Surah Baqarah (100-121)

Surah Baqarah (100-121)


Qur'anic Exegesis

وَلَمَّا جَاءهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ نَبَذَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ كِتَابَ اللّهِ وَرَاء ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ وَاتَّبَعُواْ مَا تَتْلُواْ الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَى مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَكِنَّ الشَّيْاطِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ

And [this also happened now; so] when a Prophet[1] came to them from God in confirmation of the predictions which were with them, some of those to whom the Book was given cast off the Book of God over their backs [in such a manner] as if they did not even know about it[2] and [in order to harm the Prophet] went after[3] what the devils would recite and chant[4] in the age of Solomon's

وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّى يَقُولاَ

kingdom. [They attribute such chants and recitals to Solomon] – whereas Solomon never was guilty of disbelief; it is the devils who were guilty of disbelief – they would teach people witchcraft[5]. And[6] [they went after] that which was revealed to

إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلاَ تَكْفُرْ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ وَمَا هُم

the angels Harut and Marut in Babylon[7]. Yet they would never instruct anyone without saying to him beforehand[8]: 'We are a

بِضَآرِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ اللّهِ وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلاَ يَنفَعُهُمْ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُواْ لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلاَقٍ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْاْ بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ لَوْ كَانُواْ يَعْلَمُونَ (101- 2 10)

test for you[9]; do not enter into disbelief[10].' Yet they would still learn from them the charm by which they could create discord between husband and wife[11]. And the fact of the matter is that they can harm none with what they learnt except by God's permission[12]. [They knew that full well] and [still] they would learn that which would not profit them but what would harm them[13]; yet they knew that anyone who buys such things has no

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُواْ واتَّقَوْا لَمَثُوبَةٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّه خَيْرٌ لَّوْ كَانُواْ يَعْلَمُونَ (103)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقُولُواْ رَاعِنَا وَقُولُواْ انظُرْنَا وَاسْمَعُوا ْوَلِلكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌأَلِيمٌ

share in the life to come[14]. Vile is that for which they have soldtheir souls, if they but knew it! (101-2)

Had they embraced faith and adopted righteousness, far better for them would God's reward have been, if they but knew it[15]. )103(

[To protect yourself from their mischief[16]] Believers [when you sit in the company of the Prophet (sws)], do not say Ra'ina[17], but say Unzurna[18][and whatever is said to you] pay

مَّا يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَلاَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ أَن يُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَاللّهُ يَخْتَصُّ بِرَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَاء وَاللّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ (104-105)

مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللّهَ عَلَىَ كُلِّ

due attention to it[19] and [remember that] a woeful punishment awaits these disbelievers[20]. The disbelievers among the People of the Book and the Idolaters do not want that any blessings be sent down to you from your Lord.[21] [These fools do not know that] God chooses whom He wants for His mercy and [do not know that] God is abounding in grace. (104-5)

[They object: 'Why do We alter the Shari'ah mentioned in the Torah'. Tell them:] Whatever verse [of this book] We abrogate[22] or cause to be forgotten[23], We replace it [in the Qur'an] by a better one or one similar[24]. Do you [O People] not

شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللّهَ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلاَ نَصِيرٍ (106-107)

أَمْ تُرِيدُونَ أَن تَسْأَلُواْ رَسُولَكُمْ كَمَا سُئِلَ مُوسَى مِن قَبْلُ وَمَن يَتَبَدَّلِ الْكُفْرَ بِالإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاء السَّبِيلِ (108)

وَدَّ كَثِيرٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُم مِّن بَعْدِ إِيمَانِكُمْ كُفَّاراً حَسَدًا مِّنْ عِندِ

know that God has power over all things? [Consequently, after giving the Israelites the Shari'ah he has not given up His right to alter it]. Do you not know that it is God who has sovereignty over the heavens and the earth, [so He will give the Shari'ah to whomever He pleases] and [if you do not accept His decision then] there is no one [in this world] besides God who is your friend and neither is there anyone to help you. (106-7)

[O believers, while following them] do you want to ask those things from your Prophet which were once asked from Moses?[25] [You should know that this is not the way of the believers] and [you should also know that] he who exchanges faith with disbelief has strayed from the straight path.[26] (108)

Many among the People of the Book because of envy wish to lead you back to disbelief now that you have embraced faith even

أَنفُسِهِم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ فَاعْفُواْ وَاصْفَحُواْ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتُواْ الزَّكَاةَ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُواْ لأَنفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللّهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ (109-110)

وَقَالُواْ لَن يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلاَّ مَن كَانَ هُوداً أَوْ نَصَارَى تِلْكَ أَمَانِيُّهُمْ قُلْ هَاتُواْ بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ بَلَى مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ عِندَ

though the truth has been made fully manifest to them. Soforgive [them][27] and ignore [them] until God takes His decision.[28] Indeed, God has power over all things. And [to combat their mischief] attend to the prayer and pay Zakah[29] and [remember] whatever virtue you send forward, you will find it with Allah. Indeed, God is watching all that you do. (109-110)

They declare: 'None shall enter Paradise but Jews and Christians'.[30] Such are their wishful fancies. Tell them: 'If you are truthful give us your proof [for this]'. [What they say is baseless]. Indeed, those who surrender themselves to God[31] and

رَبِّهِ وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ لَيْسَتِ النَّصَارَى عَلَىَ شَيْءٍ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَى لَيْسَتِ الْيَهُودُ عَلَى شَيْءٍ وَهُمْ يَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ كَذَلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ مِثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ فَاللّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ (111-113)

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن مَّنَعَ مَسَاجِدَ اللّهِ أَن يُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ وَسَعَى فِي خَرَابِهَا أُوْلَئِكَ

do deeds in a befitting manner shall be rewarded by their Lord[32]: they shall have nothing [there] to fear nor shall they be grieved.[33] [In spite of being united against you, their own situation is that][34] the Jews say that the Christians have no basis, and the Christian say that it is the Jews who have no basis even though both read the Book of God. Similarly[35], those who have no knowledge of the Book of God[36] have said something alike. Consequently, now God will settle their disputes on the Day of Judgement.[37] (111-113)

[Because of their disputes they are guilty of deserting their places of worship].[38] And who is more unjust than the person who

مَا كَانَ لَهُمْ أَن يَدْخُلُوهَا إِلاَّ خَآئِفِينَ لهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا خِزْيٌ وَلَهُمْ فِي الآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ وَلِلّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّواْ فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللّهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ (114-115)

وَقَالُواْ اتَّخَذَ اللّهُ وَلَدًا سُبْحَانَهُ بَل لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَانِتُونَ بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَإِذَا قَضَى أَمْراً فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ (116-117)

seeks to forbid [people that] His name be mentioned in them and who seeks to ruin them. It was only proper for them to enter [these places of worship] while fearing Allah.[39] [However, they became arrogant; so now] they shall face humiliation in this world and in the world to come a grievous punishment awaits them. [This happened because some of them regarded the east to be their Qiblah and some the west][40]and [the truth is that] to God belongs the east and the west. So, whichever way you turn there is the countenance of God. He is vast and all-knowing.[41] (114-115)

[Not only this, so lowly are these claimants to salvation that] they say: 'God has children'. Far is He from what they attribute to Him! Indeed, His is what the heavens and the earth contain; all are obedient to Him. He is the originator of the heavens and the earth! When He decrees a thing, He need only say 'Be' and it is.[42] (116-117)

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ لَوْلاَ يُكَلِّمُنَا اللّهُ أَوْ تَأْتِينَا آيَةٌ كَذَلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ تَشَابَهَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ قَدْ بَيَّنَّا الآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا وَلاَ تُسْأَلُ عَنْ أَصْحَابِ الْجَحِيمِ (118-119)

[And a similar thing was said by those who have no knowledge[of the Book of God][43] that: 'Why does God not speak to us directly[44] or give us a clear sign?'[45] The same demand was made by those before them: their hearts are all alike.[46] But to those who want to believe We have already made clear Our Signs[47] [so it is not your responsibility to show them these signs and miracles which they desire]. We have sent forth you [O Prophet] with the truth to give glad tidings and to give warning and you shall never be questioned about these companions of Hell.[48] (118-119)

وَلَن تَرْضَى عَنكَ الْيَهُودُ وَلاَ النَّصَارَى حَتَّى تَتَّبِعَ مِلَّتَهُمْ قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَى وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءهُم بَعْدَ الَّذِي جَاءكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَكَ مِنَ اللّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلاَ نَصِيرٍ (120)

الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَتْلُونَهُ حَقَّ تِلاَوَتِهِ أُوْلَئِكَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ وَمن يَكْفُرْ بِهِ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ (121)

These Jews and Christians shall never be pleased with you [O Prophet] unless you follow their faith. [So] say: 'God's guidance is the real guidance' and [you should know that] if after all the knowledge you have been given you yield to their desires[49], you will not have any friend against God and no one to help you.[50](120)

[You should rest assured that] those to whom We have given the Book, and who really fulfil the obligations of what reading it imposes on them, it is they who will accept [this guidance][51] and those that deny it will surely be among the losers.[52] (121)

(Translated from Al-Bayan by Shehzad Saleem)




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