Surah Bani Isra’il (2/3)

Surah Bani Isra’il (2/3)


Qur'anic Exegesis

Surah Bani Isra'il (1/3)

ذٰلِکَ مِمَّاۤ اَوۡحٰۤی اِلَیۡکَ رَبُّکَ مِنَ الۡحِکۡمَۃِ ؕ وَ لَا تَجۡعَلۡ مَعَ اللّٰہِ اِلٰـہًا اٰخَرَ فَتُلۡقٰی فِیۡ جَہَنَّمَ مَلُوۡمًا مَّدۡحُوۡرًا ﴿۳۹﴾

These are from the counsels of wisdom which your Lord has revealed to you.[54] [Hold steadfastly to them] and [listen once again:] serve no other deity besides God, lest you should be cast into Hell rejected and condemned. (39)

اَفَاَصۡفٰىکُمۡ رَبُّکُمۡ بِالۡبَنِیۡنَ وَ اتَّخَذَ مِنَ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ اِنَاثًا ؕ اِنَّکُمۡ لَتَقُوۡلُوۡنَ قَوۡلًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۴۰﴾ وَ لَقَدۡ صَرَّفۡنَا فِیۡ ہٰذَا الۡقُرۡاٰنِ لِیَذَّکَّرُوۡا ؕ وَ مَا یَزِیۡدُہُمۡ اِلَّا نُفُوۡرًا ﴿۴۱﴾ قُلۡ لَّوۡ کَانَ مَعَہٗۤ اٰلِـہَۃٌ کَمَا یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ اِذًا لَّابۡتَغَوۡا اِلٰی ذِی الۡعَرۡشِ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۴۲﴾ سُبۡحٰنَہٗ وَ تَعٰلٰی عَمَّا یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ عُلُوًّا کَبِیۡرًا ﴿۴۳﴾ تُسَبِّحُ لَہُ السَّمٰوٰتُ السَّبۡعُ وَ الۡاَرۡضُ وَ مَنۡ فِیۡہِنَّ ؕ وَ اِنۡ مِّنۡ شَیۡءٍ اِلَّا یُسَبِّحُ بِحَمۡدِہٖ وَ لٰکِنۡ لَّا تَفۡقَہُوۡنَ تَسۡبِیۡحَہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ حَلِیۡمًا غَفُوۡرًا ﴿۴۴﴾

[You people are surprising.] Then, has your Lord made you exclusive for sons and taken daughters from angels for Himself?[55] In reality, you say something very grave. We have explained in this Qur'an in a variety of ways[56] so that they receive a reminder. But [alas] it is only increasing them in aversion. Tell them [O Prophet]: "If there had been other deities with God as these people say, they would have definitely sought to dethrone Him."[57] God is pure and far beyond what they say. The seven heavens, the earth and whatever they contain all glorify Him.[58] There is nothing which does not praise Him while glorifying Him except that you do not understand their glorification. [So heinous is what you say that the heavens would have fallen on you but] no doubt God is very benevolent and most forgiving. (40-44)

وَ اِذَا قَرَاۡتَ الۡقُرۡاٰنَ جَعَلۡنَا بَیۡنَکَ وَ بَیۡنَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ حِجَابًا مَّسۡتُوۡرًا ﴿ۙ۴۵﴾وَّ جَعَلۡنَا عَلٰی قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ اَکِنَّۃً اَنۡ یَّفۡقَہُوۡہُ وَ فِیۡۤ اٰذَانِہِمۡ وَقۡرًا ؕ وَ اِذَا ذَکَرۡتَ رَبَّکَ فِی الۡقُرۡاٰنِ وَحۡدَہٗ وَلَّوۡا عَلٰۤی اَدۡبَارِہِمۡ نُفُوۡرًا ﴿۴۶﴾ نَحۡنُ اَعۡلَمُ بِمَا یَسۡتَمِعُوۡنَ بِہٖۤ اِذۡ یَسۡتَمِعُوۡنَ اِلَیۡکَ وَ اِذۡ ہُمۡ نَجۡوٰۤی اِذۡ یَقُوۡلُ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ اِنۡ تَتَّبِعُوۡنَ اِلَّا رَجُلًا مَّسۡحُوۡرًا ﴿۴۷﴾ اُنۡظُرۡ کَیۡفَ ضَرَبُوۡا لَکَ الۡاَمۡثَالَ فَضَلُّوۡا فَلَا یَسۡتَطِیۡعُوۡنَ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۴۸﴾

[O Prophet!] When you recite the Qur'an, We place an unseen barrier between you and those who do not believe in the Hereafter and put a cover on their hearts and make them hard of hearing that they may not understand or hear.[59] And when you mention your Lord alone in the Qur'an, they turn away in hatred.[60] We know full well when they listen to you the reason they listen to you[61] and know full well when they whisper to one another; when these unjust say that you people are only following a person who is under a spell. See what examples they heap on you. So, they have lost their way. Now they are not finding any way.[62] (45-48)

وَ قَالُوۡۤاءَ اِذَا کُنَّا عِظَامًا وَّ رُفَاتًاءَ اِنَّا لَمَبۡعُوۡثُوۡنَ خَلۡقًا جَدِیۡدًا ﴿۴۹﴾ قُلۡ کُوۡنُوۡا حِجَارَۃً اَوۡ حَدِیۡدًا ﴿ۙ۵۰﴾ اَوۡ خَلۡقًامِّمَّا یَکۡبُرُ فِیۡ صُدُوۡرِکُمۡ ۚ فَسَیَقُوۡلُوۡنَمَنۡ یُّعِیۡدُنَا ؕ قُلِ الَّذِیۡ فَطَرَکُمۡ اَوَّلَ مَرَّۃٍ ۚ فَسَیُنۡغِضُوۡنَ اِلَیۡکَ رُءُوۡسَہُمۡ وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ مَتٰی ہُوَ ؕ قُلۡ عَسٰۤی اَنۡ یَّکُوۡنَ قَرِیۡبًا ﴿۵۱﴾ یَوۡمَ یَدۡعُوۡکُمۡ فَتَسۡتَجِیۡبُوۡنَ بِحَمۡدِہٖ وَ تَظُنُّوۡنَ اِنۡ لَّبِثۡتُمۡ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿۵۲﴾

They say: "When We [decay and become] bones and are reduced to bits will we still be raised to life again?" Say: "Whether you become stones or iron or any other substance which in your view is even more difficult than them [to accept life, even then]." At this, they will say: "Who will restore us?" Say: "He who had created you the first time." Then they will shake their heads [as if to make fun of you] and ask: "So, when will this happen?" Say: "It may well be that its time is near." Bear in mind! When God calls you, you will obey His directive while praising Him and at that time you will think that you have remained [in this state] for a short while.[63] (49-52)

وَ قُلۡ لِّعِبَادِیۡ یَقُوۡلُوا الَّتِیۡ ہِیَ اَحۡسَنُ ؕ اِنَّ الشَّیۡطٰنَ یَنۡزَغُ بَیۡنَہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ الشَّیۡطٰنَ کَانَ لِلۡاِنۡسَانِ عَدُوًّا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿۵۳﴾ رَبُّکُمۡ اَعۡلَمُ بِکُمۡ ؕ اِنۡ یَّشَاۡ یَرۡحَمۡکُمۡ اَوۡ اِنۡ یَّشَاۡ یُعَذِّبۡکُمۡ ؕ وَ مَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡنٰکَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَکِیۡلًا ﴿۵۴﴾وَ رَبُّکَ اَعۡلَمُ بِمَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕوَ لَقَدۡ فَضَّلۡنَا بَعۡضَ النَّبِیّٖنَ عَلٰی بَعۡضٍ وَّ اٰتَیۡنَا دَاوٗدَ زَبُوۡرًا ﴿۵۵﴾

Make My People understand! [O Prophet] that [in response to them] they should say whatever is befitting.[64] This is because it is Satan who [in the heat of the discussion] whispers evil suggestions between them. In reality, Satan is an open enemy of man. [My People! Do not pass verdicts about the fates of people regarding Paradise or Hell.] Your Lord knows you full well too. If He likes He will show mercy to you [if He thinks that you are worthy of it] or if He likes He will afflict you with a torment[65] [if you prove worthy of it. Your task O Prophet is to only communicate the message to them]. We have not sent you to be responsible for them. [Similarly, there is no need for you to get entangled in the debate of superiority.] Whatever is in theheavens and earth, your Lord knows them full well [the status each has]. In reality, We have granted superiority to some prophets over others and this also is a reality that We had given the Psalms to David.[66] (53-55)

قُلِ ادۡعُوا الَّذِیۡنَ زَعَمۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِہٖ فَلَا یَمۡلِکُوۡنَ کَشۡفَ الضُّرِّ عَنۡکُمۡ وَ لَا تَحۡوِیۡلًا ﴿۵۶﴾ اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَدۡعُوۡنَ یَبۡتَغُوۡنَ اِلٰی رَبِّہِمُ الۡوَسِیۡلَۃَ اَیُّہُمۡ اَقۡرَبُ وَ یَرۡجُوۡنَ رَحۡمَتَہٗ وَ یَخَافُوۡنَ عَذَابَہٗ ؕ اِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّکَ کَانَ مَحۡذُوۡرًا ﴿۵۷﴾

Tell[67] [these disbelievers:] "Invoke those who you regard as deities besides God. Then neither will they be able to ward off any calamity from you nor change it." Those whom they invoke themselves try to find the means of seeking their Lord's nearness as to who among them could become the nearest. They[68] seek His mercy and fear His torment. In reality, the torment of your Lord is a thing to be feared. (56-57)

وَ اِنۡ مِّنۡ قَرۡیَۃٍ اِلَّا نَحۡنُ مُہۡلِکُوۡہَا قَبۡلَ یَوۡمِ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ اَوۡ مُعَذِّبُوۡہَا عَذَابًا شَدِیۡدًا ؕ کَانَ ذٰلِکَ فِی الۡکِتٰبِ مَسۡطُوۡرًا ﴿۵۸﴾ وَ مَا مَنَعَنَاۤ اَنۡ نُّرۡسِلَ بِالۡاٰیٰتِ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ کَذَّبَ بِہَا الۡاَوَّلُوۡنَ ؕ وَاٰتَیۡنَا ثَمُوۡدَ النَّاقَۃَ مُبۡصِرَۃً فَظَلَمُوۡا بِہَا ؕ وَ مَا نُرۡسِلُ بِالۡاٰیٰتِ اِلَّا تَخۡوِیۡفًا ﴿۵۹﴾

[They should not go about hastening the punishment. In reality,] there is not a city[69] that We will not destroy before the Day of Judgement or not inflict with a severe punishment. This is written in the register of God.[70] What has stopped Us from sending signs of punishment is that the earlier generations had denied them. We had given the Thamud a she-camel [in a similar way] as an eye-opening sign but they were unjust [to themselves] and denied it.[71] [What then is the use to send signs?] We only send signs to frighten [people before punishing them].[72] (58-59)

وَ اِذۡ قُلۡنَا لَکَ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ اَحَاطَ بِالنَّاسِ ؕ وَ مَا جَعَلۡنَا الرُّءۡیَا الَّتِیۡۤ اَرَیۡنٰکَ اِلَّا فِتۡنَۃً لِّلنَّاسِ وَ الشَّجَرَۃَ الۡمَلۡعُوۡنَۃَ فِی الۡقُرۡاٰنِ ؕ وَ نُخَوِّفُہُمۡ ۙ فَمَا یَزِیۡدُہُمۡ اِلَّا طُغۡیَانًا کَبِیۡرًا ﴿۶۰﴾

Remember when [for such an admonition and warning] We said to you: "Your Lord has surrounded these people,[73] [and they were making fun of this]. And the dream We showed you We made it a trial[74] for these people [because of this attitude of theirs] and that tree as well which has been cursed in the Qur'an.[75] We are frightening them of their fate, but this is only increasing them in their extreme rebelliousness.[76] (60)

وَ اِذۡ قُلۡنَا لِلۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ اسۡجُدُوۡا لِاٰدَمَ فَسَجَدُوۡۤا اِلَّاۤ اِبۡلِیۡسَ ؕ قَالَ ءَاَسۡجُدُ لِمَنۡ خَلَقۡتَ طِیۡنًا ﴿ۚ۶۱﴾ قَالَ اَرَءَیۡتَکَ ہٰذَا الَّذِیۡ کَرَّمۡتَ عَلَیَّ ۫ لَئِنۡ اَخَّرۡتَنِ اِلٰی یَوۡمِ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ لَاَحۡتَنِکَنَّ ذُرِّیَّتَہٗۤ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿۶۲﴾ قَالَ اذۡہَبۡ فَمَنۡ تَبِعَکَ مِنۡہُمۡ فَاِنَّ جَہَنَّمَ جَزَآؤُکُمۡ جَزَآءً مَّوۡفُوۡرًا ﴿۶۳﴾ وَ اسۡتَفۡزِزۡ مَنِ اسۡتَطَعۡتَ مِنۡہُمۡ بِصَوۡتِکَ وَ اَجۡلِبۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡ بِخَیۡلِکَ وَ رَجِلِکَ وَ شَارِکۡہُمۡ فِی الۡاَمۡوَالِ وَ الۡاَوۡلَادِ وَ عِدۡہُمۡ ؕ وَ مَا یَعِدُہُمُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ اِلَّا غُرُوۡرًا ﴿۶۴﴾ اِنَّ عِبَادِیۡ لَیۡسَ لَکَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ سُلۡطٰنٌ ؕ وَ کَفٰی بِرَبِّکَ وَکِیۡلًا ﴿۶۵﴾

[There is no reason for this except that they followed the path of Satan.] Remind them when We had said to the angels: "Prostrate before Adam." All of them prostrated except Iblis. He said: "Should I prostrate before him who you have created from clay?" He further said: "Look![77] Is this the one who you honoured above me? If you give me respite till the Day of Judgement, I will consume all his progeny except a few."[78] God said: "Very Well! Go; then all those who follow you are the fuel of Hell because it is Hell which is the full recompense for you all. Whoever among them you can overpower, make them worried with your commotion;[79] bring upon them your riders and pedestrians,[80] become a partner in their wealth and children[81] and make promises with them.[82] In reality, the promises Satan makes with them are nothing but deception. You will not have any power over My servants and as a guardian, sufficient is your Lord alone [O Prophet!]"[83] (61-65)

رَبُّکُمُ الَّذِیۡ یُزۡجِیۡ لَکُمُ الۡفُلۡکَ فِی الۡبَحۡرِ لِتَبۡتَغُوۡا مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ ؕ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ بِکُمۡ رَحِیۡمًا ﴿۶۶﴾ وَ اِذَا مَسَّکُمُ الضُّرُّ فِی الۡبَحۡرِ ضَلَّ مَنۡ تَدۡعُوۡنَ اِلَّاۤ اِیَّاہُ ۚ فَلَمَّا نَجّٰىکُمۡ اِلَی الۡبَرِّ اَعۡرَضۡتُمۡ ؕ وَ کَانَ الۡاِنۡسَانُ کَفُوۡرًا ﴿۶۷﴾

[People!] Your Lord is one who makes the ship sail for you in the sea so that you can seek His bounty. Surely, He is very merciful on you. When you are struck by a calamity in the sea, all those you invoke beside Him become heedless; only He is remembered. Then when He safely brings you to the shore, you turn away.[84] In reality, man is very ungrateful. (66-67)

اَفَاَمِنۡتُمۡ اَنۡ یَّخۡسِفَ بِکُمۡ جَانِبَ الۡبَرِّ اَوۡ یُرۡسِلَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ حَاصِبًا ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُوۡا لَکُمۡ وَکِیۡلًا ﴿ۙ۶۸﴾ اَمۡ اَمِنۡتُمۡ اَنۡ یُّعِیۡدَکُمۡ فِیۡہِ تَارَۃً اُخۡرٰی فَیُرۡسِلَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ قَاصِفًا مِّنَ الرِّیۡحِ فَیُغۡرِقَکُمۡ بِمَا کَفَرۡتُمۡ ۙ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُوۡا لَکُمۡ عَلَیۡنَا بِہٖ تَبِیۡعًا ﴿۶۹﴾

So, have you no fear that he take you to that shore and thrust you in the earth or send upon you a stone-hurling wind, then you find no one as your protector? Or have you no fear that He take you to the sea again, then send on you a stormy wind and drown you for your ingratitude, then you find no one who is able to come after Us for this? (68-69)

وَ لَقَدۡ کَرَّمۡنَا بَنِیۡۤ اٰدَمَ وَ حَمَلۡنٰہُمۡ فِی الۡبَرِّ وَ الۡبَحۡرِ وَ رَزَقۡنٰہُمۡ مِّنَ الطَّیِّبٰتِ وَ فَضَّلۡنٰہُمۡ عَلٰی کَثِیۡرٍ مِّمَّنۡ خَلَقۡنَا تَفۡضِیۡلًا ﴿۷۰﴾ یَوۡمَ نَدۡعُوۡا کُلَّ اُنَاسٍۭ بِاِمَامِہِمۡ ۚ فَمَنۡ اُوۡتِیَ کِتٰبَہٗ بِیَمِیۡنِہٖ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ یَقۡرَءُوۡنَ کِتٰبَہُمۡ وَ لَا یُظۡلَمُوۡنَ فَتِیۡلًا ﴿۷۱﴾ وَ مَنۡ کَانَ فِیۡ ہٰذِہٖۤ اَعۡمٰی فَہُوَ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ اَعۡمٰی وَ اَضَلُّ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۷۲﴾

We have bestowed honour on the progeny of Adam and provided them with transport in land and sea and given them sustenance of pure things and given them prominent superiority over many creatures.[85] [Even then, they show ingratitude.] They should remember the day We shall call all the people including their leaders.[86] Then those who are given their account in their right hands, they will [happily] read it[87] and not the slightest injustice will be done to them. On the contrary, those who remained blind in this world, they will remain blind in the Hereafter as well and far away from the path.[88] (70-72)

وَ اِنۡ کَادُوۡا لَیَفۡتِنُوۡنَکَ عَنِ الَّذِیۡۤ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ لِتَفۡتَرِیَ عَلَیۡنَا غَیۡرَہٗ ٭ۖ وَ اِذًا لَّاتَّخَذُوۡکَ خَلِیۡلًا ﴿۷۳﴾ وَ لَوۡ لَاۤ اَنۡ ثَبَّتۡنٰکَ لَقَدۡ کِدۡتَّ تَرۡکَنُ اِلَیۡہِمۡ شَیۡئًا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿٭ۙ۷۴﴾ اِذًا لَّاَذَقۡنٰکَ ضِعۡفَ الۡحَیٰوۃِ وَ ضِعۡفَ الۡمَمَاتِ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُ لَکَ عَلَیۡنَا نَصِیۡرًا ﴿۷۵﴾

[O Prophet!] It could have been that these people turn you away form what We have revealed to you in order to entrap you in a trial so that you present something other than this Qur'an by fabricating it on Us.[89] If you had done this, they would have certainly made you their friend. And had We not strengthened you, it may well be that you would also have become inclined to them.[90] If this had happened, We would have doubly punished you in this world and the next.[91] Then you would not have found anyone against Us as your helper.[92] (73-75)

وَ اِنۡ کَادُوۡا لَیَسۡتَفِزُّوۡنَکَ مِنَ الۡاَرۡضِ لِیُخۡرِجُوۡکَ مِنۡہَا وَ اِذًا لَّا یَلۡبَثُوۡنَ خِلٰفَکَ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿۷۶﴾ سُنَّۃَ مَنۡ قَدۡ اَرۡسَلۡنَا قَبۡلَکَ مِنۡ رُّسُلِنَا وَ لَا تَجِدُ لِسُنَّتِنَا تَحۡوِیۡلًا ﴿۷۷﴾ اَقِمِ الصَّلٰوۃَ لِدُلُوۡکِ الشَّمۡسِ اِلٰی غَسَقِ الَّیۡلِ وَ قُرۡاٰنَ الۡفَجۡرِ ؕ اِنَّ قُرۡاٰنَ الۡفَجۡرِ کَانَ مَشۡہُوۡدًا ﴿۷۸﴾ وَ مِنَ الَّیۡلِ فَتَہَجَّدۡ بِہٖ نَافِلَۃً لَّکَ ٭ۖ عَسٰۤی اَنۡ یَّبۡعَثَکَ رَبُّکَ مَقَامًا مَّحۡمُوۡدًا ﴿۷۹﴾ وَ قُلۡ رَّبِّ اَدۡخِلۡنِیۡ مُدۡخَلَ صِدۡقٍ وَّ اَخۡرِجۡنِیۡ مُخۡرَجَ صِدۡقٍ وَّ اجۡعَلۡ لِّیۡ مِنۡ لَّدُنۡکَ سُلۡطٰنًا نَّصِیۡرًا ﴿۸۰﴾ وَ قُلۡ جَآءَ الۡحَقُّ وَ زَہَقَ الۡبَاطِلُ ؕ اِنَّ الۡبَاطِلَ کَانَ زَہُوۡقًا ﴿۸۱﴾

They are after uprooting you from this land[93] in order to turn you out from here. But if this happens, then they too will not be able to stay here for long.[94] Bear in mind[95] the established practice about the messengers We have sent before you and you will not find any change in Our practice. [This phase is difficult indeed; so in order to acquire patience and perseverance in it] be diligent in the prayer[96] from the setting of the sun to darkness of the night and especially in the recital of fajr[97] because the recital of fajr is in company[98] and get up in a part of night also [and pray]. This is additional for you.[99] You may hope[100] that [on the Day of Judgement] the Almighty will raise you such that people will be showering praise on you[101] and keep praying: "Lord! [Wherever you want to make me enter] make me enter with honour and [from wherever you want me to leave] make me leave with honour and make power and authority my helper especially from Your self.[102] And [O Prophet] proclaim: "The truth has come and evil has perished because evil was bound to perish."[103] (76-81)

وَ نُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الۡقُرۡاٰنِ مَا ہُوَ شِفَآءٌ وَّ رَحۡمَۃٌ لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ۙ وَ لَا یَزِیۡدُ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ اِلَّا خَسَارًا ﴿۸۲﴾ وَ اِذَاۤ اَنۡعَمۡنَا عَلَی الۡاِنۡسَانِ اَعۡرَضَ وَ نَاٰ بِجَانِبِہٖ ۚ وَ اِذَا مَسَّہُ الشَّرُّ کَانَ یَــُٔوۡسًا ﴿۸۳﴾ قُلۡ کُلٌّ یَّعۡمَلُ عَلٰی شَاکِلَتِہٖ ؕ فَرَبُّکُمۡ اَعۡلَمُ بِمَنۡ ہُوَ اَہۡدٰی سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۸۴﴾

We are revealing in this Qur'an that which is a cure and mercy for the believers but it is only increasing these unjust in [their] loss. The issue with man is that when We grant Him favour, he shows indifference and turns away[104] and when some calamity strikes him, he totally loses hope. [Their situation is the same as well; for this reason,] say: "Each is following his own way. Then he who is more on the right path is well known to your Lord."[105] (82-84)

وَ یَسۡـَٔلُوۡنَکَ عَنِ الرُّوۡحِ ؕ قُلِ الرُّوۡحُ مِنۡ اَمۡرِ رَبِّیۡ وَ مَاۤ اُوۡتِیۡتُمۡ مِّنَ الۡعِلۡمِ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿۸۵﴾ وَ لَئِنۡ شِئۡنَا لَنَذۡہَبَنَّ بِالَّذِیۡۤ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُ لَکَ بِہٖ عَلَیۡنَا وَکِیۡلًا ﴿ۙ۸۶﴾ اِلَّا رَحۡمَۃً مِّنۡ رَّبِّکَ ؕ اِنَّ فَضۡلَہٗ کَانَ عَلَیۡکَ کَبِیۡرًا ﴿۸۷﴾ قُلۡ لَّئِنِ اجۡتَمَعَتِ الۡاِنۡسُ وَ الۡجِنُّ عَلٰۤی اَنۡ یَّاۡتُوۡا بِمِثۡلِ ہٰذَا الۡقُرۡاٰنِ لَا یَاۡتُوۡنَ بِمِثۡلِہٖ وَ لَوۡ کَانَ بَعۡضُہُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ ظَہِیۡرًا ﴿۸۸﴾

They ask you about the ruh [that is being revealed to you].[106] Tell them: "This ruh is a directive of my Lord and you have been given very little knowledge of such facts. [Your intention is not involved in this O Prophet!]. If We want, We can [snatch and] take away what We have revealed to you. Then you will not find any helper for this against Us except that this is just God's mercy [that you have acquired it]. In reality, great is His bounty on you.[107] Say: "If all humankind and jinnkind combine to make such a Qur'an, they will not be able to make something like it, even if they become helpers of one another."[108] (85-88)

[54]. Here at the end the Qur'an has made it evident that morals are a corollary of beliefs and according to the categorization of the Qur'an, all moral directives will be subsumed under al-hikmah. They will come under al-kitab when some law is stated about them.

[55]. The previous verses ended on a refutation of polytheism. With this in background, it is further stated that they are guilty of double foolishness: the first foolishness is that they associated partners with God; the second is that they went a step head and chose for God something they never tolerated for themselves.

[56]. Ie., explained the essence of monotheism in various ways and the heinous nature of polytheism as well to such an extent that the dumbest person cannot say that he could not understand these concepts. It is precisely this style of the Qur'an in which it explains its concise statements and elucidates its miraculous discourse in such a way that no other book of the world can emulate it.

[57]. This is because having a share in divinity would never have let them sit peacefully. They would have definitely quarrelled and disputed with the Lord of the throne to take His place. As a result, the whole system of this universe would have crumbled.

[58]. Whatever accusations they want to hurl on God, they can do so but the heavens and the earth by their very existence bear witness that God is above and beyond these accusations.

[59]. This is a mention of the established practice of God. According to it, when a person adheres to rebelliousness against the truth then, after giving him some respite, his faculty which leads him to the truth is taken away. This faculty is endowed upon every person by the Almighty. After this, only God's scourge is awaited that necessarily visits people who have been conclusively conveyed the truth by God's messengers.

[60]. This is because they are not prepared to accept God without their alleged deities.

[61]. Ie., they do not hear to earn any benefit but do so to find a pretext for criticism and objection.

[62]. Ie., the truth is so evident to them that they cannot find any way to refute it. Thus they try to evade and escape this situation by sometimes calling him a soothsayer, sometimes a magician and some times a mad person.

[63]. This is stated because people will feel that the time between their death and being raised up on the Day of Judgement was as if they had slept for a short while.

[64]. The implication is that whatever fun they make and whatever sarcastic remarks they hurl at him, he should not respond by saying something which is against the truth or which crosses the limits. He is to speak the truth come what may and what is in accordance with the dignity of his message.

[65]. These words of admonition are meant to tell them that they too are at the mercy of God. Hence they should invite people to the truth. This only is his sphere of action. They should not try to cross this sphere to enter God's domain.

[66]. Ie., if God has endowed Muhammad (sws) with such a masterpiece of literature as the Qur'an, He had earlier given His Prophet David (sws) the matchless Psalms whose words penetrated deep into the hearts. When it was read by David (sws) in a melodious voice, the mountains on the earth and the birds in the air would join him in harmony to extol and praise the Almighty.

[67]. The previous paragraph occurred as a parenthetical one to warn and guide people forthwith during the course of conversation. From here, the discourse joins the actual subject that was under discussion

[68]. Ie., the angels who the idolaters worshipped as associates of God and whom they invoked for help.

[69]. This refers to cities which become a symbol of affluence and authority of a nation. Examples include Babylon, Nineveh, Rome, Cordova, Baghdad, Dehli and in present times London and Washington etc.

[70]. Ie., no one lives eternally. Just as individuals die, nations and cities too reach their fate. Thus arrogance based on affluence and authority necessarily makes a city reach either of these two destinies: it loses its status by being vanquished by other nations and is finally obliterated from the face of the earth or after denying the truth conclusively conveyed by a messenger assigned to it, it is destroyed by God's torment. This is how turn by turn the Almighty is dealing with each nation and will continue to deal like this till the Day of Judgement. This is an unchangeable practice of God and has been written in His register. History tells us that first the Hamites and then the Semites were selected for this purpose and for the past five hundred years, the progeny of Japheth have been chosen for this purpose. These are the last peoples on whom history will end. This is evident from indications in the Qur'an which say that after this the Day of Judgement shall come.

[71]. The actual words are: فَظَلَمُوْا بِهَا. The preposition بin them evidences the fact that a word to the effect كذبوا is encompassed here. The translation keeps this aspect in consideration.

[72]. Ie., when people are not frightened and become even more rebellious and reject them, then what is the use of sending them? It is evident from this experience that such admonitions are of no benefit to the rebellious. They can only be convinced by God's scourge.

[73]. This is a reference to the verses of the Qur'an which state that the Almighty is heading towards the land of Makkah while reducing it from its boundaries. This is an explicit prophecy of the fate – and a warning with its reference to the Quraysh – which they met at the conquest of Makkah. See, the Qur'an 13:41; 21:44.

[74]. This is a reference to the incident of the night journey with which the surah began. Since there was also a warning in it for both the Quraysh and the Israelites that besides the Sacred Mosque, the Bayt al-Maqdis too is now being entrusted to the Prophet (sws) it was made fun of. Mocking words like "see now they are trying to forcibly occupy the Bayt al-Maqdis" were cracked. So much so that in the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi,the thing that was meant to warn and admonish them and to inform them of the future became a trial for them because of their misdeeds.

[75]. The tree of Zaqqum, which neither gives shade nor fruit, is referred to here. It will be a heap of thorns which the dwellers of Hell will eat in distress. It will burn their bellies as if boiling water is circulating in them. It is because of these characteristics of this tree that it is called مَلْعُوْنَة (accursed) by the Qur'an. In other words, God has not granted it with the benefits of flowers, fruits and shade. On the contrary, He has deprived it of all these things and thereby made it a symbol of His curse. When the Qur'an mentioned it to warn and frighten people, the miscreants of the Quraysh made it also a subject of making fun. They would mockingly say: Look at this person! On the one hand, he says that Hell will contain fire which will burn down stones and on the other hand, is informing us with the same tongue that trees also sprout in this fire.

[76]. The implication is that a sign is not their problem that if it is shown they will profess faith. They are inflicted with the ailment of stubbornness and obduracy. The Almighty has done all the needful to warn and admonish them, but to no avail. All these three examples show that their rebelliousness has only increased and they have dealt with God's signs in the same manner as the Thamud dealt with the she-camel.

[77]. The actual word is أَرَئَيْتَكَ. It also occurs at instances of sarcasm and disdain. Here it is used in precisely this meaning.

[78]. Ie., they will become a prey to his objectives and they will become slaves to him alone.

[79]. This is a reference to the noise and commotion always raised by leaders, sages and religious pundits – who are incited by Satan – produced against the righteous.

[80]. Ie., he may attack them with his armies. This is not merely a metaphor but a fact. It has happened many a time in history that the followers of Satan have brought armies to force people to leave the religion of truth.

[81]. This happens when Satan inveigles people into polytheistic myths and carves out superstitions and teaches people the rites to worship them. Thus these people take out their share from their wealth to make an offering to them on their shrines, name their children after them and at times even sacrifice their children to gain their pleasure.

[82]. Ie., he may go ahead and make whatever promises with them he wants to. This is a reference to the wrong expectations, false hopes and baseless pledges which Satan makes to allure people and to clutch them in his evil schemes.

[83]. This is an assurance sounded to those who would like to remain steadfast on their faith against the alluring of Satan. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... Ie., the servants of God who inspite of the mischief worked by Satan want to adhere to their faith and with full confidence entrust themselves to God will find God to be their guardian. They will need none else than Him for this purpose. He will protect His servants in the gravest of circumstances and secure their faith. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 521)

[84]. This is an example of the general attitude of human beings. Ships which weigh several thousand tons move across the sea at the behest of God alone. This arrangement has been made by Him so that human beings seek His bounty and show gratitude on it. Yet the misfortune of human beings is that if these ships are caught in a storm, they remember God and as soon as the ships sail out of them, they neither remember the storm and the calamity it had let loose nor the God to Whom they were pleading.

[85]. Human beings are certainly superior to other creatures but this superiority is not absolute. It is evident from this verse that there are some creatures which are superior to human beings as well.

[86]. Ie., good people with their leaders and bad one with theirs. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

Gathering each group with its leaders and followers has the aspect of honouring them as well as conclusive communication of the truth. The leaders of the virtuous will see that the cause of making God's words superior for which they endangered their lives has thankfully produced superb consequences. On the other hand, the leaders of evil people will see the fate of their misdeeds and those who followed them will curse them and will demand a double torment for them, as is stated at another instance. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 525)

[87]. The actual words are: فَاُولٰٓئِکَ یَقۡرَءُوۡنَ کِتٰبَہُمۡ. The verb in them is used in its complete form. The purpose is to point to the fact that those who will be handed their record in their left hands will try to hide it behind their backs as soon as they acquire them, let alone reading it. They will be in deep anguish and agony.

[88]. Ie., the path that could have taken them to their destination. On the other hand, those who kept their eyes open and benefitted from the signs of God will see their destination in the light of the full day and happily reach it without any obstruction.

[89]. The actual words are: وَ اِنۡ کَادُوۡا لَیَفۡتِنُوۡنَکَ عَنِ الَّذِیۡۤ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ. The preposition عَنْshows that the word لَيَفْتِنُونَكَ encompasses the meaning of يصرفونك or a word of similar meaning. The implication is that since the Prophet (sws) is very desirous of their faith, taking advantage of this desire they want to entangle him in a trial: they want to give him the impression that they are inclined towards faith in order to convince him to make a little change in his message and in this way make him alter his stance.

[90]. The implication is that after listening to their offer, he had become a little uncertain but because of his perseverance on the path of truth the Almighty's grace took him out of this situation. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

It should be kept in mind that infallibility of prophets does not mean that they can never be in a state of indecision or a wrong inclination cannot pass through their hearts. It only means that in the first place none of their inclinations is based on evil desires and is always virtuous in nature. Secondly even in the path of virtue if they take a step which is not correct, the Almighty protects them and guides them in the right direction. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 528)

[91]. Ie., a double punishment not only in this world but also in the next. This is in accordance with the law that the more a person is responsible the more is his accountability.

[92]. Though the Prophet (sws) is apparently addressed, yet deliberation shows that the anger is directed towards the disbelievers who were presenting suggestions of compromise. They are warned that the message of the Lord against whom they are presenting such suggestions has this view about them.

[93]. Ie., the land of Makkah.

[94]. When a messenger of God is forced to migrate, then as soon as he leaves his nation they become vulnerable to punishment and their fate is decided. It is stated ahead that this is an established practice of God which is unalterable. This prophecy has been made in accordance with this established practice. Thus it came true word by word as soon as the Prophet (sws) left Makkah.

[95]. This verb is suppressed. In the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi, this style is meant to remind the addressees and portray the situation right before their eyes.

[96]. Ie., in the times of zuhr, 'asr, maghrib and 'isha they should diligently offer the prayer. Since these timings of the prayer were known to every person hence it was broadly stated: لِدُلُوۡکِ الشَّمۡسِ اِلٰی غَسَقِ الَّیۡلِ. The لof لِدُلُوكِconnotes time and this usage is common in Arabic.

[97]. The actual words are: وَ قُرۡاٰنَ الۡفَجۡرِ. They refer to the recital of the Qur'an in the fajr prayer. Since this was evident from the relationship between the two co-ordinated clauses hence it was not stated in words. The word قُرۡاٰنَ is in the accusative to specify its mention ie.أخص بالذكر قرآن الفجر. This broadly refers to the long recital in the prayer as well as it being audibly loud. Similarly, this style highlights the significance of the fajr prayer, particularly the recital of the Qur'an in it.

[98]. Ie., the angels are present in it as evidenced by certain narratives (al-Bukhari, no. 4440; Muslim, no. 649). It is because of this blessing that both the prayer leader and his followers feel very attentive and focused in this prayer.

[99]. It is evident from this that the tahajjud prayer was mandatory upon the Prophet (sws) in the same way as the five prayers are mandatory on all Muslims. For Muslims, it is an optional prayer. If their scholars adhere to it, it will hopefully secure for them the help of the Almighty in their efforts of preaching and teaching religion because it is for this reason that here the Prophet (sws) has been directed to offer it.

[100]. The actual words is: عَسَی. When it is used with reference to God, its connotation of hope and expectation becomes associated with the addressees.

[101]. The actual words are: مَقَامًا مَحْمُوْدًا. The word مَقَامًا in my opinion is not in the meaning of locus (zarf). It is in fact a verbal noun and here it is in the meaning of a stressed object (maf'ul muṭliq). Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... Since there is a similarity of meaning between بَعَثَ and مَقَام the word بَعَثَ means "to raise" and مَقَام means "to stand and to rise;" hence there is nothing wrong in the word being regarded as a stressed object. The implication is that today these people are raising a deafening commotion to oppose and condemn the Prophet (sws), but he should adhere to his stance and be diligent in the prayer specially the tahajjud prayer and should hope that his Lord will raise him such that a great ummah will be praising him and God too will accept his efforts. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 531)

[102]. This is the prayer of migration. It was stated earlier that the Quraysh were making efforts to expel the Prophet (sws) from Makkah. This prayer has been taught to him with reference to it. Its teaching from God tells us that it is apparently a prayer but in reality these are great tidings for the Prophet (sws). In the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi, it means that even before his departure his entry has been arranged for. His exit and entry will be with honour and respect and in the journey the escort of dominance, political authority and God's help will travel with him. Moreover, all this arrangement will be directly made by God Himself. The words مِنْ لَدُنْكَ of the verse allude to this aspect.

[103]. Ie., it was destined for evil to be obliterated. This is a statement of an established practice of God. Migration is a prelude to it. Thus when this prayer was taught to the Prophet (sws), at the same time it was directed that it be declared that evil would be vanquished in the land and the truth brought by God's Messenger would prevail come what may. This prediction of the Qur'an was fulfilled at the conquest of Makkah in such a grand manner that the Prophet broke the idols placed in the Baytullah with the pointed end of his spear while reciting precisely this verse.

[104]. "Turning away," is a portrayal of indifference for which the words نَآبِجَانِبِهِ are used in the verse.

[105]. This verse urges the Prophet (sws) to adhere to his stance and consign his matter to God. He well knows who among them is on the right path.

[106]. It is evident from the context that the word ruhis used to connote "divine revelation." The essence of the things which emanate from God are described in the Qur'an by this word. It can be said that it is the command of God which at times takes the form of a word and at others the form of a spirit. Gabriel is also its manifestation. For precisely this reason, he is called Ruh al-Qudus or al-Ruh. When the Qur'an stated that God had revealed His spirit to Muhammad (sws) as in verse 52 of Surah Shura or at some other instances, the disbelievers made fun of this and mockingly asked him what the ruh revealed to him was.

[107]. These verses apparently address the Prophet (sws) but what is said is actually directed at people who had asked the question cited above. They are told that this Qur'an has neither been fabricated by the Prophet (sws) nor is there any role of his desire or effort in its revelation. It has solely been revealed by God as a favour and if He seizes it from the Prophet (sws), he does not have the capacity to author such a discourse.

[108]. This challenge means that the type of discourse the Qur'an is with regard to the guidance it provides, to its contents and to its style cannot be emulated by all humankind and jinnkind even if they try their utmost. It is a fact that no one has been able to respond to this challenge in the last fourteen centuries. All efforts that were undertaken in this regard were mere imitations of the style of the Qur'an which in itself is an admission of inability. Nevertheless, all these efforts ended in failure and those who undertook them became a laughing stock.

Surah Bani Isra'il (3/3)

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An Introduction to Ghamidi’s Mizan

How to overcome Selfishness

Your Question Answered

Explanation of Some Qur’anic Words

Anger Management

Some Suggestions for Married Couples

God’s Domain

Let us Light up our Prayers!

Successful Parents

The “Successful Spouse” Test

Let us Value what We have

Dear Husbands … If I may say!

The “Blind Drill”

Life goes on all the same!

Prayers can Move Mountains!

Two types of “Junk Food”

Reforming Our Conduct

Supplications from the Hadith

Supplications from the Qur’an

A Small Act of Kindness

Respecting the Privacy of our Mature Children

Explanation of Some Jarh Terms

Selections from Hadith

Your Questions Answered

Two Tough Trials

Benefiting from Criticism

Your Questions Answered

The Cause of Truth

Your Questions Answered

Selections from Hadith

Restraining our Wounded Pride

Selections from Hadith

The Power of One

Preparing for the Inevitable!

Selections from Hadith

Let us Refuse to Lose!

The Sound of Silence

Selections from Hadith

Let us Enjoy every Moment of our Lives

Lets be Just, Come what May!

Selections from Hadith

Beware of the three C’s: Cynicism, Criticism and Complaint

Never Give Up!

Do We have a Spiritual Part of the Day?

Tears of Old Parents … for their Children

Life goes on all the same!

The Decorum of Criticizing Others

Tears that would not stop!

Selections from Hadith

Hobbies we must have!

Death in Innocence

“Thank you” Culture

Visit to an Old Home

We Owe it to Our Society

Experiencing God

Discovering our Inner Talent

The Battle for Honesty Continues!

Saintly Sinners

Secret to Inner Peace

Your Questions Answered

Small Acts of Kindness

Illness can be a Boon!

Philosophy of Animal Sacrifice on ‘Id

Tears of Gratitude!

Lookout to Leap for Others!

Charity

Turning Foes into Friends

Let us then Live for Others!

SPECIAL ISSUE

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (1/4)

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (2/4)

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (3/4)

A Re-Evaluation of Early Developments in Qur’anic Orthography (4/4)

Abdus Sattar Ghauri (The Father Figure of Al-Mawrid!)

Brief Profile

Special Issue

Charity: Points to Ponder

Your Question Answered

“Dignity in Hard Labour Lies!”

Forgiveness

Never Lose Hope!

The Trials of Life

Anger Management

Handling Mature Children

Let us Promise…

An Introduction to Ghāmidī’s Mīzān

Visit to a Graveyard

Are We Ready to Die?

A Shame to Humanity[1]!

A Critical Evaluation of Variations found in the ‘Uthmānic Copies (Part 4/4)

A Critical Evaluation of Variations found in the ‘Uthmānic Copies (Part 3/4)

A Critical Evaluation of Variations found in the ‘Uthmānic Copies (Part 2/4)

A Critical Evaluation of Variations found in the ‘Uthmānic Copies (Part 1/4)

The Key to Successful Marriage

Taming the Tongue

Sexual Intimacy between Husband and Wife

Pretension and Pomposity

The Cause of Truth

Narrative on the Changes made in the Qur’ān by al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf

Sūrah Mā’idah (64-89)

Sympathy

A Man of Steel

Critical Evaluation of Ustuwānah al-Mushaf Narratives

Humility

Fasting in Extreme Conditions

How to overcome Selfishness

Nothing but the Truth, Please!

Narratives on the Collection of the Qur’ān by ‘Alī(rta) (part 1/3)

Narratives on the Collection of the Qur’ān by ‘Alī(rta) (part 2/3)

Narratives on the Collection of the Qur’ān by ‘Alī(rta) (part 3/3)

A Tribute to Brig (retd.) Noor Ahmed Husain (Quaid e Azam’s Last Military ADC)

Courage

Appendix C: A Brief Biographical Sketch of Hamīd al-Dīn al-Farāhī (1863-1930) [1]

Appendix B:  A Brief Summary of the Views of Traditional and Radical Western Scholars

Appendix A:  A Summary of the View of Traditional Muslim Scholars

A Critical Evaluation of Farahī’s View on the Collection of the Qur’ān

A Citizen of Paradise (Written on the Martyrdom of Dr Habib ur Rahman)

Forgiveness

Gratitude

Your Questions Answered

Reason and Revelation

Your Questions Answered

Explanation of Some Qur’ānic Words

Explanation of Some Jarh Terms

The Warrior who became a Martyr

A Narrative on the Placement of Sūrah Anfāl (8) and…

A Critical Analysis of the Narratives on the… (Part 1/2)

A Critical Analysis of the Narratives on the… (Part 2/2)

Your Questions Answered

Travelling Alone!

A Narrative on the Schematic Arrangement of the Qur’ān (Part 2/2)

A Narrative on the Schematic Arrangement of the Qur’ān (Part 1/2)