Surah Luqman

Surah Luqman


بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ الٓـمّٓ ۚ﴿۱﴾ تِلۡکَ اٰیٰتُ الۡکِتٰبِ الۡحَکِیۡمِ ۙ﴿۲﴾ ہُدًی وَّ رَحۡمَۃً لِّلۡمُحۡسِنِیۡنَ ۙ﴿۳﴾ الَّذِیۡنَ یُقِیۡمُوۡنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ یُؤۡتُوۡنَ الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ ہُمۡ بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ ہُمۡ یُوۡقِنُوۡنَ ؕ﴿۴﴾ اُولٰٓئِکَ عَلٰی ہُدًی مِّنۡ رَّبِّہِمۡ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۵﴾ In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful. This is Surah Alif Lam Mim.[1] These are the verses of the Book replete with wisdom. For those who are thorough, they have been revealed as a guidance[2] and mercy.[3] They who are showing diligence in the prayer and paying zakah and it is these who have firm conviction in the Hereafter.[4] It is they who are rightly guided by their Lord and it is they who will succeed. (1-5) وَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَنۡ یَّشۡتَرِیۡ لَہۡوَ الۡحَدِیۡثِ لِیُضِلَّ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ ٭ۖ وَّ یَتَّخِذَہَا ہُزُوًا ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ مُّہِیۡنٌ ﴿۶﴾ وَ اِذَا تُتۡلٰی عَلَیۡہِ اٰیٰتُنَا وَلّٰی مُسۡتَکۡبِرًا کَاَنۡ لَّمۡ یَسۡمَعۡہَا کَاَنَّ فِیۡۤ اُذُنَیۡہِ وَقۡرًا ۚ فَبَشِّرۡہُ بِعَذَابٍ اَلِیۡمٍ ﴿۷﴾ اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ لَہُمۡ جَنّٰتُ النَّعِیۡمِ ۙ﴿۸﴾ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَا ؕ وَعۡدَ اللّٰہِ حَقًّا ؕ وَ ہُوَ الۡعَزِیۡزُ الۡحَکِیۡمُ ﴿۹﴾ On the other hand, there are such people also who buy[5] absurdities[6] so that they lead astray from God's path without any knowledge,[7] and make fun of His revelations. It is these people for whom there is a humiliating torment.[8] When any of them is recited these revelations of Ours, he turns and walks away with great arrogance as if he has not even heard them, as if he is deaf. So, give him glad tidings of a painful torment. However, those who accepted faith and did righteous deeds, for them are orchards of delight where they will abide forever. This promise of God is destined to be fulfilled[9] and He is powerful, very wise.[10] (6-9) خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ بِغَیۡرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوۡنَہَا وَ اَلۡقٰی فِی الۡاَرۡضِ رَوَاسِیَ اَنۡ تَمِیۡدَ بِکُمۡ وَ بَثَّ فِیۡہَا مِنۡ کُلِّ دَآبَّۃٍ ؕ وَ اَنۡزَلۡنَا مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَاَنۡۢبَتۡنَا فِیۡہَا مِنۡ کُلِّ زَوۡجٍ کَرِیۡمٍ ﴿۱۰﴾ He created the heavens without pillars that are visible to you and have set firm mountains on the earth lest it may tilt with you to one side[11] and has spread out in living beings of all kinds. [Do you not see that] We have sent down water from the sky; then created beneficial things of all kind in this very earth. (10) ہٰذَا خَلۡقُ اللّٰہِ فَاَرُوۡنِیۡ مَاذَا خَلَقَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖ ؕ بَلِ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ فِیۡ ضَلٰلٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿۱۱﴾ All this has been created by God. Now show me what has been created by those who are besides Him [according to your claim]? Nothing! In fact, these unjust are in manifest error. (11) وَ لَقَدۡ اٰتَیۡنَا لُقۡمٰنَ الۡحِکۡمَۃَ اَنِ اشۡکُرۡ لِلّٰہِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّشۡکُرۡ فَاِنَّمَا یَشۡکُرُ لِنَفۡسِہٖ ۚ وَ مَنۡ کَفَرَ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَنِیٌّ حَمِیۡدٌ ﴿۱۲﴾ We gave precisely this wisdom[12] to Luqman[13] also and directed: "Be grateful to God[14] – and he who is grateful, will be grateful for his own self and he who is ungrateful, God does not care about him because God is self-sufficient; He has praiseworthy attributes. (12) وَ اِذۡ قَالَ لُقۡمٰنُ لِابۡنِہٖ وَ ہُوَ یَعِظُہٗ یٰبُنَیَّ لَا تُشۡرِکۡ بِاللّٰہِ ؕاِنَّ الشِّرۡکَ لَظُلۡمٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۳﴾ [The necessary requisite of this is that none should be associated with God.] Recall when Luqman, while counseling his son, had said:[15] "Son! Do not associate partners with God. In reality, polytheism is a great injustice." (13) وَ وَصَّیۡنَا الۡاِنۡسَانَ بِوَالِدَیۡہِ ۚ حَمَلَتۡہُ اُمُّہٗ وَہۡنًا عَلٰی وَہۡنٍ وَّ فِصٰلُہٗ فِیۡ عَامَیۡنِ اَنِ اشۡکُرۡ لِیۡ وَ لِوَالِدَیۡکَ ؕ اِلَیَّ الۡمَصِیۡرُ ﴿۱۴﴾ وَ اِنۡ جَاہَدٰکَ عَلٰۤی اَنۡ تُشۡرِکَ بِیۡ مَا لَیۡسَ لَکَ بِہٖ عِلۡمٌ ۙ فَلَا تُطِعۡہُمَا وَ صَاحِبۡہُمَا فِی الدُّنۡیَا مَعۡرُوۡفًا ۫ وَّ اتَّبِعۡ سَبِیۡلَ مَنۡ اَنَابَ اِلَیَّ ۚ ثُمَّ اِلَیَّ مَرۡجِعُکُمۡ فَاُنَبِّئُکُمۡ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵﴾ [There is no doubt that] We[16] have also counseled a man about his parents.[17] His mother kept him in her womb tolerating pain after pain and [after birth] it took two years for his weaning.[18] [We have counseled him:] "Be grateful to Me and to your parents[19] [and remember that ultimately] to Me is the return. But if they force you to associate someone with Me about which you have no proof, do not obey them.[20] However, treat them kindly[21] and follow the way of those who turn to Me.[22] Then you will have to return to Me. Then I will inform you of what you have been doing. [23] (14-15) یٰبُنَیَّ اِنَّہَاۤ اِنۡ تَکُ مِثۡقَالَ حَبَّۃٍ مِّنۡ خَرۡدَلٍ فَتَکُنۡ فِیۡ صَخۡرَۃٍ اَوۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ اَوۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ یَاۡتِ بِہَا اللّٰہُ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَطِیۡفٌ خَبِیۡرٌ ﴿۱۶﴾ [Luqman had said:] "Son! The fact is[24] that if a deed is equal to a grain of a mustard seed, then whether it is in a small mountain pass[25] or in the heavens or in the earth, God will retrieve it. Indeed God is discerning; He is aware of everything." [26] (16) یٰبُنَیَّ اَقِمِ الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اۡمُرۡ بِالۡمَعۡرُوۡفِ وَ انۡہَ عَنِ الۡمُنۡکَرِ وَ اصۡبِرۡ عَلٰی مَاۤ اَصَابَکَ ؕ اِنَّ ذٰلِکَ مِنۡ عَزۡمِ الۡاُمُوۡرِ ﴿ۚ۱۷﴾ "Son! Be diligent in the prayer, urge[27] what is good and stop evil[28] and whatever calamity strikes you [in this path], be steadfast on it.[29] It is because these are the tasks which have been emphasized. (17) وَ لَا تُصَعِّرۡ خَدَّکَ لِلنَّاسِ وَ لَا تَمۡشِ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مَرَحًا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یُحِبُّ کُلَّ مُخۡتَالٍ فَخُوۡرٍ ﴿ۚ۱۸﴾ وَ اقۡصِدۡ فِیۡ مَشۡیِکَ وَ اغۡضُضۡ مِنۡ صَوۡتِکَ ؕ اِنَّ اَنۡکَرَ الۡاَصۡوَاتِ لَصَوۡتُ الۡحَمِیۡرِ ﴿۱۹﴾ And be not indifferent to people[30] and walk not arrogantly on the land because God does not like the arrogant and the conceited.[31] Be moderate in your gait and tone down your voice because the most hideous of voices is the braying of the donkey.[32] (18-19) اَلَمۡ تَرَوۡا اَنَّ اللّٰہَ سَخَّرَ لَکُمۡ مَّا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ اَسۡبَغَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ نِعَمَہٗ ظَاہِرَۃً وَّ بَاطِنَۃً ؕ وَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَنۡ یُّجَادِلُ فِی اللّٰہِ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ وَّ لَا ہُدًی وَّ لَا کِتٰبٍ مُّنِیۡرٍ ﴿۲۰﴾ وَ اِذَا قِیۡلَ لَہُمُ اتَّبِعُوۡا مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ قَالُوۡا بَلۡ نَتَّبِعُ مَا وَجَدۡنَا عَلَیۡہِ اٰبَآءَنَا ؕ اَوَ لَوۡ کَانَ الشَّیۡطٰنُ یَدۡعُوۡہُمۡ اِلٰی عَذَابِ السَّعِیۡرِ﴿۲۱﴾ [You have forgotten it.[33]] Do you not see that it is God Who has made whatever is in the heavens and the earth subservient to you and completed all kinds of His apparent and hidden[34] favours on you?[35] In spite of this, there are those among people who dispute about God[36] without any reason,[37] without any guidance[38] and without any radiant book and when they are asked to follow what God has revealed, they say: "No! In fact! We will follow the way on which We have found our forefathers.[39] Will in that case also when Satan is calling them to punishment? (20-21) وَ مَنۡ یُّسۡلِمۡ وَجۡہَہٗۤ اِلَی اللّٰہِ وَ ہُوَ مُحۡسِنٌ فَقَدِ اسۡتَمۡسَکَ بِالۡعُرۡوَۃِ الۡوُثۡقٰی ؕ وَ اِلَی اللّٰہِ عَاقِبَۃُ الۡاُمُوۡرِ ﴿۲۲﴾ وَ مَنۡ کَفَرَ فَلَا یَحۡزُنۡکَ کُفۡرُہٗ ؕ اِلَیۡنَا مَرۡجِعُہُمۡ فَنُنَبِّئُہُمۡ بِمَا عَمِلُوۡا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُوۡرِ ﴿۲۳﴾ نُمَتِّعُہُمۡ قَلِیۡلًا ثُمَّ نَضۡطَرُّہُمۡ اِلٰی عَذَابٍ غَلِیۡظٍ ﴿۲۴﴾ [No, this is nothing; however,] he who turns in God's direction with obedience[40] and he is also thorough in his deeds, then he has held a strong rope and finally all matters are to return to God.[41] And he who has rejected, then let not his rejection be a source of grief for you [O Prophet!] All of them are to return to Me. Then We will inform them what they had been doing. Surely, God also knows the secrets of the hearts. We will let them enjoy for a few days; then will drag them to a stern torment.[42] (22-24) وَ لَئِنۡ سَاَلۡتَہُمۡ مَّنۡ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ لَیَقُوۡلُنَّ اللّٰہُ ؕ قُلِ الۡحَمۡدُ لِلّٰہِ ؕ بَلۡ اَکۡثَرُہُمۡ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۲۵﴾ لِلّٰہِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ ہُوَ الۡغَنِیُّ الۡحَمِیۡدُ ﴿۲۶﴾ If you ask them: "Who has created the heavens and the earth?" they will definitely say: "God." Say: "It is God then Who is worthy of gratitude."[43] [They themselves negate whatever they believe.] No! In fact, most of them know not.[44] To God belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. [He is not dependent on their gratitude.] Indeed, God is self-sufficient and praiseworthy in Himself. (25-26) وَ لَوۡ اَنَّ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مِنۡ شَجَرَۃٍ اَقۡلَامٌ وَّ الۡبَحۡرُ یَمُدُّہٗ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ سَبۡعَۃُ اَبۡحُرٍ مَّا نَفِدَتۡ کَلِمٰتُ اللّٰہِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَزِیۡزٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۷﴾ [In reality] if all the trees of the earth become pens and the seas become ink such that after this they are replenished by seven more seas as ink, God's words[45] can still not be written.[46] Indeed, God is powerful; He is very wise. (27) مَا خَلۡقُکُمۡ وَ لَا بَعۡثُکُمۡ اِلَّا کَنَفۡسٍ وَّاحِدَۃٍ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ سَمِیۡعٌۢ بَصِیۡرٌ ﴿۲۸﴾ اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یُوۡلِجُ الَّیۡلَ فِی النَّہَارِ وَ یُوۡلِجُ النَّہَارَ فِی الَّیۡلِ وَ سَخَّرَ الشَّمۡسَ وَ الۡقَمَرَ ۫ کُلٌّ یَّجۡرِیۡۤ اِلٰۤی اَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّی وَّ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ خَبِیۡرٌ ﴿۲۹﴾ ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّ اللّٰہَ ہُوَ الۡحَقُّ وَ اَنَّ مَا یَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِہِ الۡبَاطِلُ ۙ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ ہُوَ الۡعَلِیُّ الۡکَبِیۡرُ ﴿۳۰﴾ Creating all of you and raising you to life [after death] is the same [for Him] as the creation and raising to life of one person. Indeed, God hears and sees all.[47] Have you not seen[48] that God makes the night pass into the day and the day pass into the night and He has put the sun and the moon into your service? All are moving onward till a prescribed time. And have you not seen that God is aware of whatever you do? All this is because God only is the truth[49] and what they call besides Him are all false[50] and because God alone is superior; He is only exalted.[51] (28-30) اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ الۡفُلۡکَ تَجۡرِیۡ فِی الۡبَحۡرِ بِنِعۡمَتِ اللّٰہِ لِیُرِیَکُمۡ مِّنۡ اٰیٰتِہٖ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّکُلِّ صَبَّارٍ شَکُوۡرٍ ﴿۳۱﴾ وَ اِذَا غَشِیَہُمۡ مَّوۡجٌ کَالظُّلَلِ دَعَوُا اللّٰہَ مُخۡلِصِیۡنَ لَہُ الدِّیۡنَ ۬ۚ فَلَمَّا نَجّٰہُمۡ اِلَی الۡبَرِّ فَمِنۡہُمۡ مُّقۡتَصِدٌ ؕ وَ مَا یَجۡحَدُ بِاٰیٰتِنَاۤ اِلَّا کُلُّ خَتَّارٍ کَفُوۡرٍ ﴿۳۲﴾ Have you not seen that the ship sails in the sea by God's grace[52] so that He can show you some of His signs. In reality, there are many signs in it for every person who is steadfast and grateful. And when a wave envelops its passengers like canopies, they call upon God while promising sincere obedience to Him. Then when after delivering them He brings them to the land, some of them remain rightly guided[53] and most lose the way.[54] And only they reject Our signs who are very untrustworthy and ungrateful.[55] (31-32) یٰۤاَیُّہَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوۡا رَبَّکُمۡ وَ اخۡشَوۡا یَوۡمًا لَّا یَجۡزِیۡ وَالِدٌ عَنۡ وَّلَدِہٖ ۫ وَ لَا مَوۡلُوۡدٌ ہُوَ جَازٍ عَنۡ وَّالِدِہٖ شَیۡئًا ؕ اِنَّ وَعۡدَ اللّٰہِ حَقٌّ فَلَا تَغُرَّنَّکُمُ الۡحَیٰوۃُ الدُّنۡیَا ٝ وَ لَا یَغُرَّنَّکُمۡ بِاللّٰہِ الۡغَرُوۡرُ ﴿۳۳﴾ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عِنۡدَہٗ عِلۡمُ السَّاعَۃِ ۚ وَ یُنَزِّلُ الۡغَیۡثَ ۚ وَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡحَامِ ؕ وَ مَا تَدۡرِیۡ نَفۡسٌ مَّاذَا تَکۡسِبُ غَدًا ؕ وَ مَا تَدۡرِیۡ نَفۡسٌۢ بِاَیِّ اَرۡضٍ تَمُوۡتُ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلِیۡمٌ خَبِیۡرٌ ﴿۳۴﴾ People! Save yourself from your Lord's grasp and fear the day when neither a father will be of benefit to his children nor a child will be of any benefit to the father.[56] Indeed, God's promise is true. So, never let the life of the world deceive you[57] nor that deceiver[58] should ever be able to deceive you regarding God.[59] [They ask: "When will this promise be fulfilled?" Say:] "Only God knows that time." [Do you not see that] it is He Who sends down rain[60] and knows what is in the wombs.[61] No one knows what he will earn tomorrow and no one knows the place he will die. [But can a sane person deny these things?] In reality, God alone is aware of all and has knowledge of everything.[62] (33-34) (Translated by Dr Shehzad Saleem) ______________ [1]. What is the meaning of this name? I have explained in detail my view about it while discussing verse 2 of Surah al-Baqarah. [2]. This is a reference to the companions of the Prophet (sws) who followed the nature on which they were created by God, used their faculty of intellect, accepted facts with full insight and followed with full sincerity all the requisites of these facts. [3]. Ie., guidance in this world and mercy and graciousness in the next world, which is an essential consequence of adopting this guidance. [4]. It is evident from this that if a person has true conviction in the Hereafter, he cannot become indifferent to offering the prayer and paying the zakah and if in spite of this indifference he lays claim to belief in the hereafter, then he is totally lying in his claim. [5]. Ie., give them preference and demand them. When the word إِشْتَراء is used for metaphorical things, then it occurs in precisely this meaning. [6]. The actual word is: لَهْوَ الْحَدِيْثِ. This expression is similar to زُخْرَفُ القُوْلِ used at another instance. Here this expression is used in contrast to the verses of the book replete with wisdom. Hence it will refer to the absurdities and nonsensical things which the miscreants spread to lead people away from the Qur'an. [7]. Ie., without any proof or argument. [8]. It is explained subsequently that their real crime is arrogance and about arrogance it is mentioned at various instances in the Qur'an and other divine scriptures that its punishment is ignominy and humiliation. [9]. This sentence employs the style of double emphasis. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has explained this. He writes: ... The reason for this emphasis was that in verse 6 earlier, it had been said that the arrogant people made fun of God's revelations. It is obvious that the ridicule was directed at the verses of the Qur'an in which the helpless and poor among the Muslims of those times were given glad tidings of an eternal kingdom. For this reason it had to be said with full stress and emphasis that if those people wanted to ridicule this aspect, they could do so; however, the believers were to rest assured that the promise of God would be fulfilled. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 6, 123) [10]. Ie., He is neither helpless against unjust and arrogant elements that He surrender to them nor has He created this world for amusement so that He end it without making it reach a meaningful culmination. He will necessarily do this because He is powerful and wise. [11]. The actual words are أَنْ تَمِيْدَ بِكُمْ. In accordance with linguistic principles, the causative particle la is understood to be present before the word أَنْ. What is stated here is probably the same phenomenon which is called "Isostasy" in science. This statement of the Qur'an shows that it is quite likely that mountains have appeared on the surface of the earth to balance the dense matter found below the seas. Had this not been the case, the earth would have kept shaking the way it now does at the advent of an earthquake. [12]. Ie., the wisdom that has been expounded in this book of wisdom. It is precisely because of this that the attribute "wise" occurs for the Qur'an at the beginning of this surah. The implication is that the teachings of Luqman who is regarded by the Quraysh to be the Socrates of their nation are the same as what Muhammad (sws) is instructing them today. [13]. He was famous among the Arabs as a sage and as a sagacious person. Classical Arab poets mention him and his tribe in their poetry. It is evident from it that he and his tribe possessed great majesty in Yemen and they were from among the remnants of the people of 'Ad. What further becomes evident from it is that he had a somewhat patriarchal status of leadership in his tribe. It is also evident from the pieces of advice mentioned ahead that they were given at the time when he was entrusting the responsibility of leadership to his son. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... Though these pieces of advice from Luqman are effective for every person, they carry special significance for those who are in a position of leadership and have political authority. For this reason, as pointed out earlier, Luqman was not merely a sage, he was a sage who was a ruler as well. He held political authority among his people. The advice given by him here to his son was meant to make him understand the responsibilities of leadership. Luqman was not a prophet; however, he does have a general resemblance to the prophet David (sws). (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 6, 133) [14]. This is the foremost conequence of wisdom. It is through it that the conception of all rights of God and all rights of humanity are produced. The basis of wisdom which this Book encapsulates is gratitude. In the absence of it, none of the attributes mentioned the beginning of the surah can engendered in a person. [15]. Ie., he did not say these things without any context; he said them while counseling his son. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... This shows the importance of the occasion and what is said in itself: the statements were not given in a casual way; on the contrary, they were said on a specific occasion in an elaborate way as advice to his son and stressed upon him to strongly adhere to them. The purpose is to direct the attention of the addressees of the Qur'an what a wise father teaches his son and what attitude is adopted by these people about their children – people who revered Luqman. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 6, 128) [16]. There occurs an insertion from the Almighty from here to verse 15. Luqman while mentioning the right of God did not mention his own right probably because he thought that this would be against etiquette. Thus leaving it, he went on to mention the Hereafter. It is to fill this void that these verses are inserted at this instance from God. [17]. This advice has been mentioned in all divine scriptures. The Qur'an has also mentioned it on more than one occasion. There is no doubt that among human beings, the foremost right is that of the parents. This is because after God, it is they who become the source of bringing a person into existence and in bringing him up. [18]. The verse does not mention birth. The reason is that this is obvious. It is because of this that the Qur'an does not mention certain aspects. The attention and affection of the father is also no less in the upbringing of a child, yet the labour through which a mother undergoes in various phases of pregnancy, child birth and suckling are unmatched. It is for this reason that the Prophet (sws) regarded the mother's right to be thrice that of the father. (Bukhari, no. 5971; Muslim, no. 6500) [19]. This gratitude should not merely be expressed by the tongue; a necessary consequence of this is that a person must treat his parents with utmost honour, not feel any aversion against them in his heart and not utter anything disrespectful to them. In fact, he should be soft, affectionate and polite to them. He should obey them and assure and pamper them in the weakness of old age. [20]. In spite of the status that Islam confers upon parents, they do not have the right to force their children to baselessly associate someone with the Almighty. Any calls to evade the Almighty must not receive any positive response even if it is the parents who are giving the call. Here only polytheism is mentioned but all other directives of the Almighty shall also be considered subservient to this directive, and one cannot disobey these directives if the parents ask them to do so. On these very grounds, the Prophet (sws) is reported to have said that no one can be obeyed if he calls to disobey the Almighty; one can only obey what is virtuous. (Al-Bukhari, Al-Jami' al-sahih, 1229-1230, (no. 7145); Muslim, Al-Jami' al-sahih, 826, (no. 4766)) [21]. The implication is that even if the parents force their children to commit a sin as heinous as polytheism, they must always be treated in a befitting manner. Their needs should be met as far as possible and a prayer for guidance continued to be made for them. The children may have a right to disobey their parents if they insist upon disobedience to the directives of religion but they must still not be slack or indifferent in any way to their duty towards their parents. [22]. Ie., the path of none of those who have deviated from God can be adopted, even if they are his paretns. There is no option for this in God's religion. If a person has to follow someone, it has to be those who are following God's way. [23]. Here at the end, both the parents and the children are cautioned that everyone has to return one day to the Almighty to account for his deeds. While commenting upon this part of the verse, Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: This part of the verse addresses both the parents and the children and carries both a warning and an assurance. One day, each person will have to return to the Almighty. Whatever he has done will be brought before him. If some parents had violated the rights given to them regarding their children by making them deviate from the path of the Almighty, they will have to face punishment for this attitude and if children duly recognized the rights of the Almighty together with those of their parents as well as remained steadfast in following the obligations these rights entail, they will be rewarded for their perseverance. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 6, 130) [24]. The verse has a feminine pronoun إِنَّهَا. It is called the pronoun of the anecdote and is used for what is understood between the speaker and the addressee. Here it is used in deference to حَبَّة. [25]. The actual word is صَخْرَة. In the Arabic language it is also used for a mountain and a small pass. [26]. After referring to monotheism, here Luqman has tried to dispel every misperception about the Hereafter which may arise because of a lack of information about the extent of God's knowledge. [27]. The greatest manifestation of showing gratitude to God is the prayer. Thus among all other deeds this is the first deed which he has advised his son. [28]. Ie., he should urge people to adopt things which are regarded as good by human nature and stop people from things which are disliked by human nature and by all mankind. It is evident from other instances in the Qur'an that this is from among the basic requisites of faith and every person has been made responsible to carry out this duty in his immediate surroundings. This is an expression of gratitude for the guidance God has bestowed on us. [29].This is because this steadfastness is the fountainhead of resolve and determination and the splendour of all facets of character and conduct. It engenders the courage in a person to accept whole-heartedly the unpleasant experiences of life and to greet them regarding them to be from God instead of brooding and complaining. For this, it is required even more in urging others to the right path and stopping them from vice and in treading the path of virtue. [30]. This specially refers to the poor who are looked down upon by the rich and the affluent. [31]. Ie., He hates them. The severity of the admonition can be judged from these words. [32]. Ie., instead of arrogance, they should adopt humility in their gait and instead of harshness, they should have a soft and gentle tone in their voice. The greatest moral evil is arrogance and it is evident from the face, neck, gait and style of conversation of a person. Luqman has urged his son to be on guard from this. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... The words اِنَّ اَنۡکَرَ الۡاَصۡوَاتِ لَصَوۡتُ الۡحَمِیۡرِ are meant to stop people from being coarse and impolite in their tone: when God has created them in the best of moulds and also blessed them with the quality of eloquent speech, why should they fall from this status and become donkeys? It is their utter misfortune if they do this. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 6, 133) Similarly, about the مِنۡ in وَ اغۡضُضۡ مِنۡ صَوۡتِکَ, he writes: The occurrence of the word مِنۡ here evidences the fact that God has not created mankind with the same pitch in their voices. He has given them the ability to raise this pitch and also to lower it when needed. So he should use this ability as per this need and not always burden the ears of people with his voice. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 6, 133) [33]. Ie., this wisdom of Luqman. From here onwards, the surah connects to the subject for the corroboration of which his wisdom had been cited. [34].Ie., both material and spiritual. [35]. The interrogative style adopted in this sentence is meant to express reprimand and amazement. [36]. Ie., about His oneness. The governing noun (muḍaf) is suppressed. [37]. The actual word is: عِلْم. It refers to anything whether based on one's intellect or on divine sources which can produce conviction and assurance in a person. [38]. This is the mention of the general before the specific. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... God's guidance has also reached His creatures through the oral teachings of the Prophets and through radiant scriptures like the Torah, the Psalms, the Gospels and the Qur'an as well. In my opinion, the word ہُدًی refers to reasoning based on the first type of teaching. It may be kept in mind that this negation of a lack of reasoning is negation of reality. What the Idolaters would say in support of their views is cited ahead. It is of the nature of blind following and mere blind following cannot be regarded as a form of reasoning. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 6, 139) [39]. This is the detail of the argument they indulged in without any knowledge. [40]. Ie., forsaking polytheism and hypocrisy turns to God with full sincerity. The verb اَسْلَمَ occurs with the preposition اِلَي in this verse. In such instances, it is used in this meaning. [41]. The implication is that no one should remain under the misconception that anyone other than God can also support him. Certainly not! All matters will finally be presented to God and His verdict will be the final verdict. [42]. The actual words are: نَضْطَرُّهُمْ إِلَيٰ عَذَابٍ غَلِيظٍ. The preposition إِلَيٰ here shows that the verb encompasses the meaning "forcibly." [43]. Hence who else can be worthy of gratitude in that he is worshipped and regarded as the master? [44]. Ie., they do not know what the obvious consequences of their acknowledged premises are. [45]. Ie., words which manifest themselves in the form of signs of His power and wisdom. [46]. This is not any exaggeration; it is a statement of fact. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... If the sea turns into ink, then this ink will not even be sufficient to write the signs found in the sea let alone the signs in the whole universe. This earth below our feet is a very trivial part of God's unfathomable universe. However, in spite of all the advances of science, the status of all the signs and miracles human beings have been able to discover in it are not more than a drop in the sea. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 6, 142) [47]. Ie., He is not uninformed about His creatures; He hears what they say and observes what they do. Hence when He decides to reward and punish them, He will face not the slightest difficulty in taking people to account. [48]. Prior to this plural tenses were used. From here onwards, the singular tense is used to direct attention to God's signs. There is no difference between these two styles except in the latter the attention of each and every entity is directed individually to the signs. This incorporates an emphasis in the style. [49]. Ie., in the capacity of He Who should be worshipped because it is He Who is the real authority and has all the power to create and govern affairs. Thus whatever power, wisdom, benefit and providence they see is because He alone is governing the universe. [50]. Ie., they are baseless; they all are figments of their imagination. [51]. This is because had this not been the case, this huge universe could not have come into being nor could it have functioned in this orderly and disciplined manner the way they are witnessing it. [52]. Ie., howevermuch human beings regard it to be a marvel of their skill, the fact is that a ship sails in the sea by God's blessing. If this blessing is not there and God does not look upon them with favour, in a matter of seconds they will come to know how weak their means and resources and marvels of knowledge are. [53]. The actual word is: مُقْتَصِدْ. It means he who adheres to the truth and to justice. [54]. This sentence is suppressed in the text. The succeeding sentence points to it. [55]. Here an assurance is sounded to the Prophet (sws) that he should not be worried. Such people do not benefit from any sign. Obviously, also found in it is a very stern admonition to the rebellious elements of the Quraysh because these words are spoken about them. [56]. This is the final admonition. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: ... Here the style of the Qur'anic verse should be noted in that the meaning of "lack of benefit of the son" has been conveyed in an emphatic manner. The words used are: وَ لَا مَوۡلُوۡدٌ ہُوَ جَازٍ عَنۡ وَّالِدِہٖ شَیۡئًا. Those who have a flare for the Arabic language know that the repetition of the inchoative (mubtada') and use of a noun in place of the verb has added a lot of stress to the sentence. In my opinion, the reason for this in the first place is that every father naturally expects from his son that in old age he will become his support and in the second place, a son with respect to his age and ability is more in a position to help his frail father than vice versa. In the third place, because of young age a son has stronger sentiments of honour and civility. Yet in spite of all these aspects such will be the situation of indifference on that day that a son will not be able to be of any benefit to his father. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 6, 146) [57]. Since the system of this world is not based on consequences commensurate to deeds and is based on trial and test, it becomes a means of deception. Attention has been directed precisely to this aspect here. [58]. Ie., Satan, who has promised to do so. [59]. Ie., in the matter that God has not created this world for a purpose and that He is unconcerned with what is happening in it and hence it will continue like this without any consequence. It is primarily this deception which Satan has allured mankind into. [60]. However, He does not tell human beings the time He will send it down, its quantity and the place it will land. [61]. However, He does not inform human beings what is in the wombs and whether the foetus will complete its gestation period or come out prematurely and if it will complete this period, then what exactly will be its extent. [62]. The implication is that final and certain knowledge of every thing is with God. Many a time human beings are kept unaware of such clear and near at hand facts, yet they do not deny them. So, why are they denying the hereafter if its time of arrival is not being disclosed. _________________________




Articles by this author


Sūrah Shūrā

Surah Ha Mim al-Sajdah

Surah al-Mu’min

Surah al-Zumar

Surah Saffat

Surah Yasin

Surah Saba

Surah al-Qasas

Ghamidi on Farahi

Surah Luqman

Surah Ahzab

Sūrah al-Rūm

Surah al-‘Ankabut

Surah al-Naml (2/2)

Surah al-Naml (1/2)

Surah al-Shu‘ara’ (2/2)

Surah al-Shu‘ara’ (1/2)

Surah al-Furqan

People of Paradise

Surah al-Ra‘d

People of Paradise

Surah al-Ra‘d

Indications of Islam, Faith, Virtue and the Day of Judgement

Surah al-Nur (2/2)

Surah al-Nur (1/2)

Surah Mu’minun (2/2)

Surah Mu’minun (1/2)

Surah al-Hajj (2/2)

Surah al-Hajj (1/2)

Surah al-Anbiya (2/2)

Surah al-Anbiya (1/2)

Surah Taha (3/3)

Surah Taha (2/3)

Surah Taha (1/3)

Surah Maryam (2/2)

Surah Maryam (1/2)

Surah al-Kahf (2/2)

Surah al-Kahf (1/2)

Surah Bani Isra’il (1/3)

Surah al-Nahl (2/2)

Surah al-Nahl (1/2)

Surah Ibrahim – Surah al-Hijr (2/2)

Surah Ibrahim – Surah al-Hijr (1/2)

Surah Yusuf (3/3)

Surah Yusuf (2/3)

Surah Yusuf (1/3)

Surah Hud (3/3)

Surah Hud (2/3)

Surah Hud (1/3)

Surah Yunus (2/2)

Surah Yunus (1/2)

Surah al-Tawbah (61-129) (2/2)

Surah al-Tawbah (61-129) (1/2)

Surah al-Tawbah (38-60)

Surah al-Tawbah (1-37) (2/2)

Surah al-Tawbah (1-37) (1/2)

Is Democracy Compatible with Islam?

Surah al-Anfal (41-75) (2/2)

Surah al-Anfal (41-75) (1/2)

Surah al-Anfal (31-40)

Surah Nisa’ (153-176)

Surahs Muzzammil and Muddaththir

Surah al-Anfal (1-30)

Surah al-A’raf (184-205)

Surah al-A’raf (163-183)

Islamic Punishments

Surah al-A’raf (152-162)

Surah al-A‘raf (123-153)

Surah al-A‘raf (80-122)

Surah al-A‘raf (57-79)

Surah al-A‘raf (26-56) (2/2)

Surah al-A‘raf (26-56) (1/2)

Surah al-A‘raf (1-25)

Surah An‘am (128-165) (2/2)

Surah An‘am (128-165) (1/2)

Surah An‘am (100-127)

Surah An‘am (74-99)

Surah An‘am (46-73)

Surah An‘am (25-45)

The Noble Wives of the Prophet (sws)

Surah An‘am (1-24)

Islamic Punishments

Surahs Falaq-Nas

Surahs Lahab-Ikhlas

Surahs Kafirun-Nasr

Surahs Ma‘un-Kawthar

Surah Fil – Surah Quraysh

Surah ‘Asr – Surah Humazah

Surah Qari‘ah – Surah Takathur

Surah Zilzal – Surah ‘Aadiyat

Khilafah

Surahs Qadr-Bayyinah

Surahs Tin – ‘Alaq

State and Government

Surahs Duha-Alam Nashrah

Surahs Shams-Layl

Islam and the State: A Counter Narrative

Surahs Fajr-Balad

The Basis of Legislation

The Shari‘ah of Preaching

Surahs A‘la - Ghashiyah

Variant Readings

Surahs Mutaffifin - Inshiqaq

Surahs Buruj – Tariq

Itmam al-Hujjah [1] of God’s Messengers

Theory of Evolution (2)

Surahs ‘Asr-Humazah

Theory of Evolution (2)

Surahs Nazi‘at-‘Abas

Surahs Mursalat-Naba

Dealings and Practices of God

Is Democracy Compatible with Islam?

Wudū and Nail Polish

Surahs Qiyamah-Dahr

Surahs Takwir - Infitar

Sūrahs Muzzammil and Muddaththir

Downfall of the Muslims

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi on Hadith

Your Questions Answered

Surahs Nuh and Jinn

Birth Control

An Interview with the Indian Media

Surahs Haqqah and Ma‘arij

Roles and Responsibilities of Muslims in the West

Surahs Mulk - Qalam

The Punishment of Intentional Murder

Hajj and ‘Umrah

Sūrahs Hashr – Mumtahinah

Religious Extremism

Sūrahs Hadīd – Mujādalah

The Right to make a Will

Talks of the Prophet Muhammad (sws)

Surah Waqi‘ah

The General and the Specific

Sūrah Qamar and Sūrah Rahmān

Surah Tur and Surah Najm

Inheritance of an Orphaned Grandchild

The Sharī‘ah of Preaching

The Source of Religion

Sūrah Mā’idah (90-120)

The Prayer

Sūrahs Qāf and Dhāriyāt (Part 2/2)

Sūrahs Qāf and Dhāriyāt (Part 1/2)

Sūrah Mā’idah (32-63) part (1/2)

Sūrah Mā’idah (32-63) part (2/2)

Dealings and Practices of God

Age of ‘Ā’ishah (rta) at her Marriage

Sūrah Mā’idah (1-31) part (1/2)

Sūrah Mā’idah (1-31) part (2/2)

Sūrah Nisā’ (153-176)