Surah Baqarah (1-39)

Surah Baqarah (1-39)


Qur'anic Exegesis

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الم ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ والَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ أُوْلَـئِكَ عَلَى هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ (1-5)

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَأَنذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنذِرْهُمْ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ خَتَمَ اللّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهمْ وَعَلَى سَمْعِهِمْ وَعَلَى أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عظِيمٌ (6-7)

In the name of God the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.

This is Alif Lam Mim. This is a Divine Book; there is no doubt in this [fact]. Guidance for the God-conscious, for those who profess belief while not observing what they are believing in, and establish the prayer and spend in charity out of what We have bestowed upon them; and for those who believe in that which is revealed upon you and that which was revealed before you. And they are the ones who are certain of the Hereafter. They are truly guided from their Lord and they shall be the successful ones. (1-5)

As for those who disbelieved, it is the same whether you warn them or not, they will not believe. God has sealed their hearts and their hearing, and their eyes are veiled. There is a grievous punishment for them. (6-7)

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ يُخَادِعُونَ اللّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلاَّ أَنفُسَهُم وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ فَزَادَهُمُ اللّهُ مَرَضاً وَلَهُم عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْذِبُونَ وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لاَ تُفْسِدُواْ فِي الأَرْضِ قَالُواْ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ أَلا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْمُفْسِدُونَ وَلَـكِن لاَّ يَشْعُرُونَ وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ آمِنُواْ كَمَا آمَنَ النَّاسُ قَالُواْ أَنُؤْمِنُ كَمَا آمَنَ السُّفَهَاء أَلا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُالسُّفَهَاء وَلَـكِن لاَّ يَعْلَمُونَ وَإِذَا لَقُواْ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ قَالُواْ آمَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلَوْاْ إِلَىشَيَاطِينِهِمْ قَالُواْ إِنَّا مَعَكْمْ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُسْتَهْزِؤُونَ اللّهُ يَسْتَهْزِىءُ بِهِمْ وَيَمُدُّهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرُوُاْ الضَّلاَلَةَ بِالْهُدَى فَمَا رَبِحَت تِّجَارَتُهُمْ وَمَا كَانُواْ مُهْتَدِينَ (8-16)

مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي اسْتَوْقَدَ نَاراً فَلَمَّا أَضَاءتْ مَا حَوْلَهُ ذَهَبَ اللّهُ بِنُورِهِمْ وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ لاَّ يُبْصِرُونَ صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لاَ يَرْجِعُونَ أَوْ

And of these people are some who say: 'We believe in God and the Last Day', whereas they are not true believers. They try to deceive God and the believers. However, they deceive none except themselves yet they do not realize it. Their hearts were infected with disease and God intensified their malady. And for them is a painful punishment because they have been speaking untruths. And when it is said to them: 'Do not make mischief on earth', they say: 'We only make peace'. Behold! They are the ones who create mischief but they do not realize. And when they are asked to believe as the others have believed, they say: 'Should we believe as the foolish did?' Lo, they themselves are the foolish ones indeed! But they do not realize it. And when they face the believers, they say: 'We have already believed', but when they reach the company of their devils, they declare: 'We are really with you; we only mock them'. God is mocking at them and is allowing them to increase in their arrogance and they are drifting blindly. These are they who preferred waywardness to guidance, so their dealingbargaining did not prove profitable to them nor could they find the right pathand they did not receive guidance. (8-16)

Their parable is like that of a man who kindled a fire and when the fire illuminated his surroundings, God took away their

كَصَيِّبٍ مِّنَ السَّمَاء فِيهِ ظُلُمَاتٌ وَرَعْدٌ وَبَرْقٌ يَجْعَلُونَ أَصْابِعَهُمْ فِي آذَانِهِم مِّنَ الصَّوَاعِقِ حَذَرَ-لْمَوْتِ واللّهُ مُحِيطٌ بِالْكافِرِينَ (17-18)

يَكَادُ الْبَرْقُ يَخْطَفُ أَبْصَارَهُمْ كُلَّمَا أَضَاء لَهُم مَّشَوْاْ فِيهِ وَإِذَا أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ قَامُواْ وَلَوْ شَاء اللّهُ لَذَهَبَ بِسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَارِهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّه عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (19-20)

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُواْ رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الأَرْضَ فِرَاشاً وَالسَّمَاء بِنَاء وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاء مَاء فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقاً لَّكُمْ فَلاَ تَجْعَلُواْ لِلّهِ أَندَاداً وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ (21-22)

وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا فَأْتُواْ بِسُورَةٍ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ وَادْعُواْ شُهَدَاءكُم مِّن دُونِ اللّهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُواْ وَلَن تَفْعَلُواْ فَاتَّقُواْ النَّارَ الَّتِي وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِين آمَنُواْوَعَمِلُواْ

light and left them in utter darkness, so they could not make anything out. They are deaf, dumb and blind; now they will not return. (17-18)

Or [their parable is] that of rain pouring down from the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder and lightning. They have their fingers thrust into their ears fearing death because of the thunderclaps whereas God envelops the disbelievers from all sides. The lightening is dazzling their eyes; whenever it flashes forth for them, they walk on; when it becomes dark around them, they stand still. And if God willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight; indeed God has power to do everything. (19-20)

O people! Worship your Lord, who created you and those before you so that you may be protected from Hell – the Lord who has made the earth your couch and the heavens your shelter and sent down water from the heavens and with it He brought forth fruits for your sustenance; therefore, do not knowingly associate partners with God. (21-22)

And if you are in doubt concerning that which We have revealed to Our servant, then produce a surah like it, and call your helpers besides God if you are truthful. But if you cannot accomplish this – and you will never be able to accomplish this –

الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ كُلَّمَا رُزِقُواْ مِنْهَا مِن ثَمَرَةٍ رِّزْقاً قَالُواْ هَـذَا الَّذِي رُزِقْنَا مِن قَبْلُ وَأُتُواْ بِهِ مُتَشَابِهاً وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا أَزْوَاجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ وَهُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ (23-25)

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَسْتَحْيِي أَن يَضْرِبَ مَثَلاً مَّا بَعُوضَةً فَمَا فَوْقَهَا فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ فَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فَيَقُولُونَ مَاذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِهَـذَا مَثَلاً يُضِلُّ بِهِ كَثِيراً وَيَهْدِي بِهِ كَثِيراً وَمَا يُضِلُّ بِهِ إِلاَّ الْفَاسِقِينَ الَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّهِمِن بَعْدِ مِيثَاقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الأَرْضِ أُولَـئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ (26-27)

كَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَاتاً فَأَحْيَاكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِي الأَرْضِ جَمِيعاً ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَىالسَّمَاء فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ (28-29)

then fear the Fire whose fuel will be men and stones, which has been prepared for the disbelievers. And give glad tidings to those who believed and did pious deeds that they shall have gardens in which rivers will flow. Each time they are fed with its fruits they will say: 'This is what we were provided with before!' And they will be given the like of it; and they shall have pure mates therein, and there they shall abide forever. (23 -25)

God is not ashamed of using an analogy, even that of a mosquito or something even less significant than that. Those who have believed know that it is the truth from their Lord. As for those who rejected faith say: 'What is it that God means by this analogy?' By it God causes many to go astray and many He grants guidance. And God does not cause to stray except for those who are disobedient; those who break the covenant with God after affirming it and rent asunder what God has ordered to be united and cause disorder in the earth, it is they who will be the losers. (26-27)

How can you deny God whereas you were without life and He gave you life; then He causes you to die and will again bring you to life; then you shall be brought back to Him? It is He who created for you all that is in the earth; then He turned to the sky

وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً قَالُواْ أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاء وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الأَسْمَاء كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلاَئِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاء هَـؤُلاء إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ قَالُواْ سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ فَلَمَّا أَنبَأَهُمْ بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ (30-33)

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لآدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ أَبَى وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ وَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَكُلاَ مِنْهَا رَغَداً حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلاَ تَقْرَبَا هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الْظَّالِمِينَ فَأَزَلَّهُمَا

and fashioned it into seven heavens, and He has perfect knowledge of everything. (28-29)

And recall when your Lord said to the angels: 'I am about to make a Khalifah on earth'. They replied: 'Will You place upon it one that shall create disorder in it and shall shed blood, while we glorify you with gratefulness and sanctify You?' He said: 'I know that which you are unaware of.' And He taught Adam all the names. Then He presented them before the angels and said: 'Tell me the names of these people, if you are truthful'. They said: 'You are absolutely pure and we have no knowledge except for that which You have taught us. It is only You, who knows all and who is All-wise'. He said: 'O Adam, tell them the names of these personalities'. Then, when Adam told them their names God said: 'Did I not tell you that it is only I who know all the secrets of the heavens and the earth and I know that which you reveal and also that which you used to conceal'. (30-33)

And recall when We directed the angels to bow before Adam. They fell down in prostration except Iblis. He refused and showed arrogance and thus became one of the rejecters. And We said: 'O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the garden and eat of its fruit freely wherever you like but do not go near this tree, or the two of you shall become transgressors'. But Satan made them fall from

الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُواْ بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ وَلَكُمْ فِي الأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَى حِينٍ فَتَلَقَّى آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ قُلْنَا اهْبِطُواْ مِنْهَا جَمِيعاً فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّي هُدًى فَمَن تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرواْ وَكَذَّبُواْ بِآيَاتِنَا أُولَـئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ (34-39)

there and he succeeded in getting them expelled from the pleasant state they were both in. And we said: 'Get down! You will be enemies to each other. And your dwelling and sustenance shall be on earth for an appointed time.' Then Adam received some words from his Lord and He accepted his repentance for He is indeed immensely Forgiving, Ever Merciful. We said: 'Get down from here, all of you! Then if any guidance comes to you from Me, whoever will follow My guidance for them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. And those who will disbelieve and refuse my verses they are the ones who shall be the people of the Fire. They shall dwell in it forever'. (34-39)

(Translated from 'Tadabur-i-Qur'an' by Tariq Hashmi)




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Surah Mursalat (Part 2/2)

Surah Mursalat (Part 1/2)

Primary Sources of Hadith Study

Sūrah Dahr (Part 2/2)

Sūrah Dahr (Part 1/2)

Companions (rta) of the Prophet (sws)

Sūrah ‘Abas (Part 2/2)

Sūrah ‘Abas (Part 1/2)

Excellence and Inherent Limitations of the Isnād

Surah Takwir

Surah Infitar

Basic Criteria to Sift the Sound from the Unsound Ahadith

Sūrah Mutaffifīn

Sūrah Fajr

Fundamental Principles of Understanding Ahadīth

Sūrah Tāriq

Sūrah Burūj

Sūrah A‘lā

Sūrah Shams

Surah Duha

Surah Tin

Sūrah Bayyinah

Sūrah ‘Alaq

Surah ‘Asr

Surah ‘Adiyat

Surah Kafirun

Surah Nasr

Sūrah Lahab

Sūrah Falaq

Qurayshite Descent: A Condition for the Khalīfah

Conditions and Limits of Obedience to the Rulers

Principles of Interpreting the Qur’ān (Part 2/2)

Principles of Interpreting the Qur’ān (Part 1/2)

The Institution of Consultation during the Reign of Rightly Guided Caliphs

Heads for Zakah Spending

Surah Baqarah (1-39)

Surah Tariq

Purification of Deeds

Usage of some Qur’anic Terms (1)

Surah Qadr

Bismillahi’l-Rahmani’l-Rahim

Surah Kawthar

Understanding the Qur’an: Some Initial Conditions

Surah Fil

Surah Quraysh

Surah Alam Nashrah

Surah Humazah

Surah Ma‘un

Surah Nas

The Philosophy of Prayer Timings

Surah Ikhlas

Surah Zilzal

Good and Evil (Part 1/2)

Good and Evil (Part 2/2)

Difference Between Hadith and Sunnah

Errors in the Current Mode of Preaching

An Analysis of the Meanings of the Surahs of Group six (Part 2/2)

An Analysis of the Meanings of the Surahs of Group six (Part 1/2)

Surah Takathur

Surah Qariah

The Concept of Equality Between Man and Woman

Man’s Place in the Universe

Man’s Place in the Universe

A Summary and Analysis of The Meanings of Surah Takveer

A Summary and Analysis of The Meanings of Surah Muddaththir

A Summary and Analysis of The Meanings of Surah Muzzammil

A Summary and Analysis of The Meanings of Surah Ma‘arij

A Summary And Analysis Of The Meanings Of Surah Mulk

A SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF THE MEANINGS OF SURAH TEHREEM

A Summary and Analysis of The Meanings of Surah Talaaq

A Summary And Analysis Of The Meanings Of Surah Taghaabun

A Summary And Analysis Of The Meanings Of Surah Jum`Ah

A Summary And Analysis Of The Meanings Of Surah Mumtahinah

A Summary and Analysis of the mansings of Surah Hashr

Difference Between Hadith And Sunnah

A Summary And Analysis Of The Meanings Of Surah Mujaadalah

A SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF THE MEANINGS OF SURAH HADEED

A Summary and Analysis of The Meanings of Surah Waaqiyah

Good and Evil (2): View of the Quran

A Summary And Analysis Of The Meanings Of Surah Rahmaan

Good And Evil (1): Views Of The Philosophers