Surah Muddaththir

Surah Muddaththir


Qur'anic Exegesis

Introduction

Surah Muddaththirforms a pair with Surah Muzzammil, the preceding surah with regard to the subject discussed in them. Surah Muzzammildirects the Prophet (sws) to prepare himself for bearing the burden of a heavy responsibility, while Surah Muddaththirexplains this very responsibility: the Prophet (sws) after completing the first phase of his mission: indhar, should embark upon the second phase: indhar-i-'am.

The surah is addressed to the Prophet (sws) and also to his addressees: the leadership of the Quraysh.

It is evident that with the revelation of these two surahsin Makkah began the phase of Indhar-i-'am of the Prophet's mission (sws).

Central Theme

The central theme of Surah Muddaththtiris to explain the responsibility of indhar-i-'am to the Prophet (sws) and to disclose to him its requirements and its limits and to make it clear to his addressees that the Day of Judgement about which the Prophet (sws) has now been directed to openly warn them of, must not be regarded by them as something trivial. It is a day which will not be easy upon those who reject it and it is a reality which cannot be denied; no intercession will be of any use to save one's self from its torment.

EXPLANATION

بِسْمِ اللہِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِیْمِِ

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.

یَا أَیُّہَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ (1) قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ (2) وَرَبَّکَ فَکَبِّرْ (3) وَثِیَابَکَ فَطَہِّرْ (4) وَالرُّجْزَ فَاہْجُرْ (5) وَلَا تَمْنُن تَسْتَکْثِرُ (6) وَلِرَبِّکَ فَاصْبِرْ (7) فَإِذَا نُقِرَ فِیْ النَّاقُورِ (8) فَذَلِکَ یَوْمَءِذٍ یَوْمٌ عَسِیْرٌ (9) عَلَی الْکَافِرِیْنَ غَیْْرُ یَسِیْرٍ (10) ذَرْنِیْ وَمَنْ خَلَقْتُ وَحِیْداً (11) وَجَعَلْتُ لَہُ مَالاً مَّمْدُوداً (12) وَبَنِیْنَ شُہُوداً (13) وَمَہَّدتُّ لَہُ تَمْہِیْداً (14) ثُمَّ یَطْمَعُ أَنْ أَزِیْدَ (15) کَلَّا إِنَّہُ کَانَ لِآیَاتِنَا عَنِیْداً (16) سَأُرْہِقُہُ صَعُوداً (17) إِنَّہُ فَکَّرَ وَقَدَّرَ (18) فَقُتِلَ کَیْْفَ قَدَّرَ (19) ثُمَّ قُتِلَ کَیْْفَ قَدَّرَ (20) ثُمَّ نَظَرَ (21) ثُمَّ عَبَسَ وَبَسَرَ (22) ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَ وَاسْتَکْبَرَ (23) فَقَالَ إِنْ ہَذَا إِلَّا سِحْرٌ یُؤْثَرُ (24) إِنْ ہَذَا إِلَّا قَوْلُ الْبَشَرِ (25) سَأُصْلِیْہِ سَقَرَ (26) وَمَا أَدْرَاکَ مَا سَقَرُ (27) لَا تُبْقِیْ وَلَا تَذَرُ (28) لَوَّاحَۃٌ لِّلْبَشَرِ (29) عَلَیْْہَا تِسْعَۃَ عَشَرَ (30) وَمَا جَعَلْنَا أَصْحَابَ النَّارِ إِلَّا مَلَاءِکَۃً وَمَا جَعَلْنَا عِدَّتَہُمْ إِلَّا فِتْنَۃً لِّلَّذِیْنَ کَفَرُوا لِیَسْتَیْْقِنَ الَّذِیْنَ أُوتُوا الْکِتَابَ وَیَزْدَادَ الَّذِیْنَ آمَنُوا إِیْمَاناً وَلَا یَرْتَابَ الَّذِیْنَ أُوتُوا الْکِتَابَ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَلِیَقُولَ الَّذِیْنَ فِیْ قُلُوبِہِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْکَافِرُونَ مَاذَا أَرَادَ اللَّہُ بِہَذَا مَثَلاً کَذَلِکَ یُضِلُّ اللَّہُ مَن یَشَاءُ وَیَہْدِیْ مَن یَشَاءُ وَمَا یَعْلَمُ جُنُودَ رَبِّکَ إِلَّا ہُوَ وَمَا ہِیَ إِلَّا ذِکْرَی لِلْبَشَرِ (31) کَلَّا وَالْقَمَرِ (32) وَاللَّیْْلِ إِذْ أَدْبَرَ (33) وَالصُّبْحِ إِذَا أَسْفَرَ (34) إِنَّہَا لَإِحْدَی الْکُبَرِ (35) نَذِیْراً لِّلْبَشَرِ (36) لِمَن شَاء مِنکُمْ أَن یَتَقَدَّمَ أَوْ یَتَأَخَّرَ (37) کُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا کَسَبَتْ رَہِیْنَۃٌ (38) إِلَّا أَصْحَابَ الْیَمِیْنِ (39) فِیْ جَنَّاتٍ یَتَسَاء لُونَ (40) عَنِ الْمُجْرِمِیْنَ (41) مَا سَلَکَکُمْ فِیْ سَقَرَ (42) قَالُوا لَمْ نَکُ مِنَ الْمُصَلِّیْنَ (43) وَلَمْ نَکُ نُطْعِمُ الْمِسْکِیْنَ (44) وَکُنَّا نَخُوضُ مَعَ الْخَاءِضِیْنَ (45) وَکُنَّا نُکَذِّبُ بِیَوْمِ الدِّیْنِ (46) حَتَّی أَتَانَا الْیَقِیْنُ (47) فَمَا تَنفَعُہُمْ شَفَاعَۃُ الشَّافِعِیْنَ (48) فَمَا لَہُمْ عَنِ التَّذْکِرَۃِ مُعْرِضِیْنَ (49) کَأَنَّہُمْ حُمُرٌ مُّسْتَنفِرَۃٌ (50) فَرَّتْ مِن قَسْوَرَۃٍ (51) بَلْ یُرِیْدُ کُلُّ امْرِءٍ مِّنْہُمْ أَن یُؤْتَی صُحُفاً مُّنَشَّرَۃً (52) کَلَّا بَل لَا یَخَافُونَ الْآخِرَۃَ (53) کَلَّا إِنَّہُ تَذْکِرَۃٌ (54) فَمَن شَاء ذَکَرَہُ (55) وَمَا یَذْکُرُونَ إِلَّا أَن یَشَاءَ اللَّہُ ہُوَ أَہْلُ التَّقْوَی وَأَہْلُ الْمَغْفِرَۃِ (56)

O ye enfolded in your shawl!1 Arise and give open warning2 and proclaim the greatness of your Lord only3, and cleanse the apparel of your soul4 and keep away from [this] dirt [of polytheism] and [listen!] Do not discontinue your endeavour regarding it to be enough5 , and with perseverance wait for the decision of your Lord. (1-7)

Because when the trumpet is sounded, that Day will be very severe. It will not be easy for these disbelievers.6 Leave to Me7 whom8 I have created alone and bestowed abundant wealth spread about and sons abiding in his presence and well smoothed out for him [the path of success and achievement in this world]. Still he expects that [when he has received so much in this world] I shall give him more [in the next]. Certainly not! He has turned out to be an enemy of Our revelations.9 [Therefore], soon I will make him climb a mounting slope.10 (8-17)

[This wrongdoer]11, he pondered and he schemed. Cursed be he; what he schemed!12 Then cursed be he, what he schemed. Then he looked [around him]. Then he frowned and scowled. Then he turned away in scornful pride. Then said `This is nothing but a magic13 [of eloquent words; the same] which is being handed down from the past. [This is no divine inspiration]; it is nothing but the word of man. (18-25)

[This wrongdoer], I will soon cast him into Hell. And what do you know what this Hell is? It will not show mercy nor spare anyone. It scorches the skin. Over it are nineteen14. (26-30)

--15 And We have appointed none but angels16 as the keepers of Hell and have mentioned their number only to make it a test17 for those who do not believe. So that the People of the Scriptures receive assurance from this18 and the believers may increase in their faith19 and that the People of the Scriptures and the believers have no doubt about it. And so that [contrary to them], these disbelievers and those [among the People of the Scriptures] who have the ailment [of jealousy] in their hearts [make fun of this and] say 'What can Allahmean by this mention?' In this way Allah[according to His law] leads astray whom He pleases and guides whom He pleases. And [they should never have any misconception about their knowledge20 ; the fact is that] no one knows the armies of your Lord save He. And this [narrative] is just a reminder for man. (31)

[They think that since the Day of Judgement has not come yet, therefore the news of its arrival is just a fallacy]. Certainly not! the moon bears witness and the night also when it turned its back and the morning when it shines forth that [similarly in this world everything gradually reaches its end21; so O People!]

This22 is from among the great matters narrated to warn man. For every person who wants to advance forward [to accept it] or wants to turn away [from it after denying it]23. [Remember! On that Day] every soul shall be [held] in pledge for its deeds except the people of the right hand24. They will be in gardens inquiring after these wrongdoers. They will ask them 'What has brought you into Hell?' They will reply `Indeed, we were not among those who prayed25 nor did we feed the poor26. And we used to quibble27 with these quibblers and used to deny this Day of Reckoning till there came to us this moment of certainty28 . (32-47)

At that time, no intercession of [their] interceders will be of any use to them.29 What then is the matter with them that they are turning away from this Reminder, as though they are frightened asses fleeing from a lion? [What lesson could they have learnt from the Qur'an]? Each one of them, in fact, desires that [instead of a Prophet sent forth], he be handed open scrolls [of revelation]30. Certainly not! [This shall never be nor this should ever be; and this is not the reason O Prophet! that they have drawn away from the truth. The fact is that] they do not expect that the Day of Judgement will come31. [Do not go after them], never! This [Qur'an] verily is a Reminder. So let him, who wills, take heed -- and they do not take heed unless Allah[according to His law32] so wills -- [so let him, who wills, take heed]. He alone33 is pious and worthy of being forgiven by his Allah. (48-56)




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