the purpose of the question is also to direct his attention to something he himself fully acknowledges.
. Ie., He possesses this attribute to perfection. Hence He will definitely fulfill the requirements of this attribute as well.
. The actual words are: لَیَجۡمَعَنَّکُمۡ اِلٰی یَوۡمِ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ. The preposition اِلٰی evidences the existence of a word that means "driving someone." Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has explained it thus:
… The advent of the Day of Judgement is a necessary consequence of God's attribute of mercy. The absence of such a day would mean that the creator of this universe is neither most gracious nor ever merciful. It would mean that, God forbid, to Him justice and injustice, virtue and vice, good and evil occupy equal status. The world is a place of entertainment and unrestrained actions that will never be checked. Since all this is obviously baseless and it is absolutely against the gracious and merciful God to do something without purpose, it is essential that He bring about a day in which His mercy fully manifests itself, the pious are unboundedly blessed by Him and the wicked meet their fate. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 27)
. This statement is explained ahead in verse 31 as to how severely these losers will show regret on the Day of Judgement and how helplessly they will be driven towards Hell while bearing the burden of their sins.
. The actual words are: وَلَہٗ مَا سَکَنَ فِی الَّیۡلِ وَالنَّہَارِ. According to linguistic principles, a contrasting word as ما تحرك (that moves) to سَکَنَ (that is stationed) is suppressed. It has been revealed in the translation.
. The implication is that God's power and knowledge are all-embracing. Nothing can defy Him in the night or day. Whenever He wants, He will call everyone from everywhere and gather them in His presence.
. This is a necessary consequence of what is said earlier and also a subtle and derisive comment on the Idolaters. In other words, should he [the Prophet] leave the Creator of the heavens and the earth and the Sustainer of this Whole Universe and worship these deities of the Idolaters – deities who themselves owe their existence to these worshippers of theirs and are only happy if they present sweet and sugary edibles to them? Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
... Here it needs to be kept in mind that the edibles the Idolaters presented to their deities would be regarded by these deities as their favourite food which they would eat and whose aroma they would relish. On the contrary, whatever a person who only believes in God offers to God returns to His poor creatures and none of it, as specified by the Qur'an comes in the use of God. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 29)
. Ie., if these people indulge in polytheism, then its responsibility rests on them. The Prophet (sws) has only been told to submit to God alone and associate none with Him. The actual words used to convey this meaning is: وَلَا تَکُوۡنَنَّ مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ. Besides emphasis, they also contain a sort of rebuke. However, it is directed to the people whose attitude is under discussion.
. There is a subtle insinuation in this statement that those who have forgotten this success will come to know of the extent of misfortune they had earned in the previous world for this day.
. This is a further explanation of what was said earlier. When everything is in the Hands of God, why should anyone else be made the guardian or protector, and why should anyone else be supplicated to?
. Hence, it is not possible that He let this world not fulfill its purpose. It is a requisite of His knowledge and wisdom that a day of judgement be brought about in which good and evil are decided.
. This is exactly the same thing that has been mentioned in Surah Furqan by the words: تَبٰرَکَ الَّذِیۡ نَزَّلَ الۡفُرۡقَانَ عَلٰی عَبۡدِہٖ لِیَکُوۡنَ لِلۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ نَذِیۡرَا (1:25) (Blessed be He who has revealed al-furqan to His servant so that it may warn the whole world, (25:1)). It is evident from this that the Qur'an is the means of warning till the Day of Judgement. When scholars undertake the task of calling people towards the Qur'an, they should make the Qur'an itself the meanings of this undertaking instead of making their own statements as this means. There is nothing greater than the Qur'an that can make people comprehend God and have a clear concept of the Hereafter.
. Earlier the purpose of the Qur'an, viz to warn mankind, was referred to. Here, in order to corroborate this further, the testimony of the righteous among the People of the Book is cited. It is stated that only those who have deprived themselves from paying heed to the Qur'an have chosen to incur loss, otherwise the righteous among the People of the Book recognize, acknowledge and welcome this Book and the facts it presents the way an estranged father recognizes his son and feels the scent of his presence.
. The actual words are: وَیَوۡمَ نَحۡشُرُہُمۡ جَمِیۡعًا. The emphasis in the word has embraced all the groups mentioned earlier whether they are the ones who ascribe partners to God or deny the Day of Judgement or reject the revelations of God. Though all of these were Idolaters, it is evident from the Qur'an that each had different reasons for their rejection.
. The actual word is فِتْنَةٌ. In the construction it is annexed to its fa'il. The exception in the sentence is severed and the style is steeped in sarcasm. In other words, they will not be able to deceive others the way they have been able to in this world. What they will only able to do is to disown their sin in an effort to save their skins.
. At other places of the Qur'an also, it has been said that the Idolaters will confess their polytheism. Here, confession is mentioned. It is evident from this that because of anxiety sometime they will deny and finally at some stage will be compelled to accept their polytheism. They will even call the partners they ascribed to God to help them in the situation that has arisen.
. A subtle sarcasm exists in this verse that these people kept on giving false testimony about God in the previous world and here they are giving false testimony about themselves.