Surah An‘am (46-73)

Surah An‘am (46-73)


Qur'anic Exegesis

قُلۡ اَرَءَیۡتُمۡ اِنۡ اَخَذَ اللّٰہُ سَمۡعَکُمۡ وَ اَبۡصَارَکُمۡ وَ خَتَمَ عَلٰی قُلُوۡبِکُمۡ مَّنۡ اِلٰہٌ غَیۡرُ اللّٰہِ یَاۡتِیۡکُمۡ بِہٖ ؕ اُنۡظُرۡ کَیۡفَ نُصَرِّفُ الۡاٰیٰتِ ثُمَّ ہُمۡ یَصۡدِفُوۡنَ ﴿۴۶﴾ قُلۡ اَرَءَیۡتَکُمۡ اِنۡ اَتٰىکُمۡ عَذَابُ اللّٰہِ بَغۡتَۃً اَوۡ جَہۡرَۃً ہَلۡ یُہۡلَکُ اِلَّا الۡقَوۡمُ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۴۷﴾ وَ مَا نُرۡسِلُ الۡمُرۡسَلِیۡنَ اِلَّا مُبَشِّرِیۡنَ وَ مُنۡذِرِیۡنَ ۚ فَمَنۡ اٰمَنَ وَ اَصۡلَحَ فَلَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَ لَا ہُمۡ یَحۡزَنُوۡنَ ﴿۴۸﴾ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا یَمَسُّہُمُ الۡعَذَابُ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَفۡسُقُوۡنَ ﴿۴۹﴾

Ask them: "Have you thought that if God takes away your hearing and your sight and sets a seal upon your hearts, which deity other than God can restore them to you?"[1] See how We present [to them] Our revelations from various aspects; even then, they show aversion. Ask: "Have you thought that if God's punishment[2] visits you unannounced or announced, would any perish but the transgressors?" We only send forth messengers that they give glad tidings [to people] and to deliver warning [to them].[3] So, those who believed and reformed themselves shall have nothing to fear or grieve. [On the other hand,] those who denied Our revelations will be seized by Our punishment for their defiance. (46-49)

قُلۡ لَّاۤ اَقُوۡلُ لَکُمۡ عِنۡدِیۡ خَزَآئِنُ اللّٰہِ وَ لَاۤ اَعۡلَمُ الۡغَیۡبَ وَ لَاۤ اَقُوۡلُ لَکُمۡ اِنِّیۡ مَلَکٌ ۚ اِنۡ اَتَّبِعُ اِلَّا مَا یُوۡحٰۤی اِلَیَّ ؕ قُلۡ ہَلۡ یَسۡتَوِی الۡاَعۡمٰی وَ الۡبَصِیۡرُ ؕ اَفَلَا تَتَفَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۵۰﴾

Tell them [O Prophet (sws)!]: "I do not tell you that I have God's treasures or know what the unknown is nor do I claim before you to be an angel. I follow only that which is revealed to me."[4] Say: "[My only question is:] "Will the blind and those with sight become equal? Do you not reflect?"[5] (50)

وَ اَنۡذِرۡ بِہِ الَّذِیۡنَ یَخَافُوۡنَ اَنۡ یُّحۡشَرُوۡۤا اِلٰی رَبِّہِمۡ لَیۡسَ لَہُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِہٖ وَلِیٌّ وَّ لَا شَفِیۡعٌ لَّعَلَّہُمۡ یَتَّقُوۡنَ ﴿۵۱﴾

[Leave them to themselves] and through this [Qur'an] warn those who fear to be gathered before their Lord such that they will have no guardian or intercessor besides Him so that they may guard themselves against evil.[6] (51)

وَ لَا تَطۡرُدِ الَّذِیۡنَ یَدۡعُوۡنَ رَبَّہُمۡ بِالۡغَدٰوۃِ وَ الۡعَشِیِّ یُرِیۡدُوۡنَ وَجۡہَہٗ ؕ مَا عَلَیۡکَ مِنۡ حِسَابِہِمۡ مِّنۡ شَیۡءٍ وَّ مَا مِنۡ حِسَابِکَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡ شَیۡءٍ فَتَطۡرُدَہُمۡ فَتَکُوۡنَ مِنَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾وَ کَذٰلِکَ فَتَنَّا بَعۡضَہُمۡ بِبَعۡضٍ لِّیَقُوۡلُوۡۤا اَہٰۤؤُلَآءِ مَنَّ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَیۡنِنَا ؕ اَلَیۡسَ اللّٰہُ بِاَعۡلَمَ بِالشّٰکِرِیۡنَ ﴿۵۳﴾ وَ اِذَا جَآءَکَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاٰیٰتِنَا فَقُلۡ سَلٰمٌ عَلَیۡکُمۡ کَتَبَ رَبُّکُمۡ عَلٰی نَفۡسِہِ الرَّحۡمَۃَ ۙ اَنَّہٗ مَنۡ عَمِلَ مِنۡکُمۡ سُوۡٓءًۢ ابِجَہَالَۃٍ ثُمَّ تَابَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ وَ اَصۡلَحَ فَاَنَّہٗ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۵۴﴾ وَ کَذٰلِکَ نُفَصِّلُ الۡاٰیٰتِ وَ لِتَسۡتَبِیۡنَ سَبِیۡلُ الۡمُجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿۵۵﴾

[Desiring these people to accept faith,] do not drive away from your self those[7] who call on their Lord morning and evening, seeking only to gain His favour. You are in no way accountable for them, nor are they in any way accountable for you[8] so that you become a transgressor [as per their desire]. In reality, We have in this manner tested one through another so that these [wretched people after seeing those poor] say: "Are these people the ones whom God favours among us?"[9] [Ask them:] "Does God not best know those grateful to Him?"[10] [Contrary to their desires,] when these people who believe in Our revelations come to you, say: "Peace be to you."[11] Your Lord has made mercy mandatory upon Himself so that if anyone among you commits evil our of foolishness and after this repents and mends his ways, then God is Forgiving and Merciful.[12] In this manner, do We explain Our revelations so that the attitude of the righteous becomes apparent and the path adopted by the wicked also becomes fully evident.[13] (52-55)

قُلۡ اِنِّیۡ نُہِیۡتُ اَنۡ اَعۡبُدَ الَّذِیۡنَ تَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ ؕ قُلۡ لَّاۤ اَتَّبِعُ اَہۡوَآءَکُمۡ ۙ قَدۡ ضَلَلۡتُ اِذًا وَّ مَاۤ اَنَا مِنَ الۡمُہۡتَدِیۡنَ ﴿۵۶﴾قُلۡ اِنِّیۡ عَلٰی بَیِّنَۃٍ مِّنۡ رَّبِّیۡ وَ کَذَّبۡتُمۡ بِہٖ ؕ مَا عِنۡدِیۡ مَا تَسۡتَعۡجِلُوۡنَ بِہٖ ؕ اِنِ الۡحُکۡمُ اِلَّا لِلّٰہِ ؕ یَقُصُّ الۡحَقَّ وَ ہُوَ خَیۡرُ الۡفٰصِلِیۡنَ ﴿۵۷﴾قُلۡ لَّوۡ اَنَّ عِنۡدِیۡ مَا تَسۡتَعۡجِلُوۡنَ بِہٖ لَقُضِیَ الۡاَمۡرُ بَیۡنِیۡ وَ بَیۡنَکُمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ اَعۡلَمُ بِالظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۵۸﴾وَ عِنۡدَہٗ مَفَاتِحُ الۡغَیۡبِ لَا یَعۡلَمُہَاۤ اِلَّا ہُوَ ؕ وَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا فِی الۡبَرِّ وَ الۡبَحۡرِ ؕ وَ مَا تَسۡقُطُ مِنۡ وَّرَقَۃٍ اِلَّا یَعۡلَمُہَا وَ لَا حَبَّۃٍ فِیۡ ظُلُمٰتِ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لَا رَطۡبٍ وَّ لَا یَابِسٍ اِلَّا فِیۡ کِتٰبٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿۵۹﴾

[O Prophet!] Say:[14] "I have been stopped from worshipping those whom you invoke[15] besides God." Say: "I cannot follow your desires.[16] If I did this, I would be straying and not remain among those on the right path." Say: "I am on a radiant argument[17] from my Lord and you have denied it.[18] I have no power over what you are insisting to hasten. Its decision rests with God alone. He will explain the truth and He is the best of judges." Say: "Had I the power to bring what you are insisting to hasten, then this matter between me and you would have been settled. [This matter is in the Hands of God], and God is well aware of the unjust. The keys to the unknown[19] lie with Him; none but He knows them. He has knowledge of all that is in the land and the sea. Every leaf from a tree and every grain in the depth of the earth that falls is in His knowledge. And there is nothing dry or wet that is unknown to Him. All this is recorded with Him in an open book.[20] (56-59)

وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ یَتَوَفّٰىکُمۡ بِالَّیۡلِوَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا جَرَحۡتُمۡبِالنَّہَارِ ثُمَّ یَبۡعَثُکُمۡ فِیۡہِ لِیُقۡضٰۤی اَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّی ۚ ثُمَّ اِلَیۡہِ مَرۡجِعُکُمۡ ثُمَّ یُنَبِّئُکُمۡ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۶۰﴾وَ ہُوَ الۡقَاہِرُ فَوۡقَ عِبَادِہٖ وَ یُرۡسِلُ عَلَیۡکُمۡ حَفَظَۃً ؕ حَتّٰۤی اِذَا جَآءَ اَحَدَکُمُ الۡمَوۡتُ تَوَفَّتۡہُ رُسُلُنَا وَ ہُمۡ لَا یُفَرِّطُوۡنَ ﴿۶۱﴾ثُمَّ رُدُّوۡۤا اِلَی اللّٰہِ مَوۡلٰىہُمُ الۡحَقِّ ؕ اَلَا لَہُ الۡحُکۡمُ ۟ وَ ہُوَ اَسۡرَعُ الۡحٰسِبِیۡنَ ﴿۶۲﴾

It is He Who claims your souls at night and also knows what you do during the day. Then He raises you up in it so that the allotted span of life is completed. Finally, to Him shall you return. Then He will tell you what you have been doing. He fully dominates His servants and deputes [His] guardians over you. Until the time of death of anyone of you arrives, it is the angels sent by Us who claim his soul and are never negligent [in this task]. Then all are returned to their true Lord. Listen! All the authority to take a decision rests with Him, and most swift is He in taking account.[21] (60-62)

قُلۡ مَنۡ یُّنَجِّیۡکُمۡ مِّنۡ ظُلُمٰتِ الۡبَرِّ وَ الۡبَحۡرِ تَدۡعُوۡنَہٗ تَضَرُّعًا وَّ خُفۡیَۃً ۚ لَئِنۡ اَنۡجٰىنَا مِنۡ ہٰذِہٖ لَنَکُوۡنَنَّ مِنَ الشّٰکِرِیۡنَ ﴿۶۳﴾قُلِ اللّٰہُ یُنَجِّیۡکُمۡ مِّنۡہَا وَ مِنۡ کُلِّ کَرۡبٍ ثُمَّ اَنۡتُمۡ تُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿۶۴﴾قُلۡ ہُوَ الۡقَادِرُ عَلٰۤی اَنۡ یَّبۡعَثَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ عَذَابًا مِّنۡ فَوۡقِکُمۡ اَوۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِ اَرۡجُلِکُمۡ اَوۡ یَلۡبِسَکُمۡ شِیَعًا وَّ یُذِیۡقَ بَعۡضَکُمۡ بَاۡسَ بَعۡضٍ ؕ اُنۡظُرۡ کَیۡفَ نُصَرِّفُ الۡاٰیٰتِ لَعَلَّہُمۡ یَفۡقَہُوۡنَ ﴿۶۵﴾

Ask them: "Who saves you [in] the darkness of land and sea [calamities] when you call out to Him imploringly and in secret:[22] 'if He saved us from this calamity, we will become truly grateful to Him?'" Say: "It is God Who saves you from this and from all calamities, yet after this you still worship idols."[23] Say: "He has the power to send His torment upon you from above your heads or from beneath your feet or engage you in conflict after dividing you into factions and make one another taste the power of each other." See how We present Our revelations in various ways so that they may understand. (63-65)

وَ کَذَّبَ بِہٖ قَوۡمُکَ وَ ہُوَ الۡحَقُّ ؕ قُلۡ لَّسۡتُ عَلَیۡکُمۡ بِوَکِیۡلٍ ﴿ؕ۶۶﴾لِکُلِّ نَبَاٍ مُّسۡتَقَرٌّ ۫ وَّ سَوۡفَ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۶۷﴾

Your people have rejected this threat [O Prophet!] of Ours although it is the very truth. Tell them: "I have not been made your keeper [so that I am able to make you understand at all cost]. The time for everything has been fixed. [If in spite of this, you want torment, then] soon you shall know this truth." (66-67)

وَ اِذَا رَاَیۡتَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَخُوۡضُوۡنَ فِیۡۤ اٰیٰتِنَا فَاَعۡرِضۡ عَنۡہُمۡ حَتّٰی یَخُوۡضُوۡا فِیۡ حَدِیۡثٍ غَیۡرِہٖ ؕ وَ اِمَّا یُنۡسِیَنَّکَ الشَّیۡطٰنُ فَلَا تَقۡعُدۡ بَعۡدَ الذِّکۡرٰی مَعَ الۡقَوۡمِ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۶۸﴾وَ مَا عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ یَتَّقُوۡنَ مِنۡ حِسَابِہِمۡ مِّنۡ شَیۡءٍ وَّ لٰکِنۡ ذِکۡرٰی لَعَلَّہُمۡ یَتَّقُوۡنَ ﴿۶۹﴾وَ ذَرِ الَّذِیۡنَ اتَّخَذُوۡا دِیۡنَہُمۡ لَعِبًا وَّ لَہۡوًا وَّ غَرَّتۡہُمُ الۡحَیٰوۃُ الدُّنۡیَا وَ ذَکِّرۡ بِہٖۤ اَنۡ تُبۡسَلَ نَفۡسٌۢ بِمَا کَسَبَتۡ ٭ۖ لَیۡسَ لَہَا مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَلِیٌّ وَّ لَا شَفِیۡعٌ ۚ وَ اِنۡ تَعۡدِلۡ کُلَّ عَدۡلٍ لَّا یُؤۡخَذۡ مِنۡہَا ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ اُبۡسِلُوۡا بِمَا کَسَبُوۡا ۚ لَہُمۡ شَرَابٌ مِّنۡ حَمِیۡمٍ وَّ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌۢ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَکۡفُرُوۡنَ ﴿۷۰﴾

[Leave them now to themselves] and when you see[24] people criticizing[25] Our revelations, withdraw from them till they engage in other talk. And if ever Satan makes you forget this, do not sit with these wrongdoers as soon as you realize it.[26] Those who fear God are in no way accountable for these people. However, reminding them is mandatory upon them so that they also become fearful.[27] Leave aside those who treat their religion as a sport and an amusement and who have been led into deceptionby the life of this world.[28] And keep reminding them through the Qur'an so that a person as punishment of his misdeeds is not consigned to destruction.[29] And that too in the state that he has no helper or intercessor before God, and even if he offers every ransom, it shall not be accepted from him. It is these people who shall be consigned to destruction because of their misdeeds. Because of the disbelief they have been committing, they shall have boiling water and a stern punishment.[30] (68-70)

قُلۡ اَنَدۡعُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ مَا لَا یَنۡفَعُنَا وَ لَا یَضُرُّنَا وَ نُرَدُّ عَلٰۤی اَعۡقَابِنَا بَعۡدَ اِذۡ ہَدٰىنَا اللّٰہُ کَالَّذِی اسۡتَہۡوَتۡہُ الشَّیٰطِیۡنُ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ حَیۡرَانَ ۪ لَہٗۤ اَصۡحٰبٌ یَّدۡعُوۡنَہٗۤ اِلَی الۡہُدَی ائۡتِنَا ؕ قُلۡ اِنَّ ہُدَی اللّٰہِ ہُوَ الۡہُدٰی ؕ وَ اُمِرۡنَا لِنُسۡلِمَ لِرَبِّ الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۷۱﴾وَ اَنۡ اَقِیۡمُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اتَّقُوۡہُ ؕ وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡۤ اِلَیۡہِ تُحۡشَرُوۡنَ ﴿۷۲﴾وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ بِالۡحَقِّ ؕ وَ یَوۡمَ یَقُوۡلُ کُنۡ فَیَکُوۡنُ ۬ؕ قَوۡلُہُ الۡحَقُّ ؕ وَ لَہُ الۡمُلۡکُ یَوۡمَ یُنۡفَخُ فِی الصُّوۡرِ ؕ عٰلِمُ الۡغَیۡبِ وَ الشَّہَادَۃِ ؕ وَ ہُوَ الۡحَکِیۡمُ الۡخَبِیۡرُ ﴿۷۳﴾

Ask them: "Should we call on those besides God which can neither benefit nor harm us?[31] And should we turn upon our heels even after God has guided us[32] like him who is left perplexed in the desert[33] by devils,[34] even though his companions call him to the right path: "Come this way!"[35] Say: "God's guidance is the real guidance and we have been directed to submit to the Lord of the worlds,[36] and [have been directed:] 'be diligent in the prayer, and fear Him.'"[37] It is He, before who shall all of you be gathered[38] and it is He Who has created the heavens and the earth in all truth.[39] On the day when He says: "[Let the Day of Judgement] be," so it shall be. His word is certain to materialize. The day when the trumpet is sounded, sovereignty shall only belong to Him. He has knowledge of all the unknown and the manifest. And He alone is Wise, All-Knowing.[40] (71-73)

(Translated from Al-Bayan by Dr Shehzad Saleem)

[1]. The implication is that this is the time when these faculties should be employed for the purpose they have been given. If they are taken away from them by God, how will they acquire them again? After this only regret and yearning will remain.

[2]. This refers to the punishment which visits people who deny their respective messengers after the truth is conclusively communicated to them and destroys them alone. Believers are always rendered secure from it.

[3]. Ie., they are not sent to bring punishment or the miracles they demand all the time. They are in fact sent as bearers of glad tidings and warnings. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has explained the details of this in the following words:

… One thing that becomes evident from this is that God's messengers are a manifestation of God's mercy. Punishing others is not the objective of their position; it is the consequence of denying them. Second, the messengers should be asked what they come for ie. guidance about faith and righteous deeds and not to bring forth what they have been sent to save people from. Third, working miracles is neither of their traits nor an essential ingredient of their preaching. Such miracles manifest themselves only to conclusively communicate the truth, if God wants. Fourth, these verses comfort the messenger that he should focus all his attention to his real purpose: delivering of glad tidings and warnings; what is not related to his duties should be ignored by him; they should not worry him without any reason. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 54)

[4].The implication is that if people want to debate anything they should debate what the Prophet (sws) is presenting to them. He is neither an angel nor does he know the unknown and it should not make a difference because his message does not relate to either of these. He only delivers to them God's revelations.

[5].Ie., will the fate of those who use their faculties of sight and hearing and those who lead lives with their eyes shut be equal?Why do these people not reflect on this alone?

[6].Three things become evident from this verse. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

Firstly, the most natural and logical means for warning is the Qur'an and not signs of punishment.

Secondly, this Qur'an will also benefit only those whose natural abilities are alive. It will not benefit those whose natural abilities have become dead.

Thirdly, the greatest impediment to piety and charity is the erroneous concept of intercession. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 58)

[7].The actual word is: تَطْرُدِ. It is a very stern word viz a viz its meaning; however, it has been used with reference to the mentality of the leaders of the Quraysh because it was their desire that he drive away his companions who were poor and belonged to the common masses. They thought that it was not befitting for them to sit with these poor people. Thus they would regard them as inferior and lowly and would say that if Islam is something superior, then how can such people be worthy of it. The direction of the address in the verse is towards these arrogant people; however, instead of directly addressing them, the Prophet (sws) has been addressed because God does not even consider them worthy to be addressed and responded to.

[8].The implication is that if due to their arrogance they become the firewood of Hell, then the Prophet (sws) is in no way responsible for this. Similarly, if upon taking cue from them, the Prophet (sws) usurps the rights of those who need his affection and love, then these people will not be responsible for his action. It is the law of God that no soul shall bear the burden of another.

[9].The actual word is: لِّیَقُوۡلُوۡۤا.The particle لis for 'aqibah that expresses the consequence and it is not causative. This is a mention of the established practice of God as per which people are given the chance to indulge in such talk if they want to and make themselves liable to God's wrath. This is because God has created this world as a trial and it is a requisite of this trial that this chance be given.

[10].This is an answer to their arrogance. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... The implication is that God's religion is not gold, silver, silk or velvet whose saddles or pieces of cloth can be seen on donkeys, mules, horses and camels. It is a heavenly favour and divine mercy which is specific for only those who were grateful to God in all circumstances, gave due regard to His favours, fully used their abilities, kept their ears open, did not blindfold their eyes with the cloth of arrogance and did not let their hearts become dead. As for the wretched and ingrates who used all the inner and outer favours God blessed them with against God Himself, they will never have a share in this religion. Worldly pleasures are received by both the good and the wicked. However, the gift of religion is only given to those who are grateful to God. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 61)

[11].Just as this word is spoken at the times of meeting and parting, it is also used at the times of welcoming someone. Occasion and context show that it is used here in this second meaning.

[12].It is evident from these glad tidings that to those they were given were not desirous of wealth and status; on the contrary, they were desirous of mercy and forgiveness that is mentioned in the glad tidings.

[13].The actual words are: وَ لِتَسۡتَبِیۡنَ سَبِیۡلُ الۡمُجۡرِمِیۡنَ. The particle لِin لِتَسۡتَبِیۡنَ is for caustion and it is evident from the copulative particle وَthat some words before it are suppressed. They have been revealed in the translation.

[14]. This word occurs in this verse and also very frequently in the verses ahead. It is evident that all these statements have been given in response to the doubts and objections that were being raised by the addressees.

[15].Ie., invoke him for supplication and mercy. What is said earlier on positively is repeated here in negative terms: the testimony of God that has been revealed to the Prophet (sws) in the form of the Qur'an is that the creator of the heavens and the earth is the one and only God.

[16]. The actual word is: اَہۡوَآءٌ. It means polytheistic innovations. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

By referring to them as اَہۡوَآءٌ, God in the Qur'an has pointed to their baselessness: there is no evidence of them being partners of God neither in human intellect or nature nor in the Book of God; their fancies have concocted them and since their rather vague intercession has made them shirk all their responsibilities related to faith and deeds and the Hereafter, hence they like them a lot. They may like them but there is a great difference between reality and whims. It is not possible for the Prophet (sws) to disregard reality and follow their false desires, evil wishes and baseless innovations. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 66)

[17]. Ie., The Qur'an which fully explains the essence of monotheism from every aspect.

[18]. The actual words are: وَکَذَّبۡتُمۡ بِہٖ.The antecdent of the pronoun in them is بَیِّنَۃٌtranslated above as "radiant argument." A feminine pronoun should have been used here; however, the reason that the masculine pronoun is used instead is that it refers to the meaning and connotation of the word. The benefit of this usage is that the nature of the Qur'an as a conclusive proof becomes evident and that the word بَیِّنَۃٌrefers to the Qur'an also becomes evident.

[19]. Ie., the keys through which the doors of all the unknown will be unlocked.

[20]. Taking cue from the above subject, the vast and all-embracing nature of God's knowledge is now described. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... It is belief in this vastness of God's knowledge that engenders complete trust and satisfaction in a believer on His will. The slightest of misconceptions in this opens the door to polytheism. It is this belief which is the foundation of true and strong faith in the Hereafter, and its through its true concept and reminder that the very humility is engendered in a person which induces him to adopt the right attitude in life. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 68)

[21]. A main reason for various misconcpetions people have regarding resurrection and reward and punishment on the Day of Judgement is that they do not have true comprehension of God's knowledge. Once it was explained in the earlier verses, occasion arose that life after death and accountability be reminded of. This is a reference to its allegorical observation that each of one us is made to see every day. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... The Qur'an here by regarding sleeping during each night as death and waking up each morning as risinghas directed our attention to the fact that life and death take place every day the way people sleep and wake up. The same goes for the death and resurrection of people. Just as God is not unaware of the deeds done in the day by a person who sleeps at night, similarly He will not forget the deeds of a person done during his life when he undertakes the sleep of death. Moreover, just as there is a dawn to every night's sleep and people get up rubbing their eyes, in a similar way after the sleep of death they will awake in the dawn of the Day of Judgement and they will think that whatever happened did not take more time than the span of a day and night. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 69)

[22]. The actual words are: تَدۡعُوۡنَہٗ تَضَرُّعًا وَّ خُفۡیَۃً. The word تَدۡعُوۡنَہٗ signifies state (hal) from the accusative pronoun in یُّنَجِّیۡکُمۡ and has been translated as such.

[23]. Here attention is directed to the facts found within a person regarding monotheism.

[24]. Though the address here is in the singular, it will become evident from the succeeding verses that all Muslims are addressed. They are directed through the Prophet (sws) that even for the purpose of preaching they must not sit among those people who make fun of God's religion and His Prophet.

[25]. The actual word is: یَخُوۡضُوۡنَ. It refers to frivolous talk people engage in to dismiss something by scoffing at and making fun of it.

[26]. This directive has two aspects and both are very important. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

Firstly, this attitude is against the underlying wisdom of preaching that the Almighy has prescribed. When a person is overcome by frenzy in opposing something and making fun of it and rejecting it, and the intensity of this frenzy is actually making him hysterical, presenting that very thing before him in this condition will only enhance his frenzy and hysteria. If a doctor wants to only increase the ailment of a patient, obviously he can do whatever he wants to; however, a benevolent doctor who wants his patient to get well will never make this mistake. Keeping in view this principle, Muslims are directed here that if they see the opponents of Islam intent on making fun of the Qur'an, have taken to scoffing at divine revelations and have made up their mind to fully oppose it, then they should look for an opportune time in which these people come out of this frenzied state. Once they get back to normal, it is then that they should proceed to present and preach Islam to them.

Secondly, sitting with them in these circumstances is against the sense of honour a person has or should have. If a person or a group openly utters nonsense against God and His Messenger, then not only fighting with him is wrong for a preacher, but also remaining silent for him is inapt. This is because his sense of honour and support for the truth is sacrificed – something which is actually a sign of his faith. This weakness of faith can ultimately lead a person in a gradual way to hypocrisy. Once a person reaches this state, he begins to put up with hearing and listening to the humiliation of God, His Messenger, the Qur'an and the shari'ah, and his sense of honour is lulled to such sleep that he finds no courage within him to utter a word in defence of his beliefs. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 77)

[27]. It can be gauged from this how much the companions of the Prophet (sws) regarded preaching religion as their responsibility. Thus they are assured that accountability will definitely take place of those upon whom it was made mandatory to preach and propagate religion if they were slack in this obligation; however, they shall not be held accountable for people not accepting guidance. Thus there is no need to sit in the company of those who make fun with the view that the truth must be conveyed to them come what may. To remind people of the truth is no doubt obligatory; however, this certainly is no obligation of anyone to get after people to accept the truth thinking that he or she is responsible for their guidance or error.

[28]. Stated here is the real reason of their mischief. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... Their real misconception is that since they are leading a successful life, then their attitude must be definitely correct. They give the life of this world the status of the life to come. This world is not governed by the principle of reward and punishment; on the contrary, it is governed by the principle of trial and test. Here the Almighty has given respite to evil as well together with the truth. To realize their desires, they have regarded evil as their religion and think that this life is all there is and that the attitude they have adopted is correct. They further think that the fate of which the Qur'an has warned them is a far-fetched threat. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 80)

[29]. The actual words are: اَنۡ تُبۡسَلَ نَفۡسٌۢ. A word to the effect مخافة (lest) is suppressed beforeاَنۡ in accordance with linguistic principles:

[30]. The actual words are: لَہُمۡ شَرَابٌ مِّنۡ حَمِیۡمٍ وَّ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌۢ. In other words, their first feast will be boiling water and then they will be consigned to a severe torment. This has been specified by the Qur'an in verse 93 of Surah Waqi'ah.

[31]. The particle of negation used is ما. It is meant to disgrace them.

[32]. Ie., if before this they have remained in error they could have had some excuse; however, what excuse will they present before God for any error they now commit?

[33]. The actual word is: الۡاَرۡضِ. It means "land." However, in the presence of some indication, it can refer to a specific part of it. Here since the parable of wandering about is stated, it refers to a "desert" because it is here that there is a danger for a person to wander about.

[34]. Ie., devils from among mankind and jinnkind. Leaving people perplexed and wandering is ascribed to them because it is they who make the faith and morality of a person wander about to the extent that is mentioned in this parable.

[35]. This is a parable of the people whose attitude is under discussion. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

Though the words of this parable seem general, deliberation shows that it is the parable of opponents of Islam who are under discussion here. In it, they are told that they are like travellers who have lost their way in a desert. Devils and misled leaders have made their lives miserable. Some of their companions (reference is to the believers) are calling them to the true way but they are not listening to their calls. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 82)

[36]. This is because since He is the Lord of the Universe, it is only befitting that people consign themselves to Him.

[37]. Earlier it was said: وَ اُمِرۡنَا لِنُسۡلِمَ لِرَبِّ الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ. This part of the verse is also governed by it yet the address has become direct instead of the earlier indirect one. The purpose is to create stress in the discourse the way a direct address does.

[38]. After a mention of prayer and piety, this is a mention of monotheismand the hereafter as well as their substantiation. The implication is that showing diligence in the prayer and respecting the limits set by God are essential because one day everyone has to appear before God.

[39]. This is argument presented on the previous sentence. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

The signs and arguments present in the heavens and the earth regarding the Creator's power, wisdom and providence bear witness to the fact that this world is not a place of amusement or sport of a merry-maker who has made it for his entertainent. It is in fact made by a being who is powerful, knowledgeable, wise, gracious and merciful. If the oppression in it goes on and a day of justice does not come, justice and fariness are not rewarded, the evil-doers and the wretched are not punished, the pious, the truthful and the just are not rewarded, it will mean that this world is a meaningless and purposeless place. Morever, this would mean that good and evil, justice and injustice, truth and falsehood are equal in His eyes. Human nature can in no way accept this. How can it be conceded that the Creator whose signs of wisdom, power, mercy and providence are found in every thing that He has created does not care about good and evil, justice and injustice found in this world? If He does so – and definitely does so because in its absence this world is merely a place of amusement in fact gruesome entertainment – then as a necessary consequence of this there must come a day of justice in which the complete mercy and perfect wisdom of God manifest themselves and every virtue is rewarded and every vice is punished. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 3, 83)

[40].Hence it is essential that every verdict of His be based on justice and wisdom. It is in no way possible that He be misled or change truth into evil or evil into truth. This justice, wisdom and knowledge are flawless and can never be plagued with such flaws.

_________________




Articles by this author


Surah al-A’raf (163-183)

Islamic Punishments

Surah al-A’raf (152-162)

Surah al-A‘raf (123-153)

Surah al-A‘raf (80-122)

Surah al-A‘raf (57-79)

Surah al-A‘raf (26-56) (2/2)

Surah al-A‘raf (26-56) (1/2)

Surah al-A‘raf (1-25)

Surah An‘am (128-165) (2/2)

Surah An‘am (128-165) (1/2)

Surah An‘am (100-127)

Surah An‘am (74-99)

Surah An‘am (46-73)

Surah An‘am (25-45)

The Noble Wives of the Prophet (sws)

Surah An‘am (1-24)

Islamic Punishments

Surahs Falaq-Nas

Surahs Lahab-Ikhlas

Surahs Kafirun-Nasr

Surahs Ma‘un-Kawthar

Surah Fil – Surah Quraysh

Surah ‘Asr – Surah Humazah

Surah Qari‘ah – Surah Takathur

Surah Zilzal – Surah ‘Aadiyat

Khilafah

Surahs Qadr-Bayyinah

Surahs Tin – ‘Alaq

State and Government

Surahs Duha-Alam Nashrah

Surahs Shams-Layl

Islam and the State: A Counter Narrative

Surahs Fajr-Balad

The Basis of Legislation

The Shari‘ah of Preaching

Surahs A‘la - Ghashiyah

Variant Readings

Surahs Mutaffifin - Inshiqaq

Surahs Buruj – Tariq

Itmam al-Hujjah [1] of God’s Messengers

Theory of Evolution (2)

Surahs ‘Asr-Humazah

Theory of Evolution (2)

Surahs Nazi‘at-‘Abas

Surahs Mursalat-Naba

Dealings and Practices of God

Is Democracy Compatible with Islam?

Wudū and Nail Polish

Surahs Qiyamah-Dahr

Surahs Takwir - Infitar

Sūrahs Muzzammil and Muddaththir

Downfall of the Muslims

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi on Hadith

Your Questions Answered

Surahs Nuh and Jinn

Birth Control

An Interview with the Indian Media

Surahs Haqqah and Ma‘arij

Roles and Responsibilities of Muslims in the West

Surahs Mulk - Qalam

The Punishment of Intentional Murder

Hajj and ‘Umrah

Sūrahs Hashr – Mumtahinah

Religious Extremism

Sūrahs Hadīd – Mujādalah

The Right to make a Will

Talks of the Prophet Muhammad (sws)

Surah Waqi‘ah

The General and the Specific

Sūrah Qamar and Sūrah Rahmān

Surah Tur and Surah Najm

Inheritance of an Orphaned Grandchild

The Sharī‘ah of Preaching

The Source of Religion

Sūrah Mā’idah (90-120)

The Prayer

Sūrahs Qāf and Dhāriyāt (Part 2/2)

Sūrahs Qāf and Dhāriyāt (Part 1/2)

Sūrah Mā’idah (32-63) part (1/2)

Compulsive Knowledge

Sūrah Mā’idah (32-63) part (2/2)

Dealings and Practices of God

Age of ‘Ā’ishah (rta) at her Marriage

Sūrah Mā’idah (1-31) part (1/2)

Sūrah Mā’idah (1-31) part (2/2)

Sūrah Nisā’ (153-176)

Belief in the Prophets

Sūrah Nisā’ (101-152)

Belief in the Hereafter

Sūrah Nisā’ (58-100)

The Consensus of Muslims

Sūrah Nisā’ (36-57)

Islam and the State

Our Call to Humanity

Sūrah Nisā’ (15-34)

The Rule of an Islamic Government

Sūrah Nisā’ (1-14)

Ijtihād

Verdicts of God

The Right to Punish a Wife

The Right to Divorce

Punishment for Blasphemy against the Prophet (sws[1])

Distribution of Inheritance

Abortion

Sūrah Āl-i ‘Imrān (144-200)

Insurance

Hifz al-Furūj (Guarding the Private Parts)

Organ Transplantation

The Fast

Fundamentals of Understanding Islam

Are Muslims a Single Nation?

Subject Matter of the Holy Qur’ān

Etiquette of Sexual Intimacy

Mosques

The Lawful and the Unlawful

Jihād and War in Islam

Head Covering for Women

Forbidding Wrong

The Question of Interest

Implementation of the Sharī‘ah (Divine Law)

Women Travelling with a Mahram

Islam and the Taliban [1]

Our Education System

Sūrah Āl-i ‘Imrān (118-143)

Sighting the Moon

Sūrah Al-i ‘Imrān (100-117)

Sūrah Al-i ‘Imrān (81-99)

Characteristic Values of Muslim Culture

Sūrah Al-i ‘Imrān (64-80)

Sūrah Āl-i ‘Imrān (42-63)

Sūrah Ali-Imran (21-41)

Sūrah Al-i ‘Imran (1-20)

Belief in Divine Books

Oaths and their Atonement

Islamic Customs and Etiquette

The Dietary Shari‘ah

The Penal Shari‘ah

The Shari‘ah of Jihad

The Shari‘ah of Preaching

The Economic Shari‘ah

The Political Shari‘ah

The Social Shari‘ah

The Shari‘ah of Worship Rituals

The Phases and Abodes of the Day of Judgement

The Signs and Events of the Day of Judgement

Belief in the Hereafter

Some Issues pertaining to Prophethood

Some Traits of the Prophets

Belief in the Prophets