Surah Ibrahim – Surah al-Hijr (2/2)

Surah Ibrahim – Surah al-Hijr (2/2)


سُوۡرَۃُ الۡحِجۡرِ

بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ

In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

الٓرٰ ۟ تِلۡکَ اٰیٰتُ الۡکِتٰبِ وَ قُرۡاٰنٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿۱﴾رُبَمَا یَوَدُّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا لَوۡ کَانُوۡا مُسۡلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۲﴾ذَرۡہُمۡ یَاۡکُلُوۡا وَیَتَمَتَّعُوۡا وَ یُلۡہِہِمُ الۡاَمَلُ فَسَوۡفَ یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۳﴾وَ مَاۤ اَہۡلَکۡنَا مِنۡ قَرۡیَۃٍ اِلَّا وَ لَہَا کِتَابٌ مَّعۡلُوۡمٌ ﴿۴﴾مَا تَسۡبِقُ مِنۡ اُمَّۃٍ اَجَلَہَا وَ مَا یَسۡتَاۡخِرُوۡنَ ﴿۵﴾وَ قَالُوۡا یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡ نُزِّلَ عَلَیۡہِ الذِّکۡرُ اِنَّکَ لَمَجۡنُوۡنٌ ؕ﴿۶﴾لَوۡ مَا تَاۡتِیۡنَا بِالۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ اِنۡ کُنۡتَ مِنَ الصّٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۷﴾مَا نُنَزِّلُ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃَ اِلَّا بِالۡحَقِّ وَ مَا کَانُوۡۤا اِذًا مُّنۡظَرِیۡنَ ﴿۸﴾اِنَّا نَحۡنُ نَزَّلۡنَا الذِّکۡرَ وَ اِنَّا لَہٗ لَحٰفِظُوۡنَ ﴿۹﴾وَ لَقَدۡ اَرۡسَلۡنَا مِنۡ قَبۡلِکَ فِیۡ شِیَعِ الۡاَوَّلِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰﴾وَ مَا یَاۡتِیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡ رَّسُوۡلٍ اِلَّا کَانُوۡا بِہٖ یَسۡتَہۡزِءُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱﴾کَذٰلِکَ نَسۡلُکُہٗ فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِ الۡمُجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۲﴾لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِہٖ وَ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ سُنَّۃُ الۡاَوَّلِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳﴾وَ لَوۡ فَتَحۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ بَابًا مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ فَظَلُّوۡا فِیۡہِ یَعۡرُجُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۴﴾لَقَالُوۡۤا اِنَّمَا سُکِّرَتۡ اَبۡصَارُنَا بَلۡ نَحۡنُ قَوۡمٌ مَّسۡحُوۡرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵﴾

This is Surah Alif Lam Ra.[1] This is the Book of God and the verses of the eloquent Qur'an.[2] The days will also come when these disbelievers will longingly wish that they were Muslims. Leave them to eat and drink and make merry and their desires continue to cast them into oblivion. Then they will soon know. [We are not seizing them at this moment because] whichever settlement We destroyed, for them has been a fate ordained. No nation exceeds its prescribed time or falls short of it. [They were also granted this respite on this basis. So,] Now they say: "O Person [who thinks that] this reminder has been revealed [to him]! You are surely a mad man.[3] If you are truthful, why don't you bring forth angels to us?" We send down angels only with Our judgement[4] and [when they will be sent] at that time these people will not be given any respite. [They make fun of the Qur'an. Rest assured O Prophet!] Undoubtedly, We have sent down this reminder and only We shall protect it.[5] We had also sent Our messengers in many nations which lived before you. They made fun of every messenger who came to them. It is these wrongdoers whose hearts We pierce with this reminder thus [in a sharp and incisive way]. They are not ones who will profess faith in it. This is going on since their predecessors. Had We opened a door of the heavens which they could climb to, even then they would have said: "Our eyes have been blinded; in fact, a spell has been cast on us." (1-15)

وَ لَقَدۡ جَعَلۡنَا فِی السَّمَآءِ بُرُوۡجًا وَّ زَیَّنّٰہَا لِلنّٰظِرِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۶﴾وَ حَفِظۡنٰہَا مِنۡ کُلِّ شَیۡطٰنٍ رَّجِیۡمٍ ﴿ۙ۱۷﴾اِلَّا مَنِ اسۡتَرَقَ السَّمۡعَ فَاَتۡبَعَہٗ شِہَابٌ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۱۸﴾

[They should observe:] We have built strong forts in the sky[6] and have adorned it for the onlookers and have protected it [from the interference] of every accursed satan[7] except if someone secretly tries to eavesdrop. So, a dazzling flame pursues it.[8] (16-18)

وَ الۡاَرۡضَ مَدَدۡنٰہَا وَ اَلۡقَیۡنَا فِیۡہَا رَوَاسِیَ وَ اَنۡۢبَتۡنَا فِیۡہَا مِنۡ کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ مَّوۡزُوۡنٍ ﴿۱۹﴾وَ جَعَلۡنَا لَکُمۡ فِیۡہَا مَعَایِشَ وَ مَنۡ لَّسۡتُمۡ لَہٗ بِرٰزِقِیۡنَ ﴿۲۰﴾وَ اِنۡ مِّنۡ شَیۡءٍ اِلَّا عِنۡدَنَا خَزَآئِنُہٗ ۫ وَ مَا نُنَزِّلُہٗۤ اِلَّا بِقَدَرٍ مَّعۡلُوۡمٍ ﴿۲۱﴾

We spread out the earth; [in order to maintain its balance] anchored mountains in it and made to grow everything in it in a proportion and also provided for you means for your sustenance and also for the sustenance of those who you do not provide.[9] In reality, there is nothing whose treasures are not with us. But We only send it down in a specific measure.[10] (19-21)

وَ اَرۡسَلۡنَا الرِّیٰحَ لَوَاقِحَ فَاَنۡزَلۡنَا مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَاَسۡقَیۡنٰکُمُوۡہُ ۚ وَ مَاۤ اَنۡتُمۡ لَہٗ بِخٰزِنِیۡنَ ﴿۲۲﴾

It is We who glide the winds after making them water-laden. Then We send down water from the sky and provide it to you. You could not have stored these quantities of His. (22)

وَ اِنَّا لَنَحۡنُ نُحۡیٖ وَ نُمِیۡتُ وَ نَحۡنُ الۡوٰرِثُوۡنَ ﴿۲۳﴾وَ لَقَدۡ عَلِمۡنَا الۡمُسۡتَقۡدِمِیۡنَ مِنۡکُمۡ وَ لَقَدۡ عَلِمۡنَا الۡمُسۡتَاۡخِرِیۡنَ ﴿۲۴﴾وَ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ ہُوَ یَحۡشُرُہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّہٗ حَکِیۡمٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۵﴾

[Thus] surely it is We Who give life and We Who give death and We are also the inheritors of everyone.[11] We know those who were before you and those also who will come after you. Surely, it is Your Lord only Who will gather all these [one day] because He is all wise and all-knowing.[12] (23-25)

وَ لَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا الۡاِنۡسَانَ مِنۡ صَلۡصَالٍ مِّنۡ حَمَاٍ مَّسۡنُوۡنٍ ﴿ۚ۲۶﴾وَ الۡجَآنَّ خَلَقۡنٰہُ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ مِنۡ نَّارِ السَّمُوۡمِ ﴿۲۷﴾وَ اِذۡ قَالَ رَبُّکَ لِلۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ اِنِّیۡ خَالِقٌۢ بَشَرًا مِّنۡ صَلۡصَالٍ مِّنۡ حَمَاٍ مَّسۡنُوۡنٍ ﴿۲۸﴾فَاِذَا سَوَّیۡتُہٗ وَ نَفَخۡتُ فِیۡہِ مِنۡ رُّوۡحِیۡ فَقَعُوۡا لَہٗ سٰجِدِیۡنَ ﴿۲۹﴾فَسَجَدَ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ کُلُّہُمۡ اَجۡمَعُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۳۰﴾اِلَّاۤ اِبۡلِیۡسَ ؕ اَبٰۤی اَنۡ یَّکُوۡنَ مَعَ السّٰجِدِیۡنَ ﴿۳۱﴾قَالَ یٰۤـاِبۡلِیۡسُ مَا لَکَ اَلَّا تَکُوۡنَ مَعَ السّٰجِدِیۡنَ ﴿۳۲﴾قَالَ لَمۡ اَکُنۡ لِّاَسۡجُدَ لِبَشَرٍ خَلَقۡتَہٗ مِنۡ صَلۡصَالٍ مِّنۡ حَمَاٍ مَّسۡنُوۡنٍ ﴿۳۳﴾قَالَ فَاخۡرُجۡ مِنۡہَا فَاِنَّکَ رَجِیۡمٌ ﴿ۙ۳۴﴾وَّ اِنَّ عَلَیۡکَ اللَّعۡنَۃَ اِلٰی یَوۡمِ الدِّیۡنِ ﴿۳۵﴾قَالَ رَبِّ فَاَنۡظِرۡنِیۡۤ اِلٰی یَوۡمِ یُبۡعَثُوۡنَ ﴿۳۶﴾قَالَ فَاِنَّکَ مِنَ الۡمُنۡظَرِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۳۷﴾اِلٰی یَوۡمِ الۡوَقۡتِ الۡمَعۡلُوۡمِ ﴿۳۸﴾قَالَ رَبِّ بِمَاۤ اَغۡوَیۡتَنِیۡ لَاُزَیِّنَنَّ لَہُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لَاُغۡوِیَنَّہُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۳۹﴾اِلَّا عِبَادَکَ مِنۡہُمُ الۡمُخۡلَصِیۡنَ ﴿۴۰﴾ قَالَ ہٰذَا صِرَاطٌ عَلَیَّ مُسۡتَقِیۡمٌ ﴿۴۱﴾اِنَّ عِبَادِیۡ لَیۡسَ لَکَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ سُلۡطٰنٌ اِلَّا مَنِ اتَّبَعَکَ مِنَ الۡغٰوِیۡنَ ﴿۴۲﴾وَ اِنَّ جَہَنَّمَ لَمَوۡعِدُہُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿۟ۙ۴۳﴾لَہَا سَبۡعَۃُ اَبۡوَابٍ ؕ لِکُلِّ بَابٍ مِّنۡہُمۡ جُزۡءٌ مَّقۡسُوۡمٌ ﴿۴۴﴾اِنَّ الۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ فِیۡ جَنّٰتٍ وَّ عُیُوۡنٍ ﴿ؕ۴۵﴾اُدۡخُلُوۡہَا بِسَلٰمٍ اٰمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۴۶﴾وَ نَزَعۡنَا مَا فِیۡ صُدُوۡرِہِمۡ مِّنۡ غِلٍّ اِخۡوَانًا عَلٰی سُرُرٍ مُّتَقٰبِلِیۡنَ ﴿۴۷﴾لَا یَمَسُّہُمۡ فِیۡہَا نَصَبٌ وَّ مَا ہُمۡ مِّنۡہَا بِمُخۡرَجِیۡنَ ﴿۴۸﴾

[These are the people who have been lured by Iblis. Remind them that] We createdhuman beings with a stinking mud that rings and before this created the jinn from the flame of fire.[13] And remind them when your Lord said to the angels: "I am creating a human being from stinking mud that rings. So, when I complete it from every aspect and blow My spirit into Him,[14] all of you prostrate before him."[15] Then [it ensued that] all the angels fell in prostration [and the jinn too[16]] except Iblis. He refused to be with those who had prostrated. God asked: "Iblis! What is your matter; you did not prostrate along with those who did?" He replied: "I am not prepared to prostrate before a human being who you have created from stinking mud that rings."[17] God said: "[If this is the matter,] then be off with you[18] because you are accursed and accursed are you till the Day of Judgement." He said: "Lord! Then grant me respite till that day when people will be raised up." God said: "You are also among those who have been given respite till the appointed time of that day." He said: "Lord! The way you have led me astray,[19] in a similar way, I will also create temptations for them in the land and except from your chosen ones among your servants I will lead all others astray." God said: "This [path of worship] is a straight path that leads to Me.[20] You will have absolutely no power over my servants. You will only be able to overpower those who will follow you from among those who have gone astray[21] and for all of them is the promise of Hell.[22] It has seven gates. For every gate, a special share has been allocated for them.[23] On the other hand, those who fear God, they will be amid orchards and fountains. [It shall be said to them:] "Abide in them with peace and without fear." We shall take away all the malice of their hearts. They will sit on couches facing each other like brothers. They will neither feel tired there[24] nor will they be expelled from there. (26-48)

نَبِّیٔۡ عِبَادِیۡۤ اَنِّیۡۤ اَنَا الۡغَفُوۡرُ الرَّحِیۡمُ ﴿ۙ۴۹﴾وَ اَنَّ عَذَابِیۡ ہُوَ الۡعَذَابُ الۡاَلِیۡمُ ﴿۵۰﴾وَ نَبِّئۡہُمۡ عَنۡ ضَیۡفِ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ ﴿ۘ۵۱﴾اِذۡ دَخَلُوۡا عَلَیۡہِ فَقَالُوۡا سَلٰمًا ؕ قَالَ اِنَّا مِنۡکُمۡ وَجِلُوۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾قَالُوۡا لَا تَوۡجَلۡ اِنَّا نُبَشِّرُکَ بِغُلٰمٍ عَلِیۡمٍ ﴿۵۳﴾قَالَ اَبَشَّرۡتُمُوۡنِیۡ عَلٰۤی اَنۡ مَّسَّنِیَ الۡکِبَرُ فَبِمَ تُبَشِّرُوۡنَ ﴿۵۴﴾قَالُوۡا بَشَّرۡنٰکَ بِالۡحَقِّ فَلَا تَکُنۡ مِّنَ الۡقٰنِطِیۡنَ ﴿۵۵﴾قَالَ وَ مَنۡ یَّقۡنَطُ مِنۡ رَّحۡمَۃِ رَبِّہٖۤ اِلَّا الضَّآلُّوۡنَ ﴿۵۶﴾

[O Prophet!] Tell My servants that it is Me Who is very forgiving, ever-merciful. And that it is My torment which is a very painful one. [They are demanding that angels be shown to them. In order to make] them [understand this reality[25]] narrate to them the account of Abraham's guests. When they came to him, they said: "Peace be to you." Abraham [felt some strangeness in their attitude; so] he said: "We feel some fright from you."[26] They said: "Fear not. We give glad tidings to you of a boy endowed with knowledge."[27] Abraham said: "Are you giving glad tidings to me when I have been inflicted with old age? Then what is it that you give glad tidings of?"[28] They replied: "We have given you true glad tidings. So, despair not." Abraham said: "Who except those who have gone astray can despair the mercy of their Lord." (49-56)

قَالَ فَمَا خَطۡبُکُمۡ اَیُّہَا الۡمُرۡسَلُوۡنَ ﴿۵۷﴾قَالُوۡۤا اِنَّاۤ اُرۡسِلۡنَاۤ اِلٰی قَوۡمٍ مُّجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۵۸﴾اِلَّاۤ اٰلَ لُوۡطٍ ؕ اِنَّا لَمُنَجُّوۡہُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۵۹﴾اِلَّا امۡرَاَتَہٗ قَدَّرۡنَاۤ ۙ اِنَّہَا لَمِنَ الۡغٰبِرِیۡنَ ﴿۶۰﴾

Abraham asked: "O Messengers! What then is your campaign now?"[29] They replied: "We have been sent to a nation of wrongdoers. Only the people of Lot are an exception. We shall necessarily save all of them,[30] except his wife. We have decided that she will be among those of them who will be left behind."[31] (57-60)

فَلَمَّا جَآءَ اٰلَ لُوۡطِۣ الۡمُرۡسَلُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۶۱﴾قَالَ اِنَّکُمۡ قَوۡمٌ مُّنۡکَرُوۡنَ ﴿۶۲﴾قَالُوۡا بَلۡ جِئۡنٰکَ بِمَا کَانُوۡا فِیۡہِ یَمۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۶۳﴾وَ اَتَیۡنٰکَ بِالۡحَقِّ وَ اِنَّا لَصٰدِقُوۡنَ ﴿۶۴﴾فَاَسۡرِ بِاَہۡلِکَ بِقِطۡعٍ مِّنَ الَّیۡلِ وَ اتَّبِعۡ اَدۡبَارَہُمۡ وَ لَا یَلۡتَفِتۡ مِنۡکُمۡ اَحَدٌ وَّ امۡضُوۡا حَیۡثُ تُؤۡمَرُوۡنَ ﴿۶۵﴾وَ قَضَیۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡہِ ذٰلِکَ الۡاَمۡرَ اَنَّ دَابِرَ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ مَقۡطُوۡعٌ مُّصۡبِحِیۡنَ ﴿۶۶﴾

When the messengers reached the people of Lot, he said: "You seem to be strangers." They replied: "[No!] In fact, we have come to you with that which they had been doubting. We have come with you with a certain directive, and we are absolutely truthful.[32]So, leave this place with your family in the last part of the night and walk behind them.[33]And none of you should look back[34]and go to where you are being directed to go." And We delivered this verdict of Ours to him[35]that as soon as morning arrives, these people shall be routed. (61-66)

وَ جَآءَ اَہۡلُ الۡمَدِیۡنَۃِ یَسۡتَبۡشِرُوۡنَ ﴿۶۷﴾قَالَ اِنَّ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ ضَیۡفِیۡ فَلَا تَفۡضَحُوۡنِ ﴿ۙ۶۸﴾وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ وَ لَا تُخۡزُوۡنِ ﴿۶۹﴾قَالُوۡۤا اَوَ لَمۡ نَنۡہَکَ عَنِ الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿۷۰﴾قَالَ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ بَنٰتِیۡۤ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ فٰعِلِیۡنَ ﴿ؕ۷۱﴾ لَعَمۡرُکَ اِنَّہُمۡ لَفِیۡ سَکۡرَتِہِمۡ یَعۡمَہُوۡنَ ﴿۷۲﴾فَاَخَذَتۡہُمُ الصَّیۡحَۃُ مُشۡرِقِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۷۳﴾فَجَعَلۡنَا عَالِیَہَا سَافِلَہَا وَ اَمۡطَرۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ حِجَارَۃً مِّنۡ سِجِّیۡلٍ ﴿ؕ۷۴﴾اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّلۡمُتَوَسِّمِیۡنَ ﴿۷۵﴾وَ اِنَّہَا لَبِسَبِیۡلٍ مُّقِیۡمٍ ﴿۷۶﴾اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿ؕ۷۷﴾

[It happened before this[36] that seeing boys coming over to the house of Lot] the people of the city arrived with joy.[37] Lot said: "These are my guests; so, do not humiliate me; fear God and do not disgrace me."[38] They said: "Had we not stopped you from all the people from outside [that you should not become a hindrance between them and us?"][39] Lot [while being hard-pressed] said: "If you have to do something, then here are my daughters."[40] By your life [O Lot! At this time] they are being blind because of their frenzy. [We assured Lot.] Then at the strike of daybreak, Our shout[41] overtook them and We ravaged that settlement and let loose on them a shower of stones made of hard clay.[42] Indeed, there are great signs in this account for those who want to have insight. This settlement is located at a common passageway.[43] Indeed, there is also in it a great sign for the believers.[44] (67-77)

وَ اِنۡ کَانَ اَصۡحٰبُ الۡاَیۡکَۃِ لَظٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۷۸﴾فَانۡتَقَمۡنَا مِنۡہُمۡ ۘ وَ اِنَّہُمَا لَبِاِمَامٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿ؕ۷۹﴾وَلَقَدۡ کَذَّبَ اَصۡحٰبُ الۡحِجۡرِ الۡمُرۡسَلِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۸۰﴾وَ اٰتَیۡنٰہُمۡ اٰیٰتِنَا فَکَانُوۡا عَنۡہَا مُعۡرِضِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۸۱﴾وَ کَانُوۡا یَنۡحِتُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡجِبَالِ بُیُوۡتًا اٰمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۸۲﴾فَاَخَذَتۡہُمُ الصَّیۡحَۃُ مُصۡبِحِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۸۳﴾فَمَاۤ اَغۡنٰی عَنۡہُمۡ مَّا کَانُوۡا یَکۡسِبُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۸۴﴾

Similarly, the People of the Forest[45] were certainly unjust also.[46] So, We took revenge from them. Both these settlements[47] are situated at an open highway. And the people of Hijr have also rejected messengers.[48] We gave them Our signs but they would turn away from them. They would make houses by carving mountains that they may live in them with comfort.[49] Then right at daybreak Our shout[50] seized them; so, what they had been doing could be of no benefit to them. (78-84)

وَ مَا خَلَقۡنَا السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ وَ مَا بَیۡنَہُمَاۤ اِلَّا بِالۡحَقِّ ؕ وَ اِنَّ السَّاعَۃَ لَاٰتِیَۃٌ فَاصۡفَحِ الصَّفۡحَ الۡجَمِیۡلَ ﴿۸۵﴾اِنَّ رَبَّکَ ہُوَ الۡخَلّٰقُ الۡعَلِیۡمُ ﴿۸۶﴾وَ لَقَدۡ اٰتَیۡنٰکَ سَبۡعًا مِّنَ الۡمَثَانِیۡ وَ الۡقُرۡاٰنَ الۡعَظِیۡمَ ﴿۸۷﴾لَا تَمُدَّنَّ عَیۡنَیۡکَ اِلٰی مَا مَتَّعۡنَا بِہٖۤ اَزۡوَاجًا مِّنۡہُمۡ وَ لَا تَحۡزَنۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَ اخۡفِضۡ جَنَاحَکَ لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۸۸﴾وَ قُلۡ اِنِّیۡۤ اَنَا النَّذِیۡرُ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿ۚ۸۹﴾کَمَاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنَا عَلَی الۡمُقۡتَسِمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۹۰﴾الَّذِیۡنَ جَعَلُوا الۡقُرۡاٰنَ عِضِیۡنَ ﴿۹۱﴾فَوَ رَبِّکَ لَنَسۡـَٔلَنَّہُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۹۲﴾عَمَّا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹۳﴾فَاصۡدَعۡ بِمَا تُؤۡمَرُ وَ اَعۡرِضۡ عَنِ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ ﴿۹۴﴾اِنَّا کَفَیۡنٰکَ الۡمُسۡتَہۡزِءِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۹۵﴾الَّذِیۡنَ یَجۡعَلُوۡنَ مَعَ اللّٰہِ اِلٰہًا اٰخَرَ ۚ فَسَوۡفَ یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۹۶﴾وَ لَقَدۡ نَعۡلَمُ اَنَّکَ یَضِیۡقُ صَدۡرُکَ بِمَا یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۹۷﴾فَسَبِّحۡ بِحَمۡدِ رَبِّکَ وَ کُنۡ مِّنَ السّٰجِدِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۹۸﴾وَ اعۡبُدۡ رَبَّکَ حَتّٰی یَاۡتِیَکَ الۡیَقِیۡنُ ﴿۹۹﴾

[O Prophet!] We[51] have created the heavens and the earth and everything between them with a purpose.[52] And there is no doubt that the Day of Judgement is to come. So, forgive them in a very graceful manner.[53] Surely, it is your Lord Who creates everyone and has a lot of knowledge.[54] We gave you the seven mathani which is the great Qur'an.[55] Do not even look towards things which We have given to various groups and do not grieve at them. Lower your arms of affection, however, on the believers and tell [those who do not believe:] "I am an open warner." We had similarly revealed to those splitters who split their Qur'an into pieces.[56] So, by your Lord! We shall definitely ask all of them what they have been doing. Hence [O Prophet!] openly read out the directive given to you, and ignore these idolaters. We, on your behalf, are sufficient [to deal with] these people who make fun, who associate another deity with God. Then they shall soon come to know. We know that your heart becomes tense on whatever they say. So, glorify your Lord while praising Him and be among those who prostrate and keep worshipping Him until the moment of certainty arrives for you.[57] (85-99)

Kuala Lumpur

22 August 2012

[1]. What is the meaning of this name? I have explained in detail my view about it while discussing verse 2 of Surah al-Baqarah.

[2]. The actual words are: تلْكَ آياتُ الكِتَابِ وَ قُرْآنٍ مُبِيْنٍ. The particle وَis for explication and the word قُرْآن occurs in the undefined form to express its magnificence. The word مُبِيْنٍ is meant for substantiation. The implication is that this Qur'an which is being read out to them elucidates the reality to such an extent that no further reasoning is required after it. Its statements are argument enough for its veracity.

[3]. This they said sarcastically and meant that the warnings of punishment that the Prophet (sws) sounds to them and claims of success he makes for himself and his followers are a product of his insanity and it is in this state that he makes such claims as receiving divine revelation.

[4]. Ie., send them down when the fate of a nation is to be decided. At that time only the judgement is passed; they are not given the respite to accept faith upon seeing the angels.

[5]. The implication is that he has not authored the Qur'an himself for their reminder: it has be revealed by God and revealed without any desire or demand from him; hence it is God Who shall protect it. These people will not be able to harm it or its message. This promise about the Qur'an is precisely the same as what is stated about the Prophet (sws) in the words وَاللهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ(67:5) (God will protect you from these people, (5:67)). This promise was fulfilled word for word and all machinations of the adversaries of the Qur'an ended up in failure. No one could obliterate or dominate it. Its status could not be lessened nor could its call be thwarted. Moreover, all efforts to change or interpolate it were never successful. It was delivered to the world precisely in the same form it was revealed. So much so, it was not possible for anyone to take any step against it.

[6]. This refers to those forts in the heavens in which God's forces of angels are constantly deputed to guard the frontiers beyond which no man or jinn can enter.

[7]. The actual word is: رَجِيْم. This adjective is used for Satan to depict him becoming a target of the stone-hurling mentioned ahead.

[8]. This most probably refers to shooting stars. The implication is that they ask miracles from the Prophet (sws). Instead they should observe the sky by night while standing in an open land. Such will be the scene portrayed by the dazzling stars in the wide expanse of the sky and by shooting stars while reflecting the Almighty's exaltedness, majesty and splendour that they will be wonder-struck and will spontaneously cry out: رَبَّنَا مَا خَلَقْتَ هذَا بَاطِلاً (Lord! You have not made all this without a purpose, (3:191)). Also evident from this is the fact that only the angels can bring down the word of God. No human or jinn can climb across the boundary of this world and access them by their own effort. Soothsayers, fortune-tellers and mystics who claim to have these powers are deceived by their souls. All their knowledge and means are earthly and with their help they can only know as much as has been delivered to the bounds of the earth.

[9]. The actual words are: وَ مَنْ لَسْتُمْ لَهُ بِرَازِقِيْنَ. According to linguistic principles, the genitive particle has been suppressed from one place. Thus the expression مَنْ لَسْتُمْ is actually لِمَنْ لَسْتُمْ. The translation takes this aspect into consideration.

[10]. Here and earlier the purpose of mentioning measure and proportion is that there is nothing scarce in God's treasures. However, He sends down only that much as is essential for the existence and comfort of human beings. Since He is all-knowing and wise, He fully knows that if anything crosses a specific limit, the whole system of this world will be totally disrupted.

[11]. Ie., only God is eternal and everyone has to turn to Him. If someone has pinned his hopes on someone other than Him, he will come out of this deception; it has no reality.

[12]. The implication is that since God is wise, He will definitely bring about a day of judgement because neither can anyone hide from him nor is He unaware of any deed of human beings.

[13]. This is a prelude to what is to be said ahead and has been stated to highlight the reason of enmity between Satan and human beings. The purpose is not to divulge the substance of their creation. Yet, this much is evident that before mankind the Almighty created the jinn from the flame of fire. After that, when He decided to make human beings from clay, their material form was created in the womb of the earth the way it is now created in the womb of the mother. It is evident from the indications found in the Qur'an that this happened by the production of a sperm like substance in the muddy areas found along sea shores. The mud on top of it dried in the form of a shell. The Qur'an calls it ringing clay. After passing through various stages of creation, a human being was born from that egg-shell the way infants today come out of eggs. All living beings were probably created in the first phase in this manner. Later they were perfected and the ability to reproduce for themselves was ingrained in them. The Qur'anic expressions أَنْشَاَكُمْ مِنَ الاَرضِ (61:11) (He created you from the earth, (11:61), and اَنۡۢبَتَکُمۡ مِّنَ الۡاَرۡضِ نَبَاتًا (17:71) (It is God Who has elaborately sprouted you from the earth, (71:17)) refer to this very reality.

[14]. These are from among the matters of the mutashabihat whose reality is known to God only. However, what is evident is that it is this subtle spirit through which entered the material body the thing we call a human being. In the womb of the mother too, it is breathed at this stage. Before this, a human being is not a human being; he is merely a material being which after passing through various phases of creation becomes a physical form which this spirit can be blown into.

[15]. This directive was given as a test. The purpose was to make it evident to Adam that real success does not spring from being created from light or fire but by being obedient to God.

[16]. The words اِلَّاۤ اِبۡلِیۡسَ are mentioned ahead. The Qur'an has specified that Iblis was from among the jinn. It is self-evident from this that since the jinn are not very different from the angels as far as their substance of creation is concerned, hence when the latter were directed to prostrate before Adam, the former too were included in this directive because of the latter being the dominant entity. Since this becomes evident from the words of exception اِلَّاۤ اِبۡلِیۡسَ, the Qur'an has not mentioned it in words.

[17]. When a human being regards himself to be superior in knowledge, wealth and authority to others, it is this very reasoning presented by Iblis which makes him arrogantly deny the truth. The angels were superior to the jinn as far as their substance of creation was concerned but they did not put forth this foolish reasoning; on the contrary, they regarded this directive to be a test of God and became ready to obey it without any hesitation.

[18]. Ie., from the sky where Iblis was present with the angels before the Almighty. In Arabic, the word for sky is السَّمَآء. It is for this reason that the antecdent هَاis used in the verse.

[19]. The words used are: بِمَا أَغْوَيْتَنِي. Why did Iblis utter these words? Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

The word إِغْوَا means "lead astray." Since Iblis regarded himself to be correct in not prostrating before Adam, he very insolently ascribed the word إِغْوَاto God. The implication was that if defying this directive made him a deviant from the truth, then this was no fault of his; the directive was such that he could not obey it. Hence his view was that if because of this he was led astray, it was God Who forced him to this. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 359)

[20]. The actual words are: هَذَا صِرَاطٌ عَلَيَّ مُسْتَقِيْمٌ. The particle عَلَی occurs here after صِرَاطٌ in accordance with a special linguistic style. It is evident from parallels in the Qur'an and in classical Arabic that this style is adopted when the purpose is to say that so straight is this path that it inevitably leads those who tread it to their destination.

[21]. It is evident from this that Satan can only lead those astray who want to be led astray. Servants of God who decide to secure themselves from going astray and lead their lives while being true seekers of the right path will not be influenced by his lurings in any way as to deviate to such an extent that they are led to destruction.

[22]. The actual words are: إِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمَوْعِدُهُمْ أَجْمَعِيْنَ. The stress here is on the word أَجْمَعِيْنَ. It is has been used by the Almighty in response to Satan's words لَاُغْوِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْمَعِيْنَ. He had very arrogantly claimed that he would definitely lead everyone astray. To this, the Almighty's equal rejoinder is that He too will fill Hell with everyone come what may.

[23]. The implication is that no one should question how such a Hell, able to house so many inhabitants, will come into existence. Such is the wide expanse of Hell that has been prepared for such wrongdoers that it will have seven gates. Through each gate will they enter separately with regard to their crimes. If, according to the Qur'an (17:22-39), the wrongdoings that lead a person to ruin are counted, they can be subsumed under seven categories. By luring people into one or all of these wrongdoings, Satan tries to lead people to Hell. This categorization is according to these wrongdoings.

[24]. How big a favour this is? Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

If a person has all the comforts and luxuries of life but they do not have any variety in them, he will feel bored. In Paradise, its dwellers will not be faced with this situation. They will lead a life of eternal bliss and at every moment such will be the diversity and variety in God's favours that the dwellers of Paradise will never feel any boredom. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 362)

[25]. Ie., the reality that God is very merciful and at the same time is very revengeful and mighty. Hence if they are making this demand, they should reflect that if angels come, will they come with some glad tiding for them or with a bolt of punishment on their cities?

[26]. It is evident from this statement of Abraham (sws) that he had understood that if the angels had come in such an open manner, then there must have been some danger lurking around; they must have come on a mission. It is evident from Surah Hud that Abraham (sws) thought that they really were angels when they did not eat the food offered to them.

[27]. This is a subtle reference that this boy will also be endowed with the knowledge of prophethood.

[28]. Here in very eloquent words Abraham (sws) wanted the attestation of the angels whether the glad tidings they were giving him were in fact from the Lord who can give children in old age.

[29]. This question posed by Abraham (sws) shows that the dread he had felt was still there and even after receiving glad tidings he still felt that the whole group of angels must have another objective before them. He was aware of the circumstances of Lot's nation. Hence it is possible that in his heart he feared that they were going to be visited by a scourge.

[30]. This elucidation was essential so that Abraham (sws) was assured at least about Lot (sws) and his followers that they would be secure from the scourge. It is known that Lot (sws) was Abraham's (sws) nephew. His nation lived in the area which is in the north of Syria lying between Iraq and Palestine. Today it is called Transjordan. In the Bible, their largest city has been mentioned as Sodom. The relationship of Lot (sws) with this nation was the same as the one Moses (sws) had with the Pharaoh. It is evident from the way his wife is mentioned at various instances in the Qur'an that she belonged to this nation and as such after marriage he had become a part of it.

[31]. Ie., even though she is the wife of a messenger, the law of God is impartial: it will be implemented on her as well. The word used to convey this meaning is: قَدَّرْنَا. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... If the true meaning of the word قَدَّرْنَا is kept in mind, it becomes evident that if a person whether a man or a woman adheres to evil ways and is also related to prophets and the righteous, then he warrants more God's wrath and anger. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 368)

[32]. This is a sentence of warning and proof. The implication is that seeing the angels in the garb of boys should not deceive him; whatever they are saying is certain to happen. So he should obey them without any delay and hesistation.

[33]. This is said so that no one from among Lot's household remains behind. In the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi this is like a shepherd walking behind his herd lest any sheep is separated from it and consumed by a wolf.

[34]. Why was this directive given? Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has explained it. He writes:

... If a person repeatedly turns around to look back at a place which he has left behind, it shows his attachment and fondness to it. In general circumstances, this attachment and fondness is normal and normal feelings cannot be stopped or brushed off. However, exiting the city to which the punishment of God is to be delivered once the truth has been conclusively conveyed to its inhabitants, should be done in such a manner by the believers that no fondness remains in their hearts for it. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 368)

[35]. The actual word is قَضَيْنَا. The preposition إِلَي is used with it. This shows that a word of the meaning of أَبْلَغْنَا is understood to be present.

[36]. It becomes evident from the way this account is narrated in Surah Hud that before the onslaught of the ruffians, Lot (sws) was not aware that the guests were actually angels. This is the natural sequence of events, for had Lot (sws) been aware of this fact beforehand, then the pleading and beseeching mentioned ahead would not have been needed. However, here the Qur'an has deferred the account of the onslaught. The reason is that here the aspect which is meant to be highlighted is the advent of the angels so that the addressees come to know that if angels come at their demand, what they will bring with them. Examples of such deferred mention are found at certain other places of the Qur'an as well.

[37]. It is evident from this the extreme extent of immorality found among the people: the ruffians had spotted some boys going to the house of Lot (sws) who was such a pure person and a preacher of morality. At this, they had merrily marched off towards it to satiate their desire.

[38]. Here Lot (sws) has tried to stop these people in very effective words by asking them to give regard to his honour and to God's fear.

[39]. The implication was that Lot (sws) was not to be a hindrance to them if they beat, looted or sexually molested those coming into the city from outside. Obviously, before this happening also, Lot (sws) must have stopped those people from the grave acts and they must have threatened him and his followers that if they stopped them from their evil ways, they would not be able to live in their city. This is a reference to the threat that they gave.

[40]. Was this an offer by Lot (sws) to these rogues? Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... This was not offer from Lot (sws). It was a last-ditch effort by him to shake and jolt the conscience of his people. Had they the slightest sensitivity to morality left in them, they would have thought that in order to save the honour of his guests, he was prepared to subject his own honour to danger. They should have also rebuked themselves at the offer for making such a sinister move of violating the honour of Lot's (sws) guests. This offer by him should be considered akin to how a person of high character and conduct is ready to put his own life and honour at stake to save the life and honour of another person. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 370)

[41]. This word الصَّیۡحَۃُ actually portrays the punishment sent to the people of Lot (sws). The stormy wind was accompanied with the roar and glare of thunder and lightening. Hence, the word is very aptly used here.

[42]. Once the truth has been conclusively communicated by the messengers of God to their nations, the latter have generally been destroyed by stone-hurling storms. At another place, the Qur'an has called these storms as hasib. These are its details

[43]. The settlements of Sodom and Gamorrah were situated on the trade routes of Hijaz and Syria. This route was a general passageway for the trade caravans of both countries. When caravans passed through this route, they were likely to see the signs of destruction of those people, which are even evident today.

[44]. After the Quraysh, attention of the believers is directed to see if they want the future of their enemies in the light of these ruins.

[45]. This refers to the nation of Shu'ayb (sws). It has been mentioned in previous surahs that he was sent to the people of Madyan. There was a huge forest near this city. In Arabic, the word أَيكَة is used for bush and for forest. Here since the attention of the addressees is being directed towards the signs of destruction caused by divine punishment – signs they would see during their trade journeys, the expression اَصۡحٰبُ الۡاَیۡکَۃِ is employed to refer to the nation of Shuy'ab (sws). In the succeeding verses, the nation of the Thamud are called أَصْحَابُ الْحِجْرِ for precisely the same reason.

[46]. Ie., ظالمين أنفسهم (those who are unjust to their souls). This is a special expression of the Qur'an to connote disbelief and polytheism and deviation from the straight path.

[47]. Ie., the settlements of the people of Lot (sws) and of the people of Shu'ayb (sws).

[48]. The area between northern Arabia and Syria is called Hijr. This place was inhabited by the people of Thamud. The ruins of the city that was found there at that time are found today in city of al-'Ula that is situated in the north west of of Madinah. Only one messenger was sent to these people but they would have done the same to any messenger as they did to Ṣalih (sws). It is because of this reason that the Qur'an has used the word مُرْسَلِيْنَ in the plural. This shows the severity of their crime. The implication is that when they denied one messenger, it was as if they denied all.

[49]. The implication is that they were living without any fear and in full comfort in very strong and majestic houses built with their exceptional skills, and could not even imagine that one day these beautiful houses could be turned into their graves.

[50]. Why has this word been used? The reason has been cited earlier during the Lot's (sws) account.

[51]. From here onwards, the direction of the address shifts to the Prophet (sws) in order to assure him. These are the closing verses of the surah. The surahs which depict open warning (indhar 'am) and conclusive communication of the truth (itmam al-hujjah) usually end on this note.

[52]. This is a prelude to what is said ahead. The implication is that the Almighty has created this world with wisdom and purpose. The essential consequence of this is that it should reach its fate and the court of God should deliver its verdict regarding whatever has happened in it. This is not a place of amusement for children so that people can do anything they want and not be questioned.

[53]. What does this mean? Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... Graceful forgiveness means that he should neither lose hope because of their mischief nor respond to their stupid talk. Furthermore, he should also not give up his responsibility of preaching. In fact, he should keep doing his work and leave their matter to God. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 376)

[54]. Earlier it was said that the Day of Judgement was about to come. Here its reasoning is mentioned: if God is the creator, then how can it be difficult for Him to create again whenever He wants to. If this second creation is for accountability, then there is no difficulty in this since He is also all-knowing. Nothing in the heavens and the earth is hidden from Him. When He decides to call them to accountability, He will reveal everything before them.

[55]. Ie., God has bestowed them with a great treasure: the Qur'an. It consists of seven mathani (مَثَانيِ). Mathani(مَثَانيِ) is the plural of mathna (مثني) and it means something which occurs in pairs. The letter من in the verse is for annexure (iḍafah) and the particle و is for explication. Thus in our opinion the seven mathanirefer to groups of surahs of the Qur'an in which these surahs occur in pairs on the basis of the topics discussed, and each member of a pair has a complementary relation with one another. Some surahs are an exception to this scheme like Surah Fatihah, which is like an introduction to the whole Qur'an. Some other surahs have come as a supplement or as a conclusion of a group. All surahs of the Qur'an occur in such pairs and arranged with these groups. (For details, see the "Introduction" of this exegesis). Precisely this fact about the Qur'an is evident from the saying of the Prophet (sws) in which he has regarded Surah al-Fatihah to be the seven mathani and also the glorious Qur'an. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... The status of the Surah al-Fatihah is that it is a prelude to the whole of the Qur'an and it concisely comprises all the topics which are mentioned in detail in the Qur'an. It is as if this pearl encompasses a whole world of meaning. Viewed thus, it is both the seven mathani and the glorious Qur'an. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 378)

[56]. This is a reference to the Jews who split up their Qur'an ie. the Torah into parts. Then they hid some parts and revealed some. This is precisely what is referred to in verse 91 of Surah al-An'am as تَجْعَلُوْنَهُ قَرَاطِيْسَ (which you show page by page).

[57]. Ie., the verdict of God is delivered and everything that the Prophet (sws) is informing the people of becomes a reality.

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