بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ
طٰہٰ ۚ﴿۱﴾ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنَا عَلَیۡکَ الۡقُرۡاٰنَ لِتَشۡقٰۤی ۙ﴿۲﴾ اِلَّا تَذۡکِرَۃً لِّمَنۡ یَّخۡشٰی ۙ﴿۳﴾ تَنۡزِیۡلًا مِّمَّنۡ خَلَقَ الۡاَرۡضَ وَ السَّمٰوٰتِ الۡعُلٰی ؕ﴿۴﴾ اَلرَّحۡمٰنُ عَلَی الۡعَرۡشِ اسۡتَوٰی ﴿۵﴾ لَہٗ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ مَا بَیۡنَہُمَا وَ مَا تَحۡتَ الثَّرٰی ﴿۶﴾
In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.
This is Surah Taha. We have not revealed this Qur'an to you that you be distressed. It is only a reminder for those who fear their Lord [without seeing Him]. It has been revealed in a very thorough way by the being Who created the earth and [above you] these lofty skies. The very Merciful, He sits on the throne [of this universe]. Whatever is in the heavens and the earth and whatever is in between and whatever is below the earth, all are under His jurisdiction. (1-6)
وَ اِنۡ تَجۡہَرۡ بِالۡقَوۡلِ فَاِنَّہٗ یَعۡلَمُ السِّرَّ وَ اَخۡفٰی ﴿۷﴾ اَللّٰہُ لَاۤ اِلٰہَ اِلَّا ہُوَ ؕ لَہُ الۡاَسۡمَآءُ الۡحُسۡنٰی ﴿۸﴾
Whether you speak openly or secretly; nothing is hidden from Him because He knows what is said secretly and even what is more hidden. He is God; there is no deity besides Him. All good names belong to Him. (7-8)
وَ ہَلۡ اَتٰىکَ حَدِیۡثُ مُوۡسٰی ۘ﴿۹﴾اِذۡ رَاٰ نَارًا فَقَالَ لِاَہۡلِہِ امۡکُثُوۡۤا اِنِّیۡۤ اٰنَسۡتُ نَارًا لَّعَلِّیۡۤ اٰتِیۡکُمۡ مِّنۡہَا بِقَبَسٍ اَوۡ اَجِدُ عَلَی النَّارِ ہُدًی ﴿۱۰﴾
Has the story of Moses also reached you? When he saw a flame [from far away], he said to his family: "Wait here you people; I see something like fire. [I will go there] so that I may bring an ember for you or am able to find some information about the way [from those sitting around the fire]. (9-10)
فَلَمَّاۤ اَتٰىہَا نُوۡدِیَ یٰمُوۡسٰی ﴿ؕ۱۱﴾ اِنِّیۡۤ اَنَا رَبُّکَ فَاخۡلَعۡ نَعۡلَیۡکَ ۚ اِنَّکَ بِالۡوَادِ الۡمُقَدَّسِ طُوًی ﴿ؕ۱۲﴾ وَ اَنَا اخۡتَرۡتُکَ فَاسۡتَمِعۡ لِمَا یُوۡحٰی ﴿۱۳﴾اِنَّنِیۡۤ اَنَا اللّٰہُ لَاۤ اِلٰہَ اِلَّاۤ اَنَا فَاعۡبُدۡنِیۡ ۙ وَ اَقِمِ الصَّلٰوۃَ لِذِکۡرِیۡ ﴿۱۴﴾ اِنَّ السَّاعَۃَ اٰتِیَۃٌ اَکَادُ اُخۡفِیۡہَا لِتُجۡزٰی کُلُّ نَفۡسٍۭ بِمَا تَسۡعٰی ﴿۱۵﴾ فَلَا یَصُدَّنَّکَ عَنۡہَا مَنۡ لَّا یُؤۡمِنُ بِہَا وَ اتَّبَعَ ہَوٰىہُ فَتَرۡدٰی ﴿۱۶﴾
Then when he reached near it, a voice called: "Moses! It is Me, your Lord. So, take off your shoes because you are in the sacred valley of Tuwa. And I have chosen you. So, intently listen to what is being revealed to you. Indeed, I am God; there is no deity besides Me. So, worship Me and be diligent in the prayer to keep Me in remembrance. Indeed, the Hereafter is sure to come – I will strive to keep it hidden – it will come so that every person is rewarded for his deeds. Thus, anyone who does not believe in the Hereafter and follows his desires should not stop you from the prayer lest you perish." (11-16)
وَ مَا تِلۡکَ بِیَمِیۡنِکَ یٰمُوۡسٰی ﴿۱۷﴾ قَالَ ہِیَ عَصَایَ ۚ اَتَوَکَّؤُا عَلَیۡہَا وَ اَہُشُّ بِہَا عَلٰی غَنَمِیۡ وَ لِیَ فِیۡہَا مَاٰرِبُ اُخۡرٰی ﴿۱۸﴾ قَالَ اَلۡقِہَا یٰمُوۡسٰی ﴿۱۹﴾فَاَلۡقٰہَا فَاِذَا ہِیَ حَیَّۃٌ تَسۡعٰی﴿۲۰﴾ قَالَ خُذۡہَا وَ لَا تَخَفۡ ٝ سَنُعِیۡدُہَا سِیۡرَتَہَا الۡاُوۡلٰی ﴿۲۱﴾ وَ اضۡمُمۡ یَدَکَ اِلٰی جَنَاحِکَ تَخۡرُجۡ بَیۡضَآءَ مِنۡ غَیۡرِ سُوۡٓءٍ اٰیَۃً اُخۡرٰی ﴿ۙ۲۲﴾ لِنُرِیَکَ مِنۡ اٰیٰتِنَا الۡکُبۡرٰی ﴿ۚ۲۳﴾
And what is this in your hands, O Moses! He replied: "This is my staff. I lean on it and through it bring down leaves for my flock. And I also have other uses for it." God said: "Place it [on the ground]." At this, Moses placed it [on the ground]. So suddenly he saw that it is a serpent running about. God said: "Pick it up and fear not. We will now return it to its previous shape. And squeeze your hands [a little] towards your arms. It will come out white without any illness, as a second sign. This is because [through these signs] We are able to show them some greater signs of Our. (17-23)
اِذۡہَبۡ اِلٰی فِرۡعَوۡنَ اِنَّہٗ طَغٰی ﴿۲۴﴾قَالَ رَبِّ اشۡرَحۡ لِیۡ صَدۡرِیۡ ﴿ۙ۲۵﴾ وَ یَسِّرۡ لِیۡۤ اَمۡرِیۡ ﴿ۙ۲۶﴾ وَاحۡلُلۡ عُقۡدَۃً مِّنۡ لِّسَانِیۡ ﴿ۙ۲۷﴾یَفۡقَہُوۡا قَوۡلِیۡ ﴿۪۲۸﴾ وَ اجۡعَلۡ لِّیۡ وَزِیۡرًا مِّنۡ اَہۡلِیۡ ﴿ۙ۲۹﴾ہٰرُوۡنَ اَخِی ﴿ۙ۳۰﴾ اشۡدُدۡ بِہٖۤ اَزۡرِیۡ ﴿ۙ۳۱﴾وَ اَشۡرِکۡہُ فِیۡۤ اَمۡرِیۡ ﴿ۙ۳۲﴾ کَیۡ نُسَبِّحَکَ کَثِیۡرًا ﴿ۙ۳۳﴾ وَّ نَذۡکُرَکَ کَثِیۡرًا ﴿ؕ۳۴﴾ اِنَّکَ کُنۡتَ بِنَا بَصِیۡرًا ﴿۳۵﴾ قَالَ قَدۡ اُوۡتِیۡتَ سُؤۡلَکَ یٰمُوۡسٰی ﴿۳۶﴾
[Now] go to the Pharaoh. He has become a tyrant." Moses said: "Lord! Open my chest for me and make my task easy for me and free my tongue from its impediment so that people are able to understand what I say. And appoint a helper for me from my family – Aaron, my brother. Through him, strengthen my back and make him share my responsibility so that we are able to extol and glorify you as much as possible and spread your word far and wide. Indeed, you have been continuously watching over our affairs." God said: "Your request is accepted, O Moses!" (24-36)
وَ لَقَدۡ مَنَنَّا عَلَیۡکَ مَرَّۃً اُخۡرٰۤی ﴿ۙ۳۷﴾ اِذۡ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلٰۤی اُمِّکَ مَا یُوۡحٰۤی ﴿ۙ۳۸﴾ اَنِ اقۡذِفِیۡہِ فِی التَّابُوۡتِ فَاقۡذِفِیۡہِ فِی الۡیَمِّ فَلۡیُلۡقِہِ الۡیَمُّ بِالسَّاحِلِ یَاۡخُذۡہُ عَدُوٌّ لِّیۡ وَ عَدُوٌّ لَّہٗ ؕ وَ اَلۡقَیۡتُ عَلَیۡکَ مَحَبَّۃً مِّنِّیۡ ۬ۚ وَ لِتُصۡنَعَ عَلٰی عَیۡنِیۡ ﴿ۘ۳۹﴾ اِذۡ تَمۡشِیۡۤ اُخۡتُکَ فَتَقُوۡلُ ہَلۡ اَدُلُّکُمۡ عَلٰی مَنۡ یَّکۡفُلُہٗ ؕ فَرَجَعۡنٰکَ اِلٰۤی اُمِّکَ کَیۡ تَقَرَّ عَیۡنُہَا وَ لَا تَحۡزَنَ ۬ؕ ﴿۴۰﴾
And [recall that] We have already done a favour to you at another instance as well when We revealed to your mother what [at this time] is being revealed to you: "Put this child in a box; then place the box in the river." Then the river should cast it on the bank so that he may pick it up who is My enemy and also of this child. And We had shed a reflection of Our love on you so that he too is forced to show affection to you and so that you be brought up under My protection. At the time when your sister would go repeatedly [as a stranger]; then would say to them: "[If you say,] I can inform you of those people who can bring up this child?" In this way, We returned you to your mother so that her eyes are soothed and she does not remain sorrowful. (37-40)
وَ قَتَلۡتَ نَفۡسًا فَنَجَّیۡنٰکَ مِنَ الۡغَمِّ وَ فَتَنّٰکَ فُتُوۡنًا ۬۟ فَلَبِثۡتَ سِنِیۡنَ فِیۡۤ اَہۡلِ مَدۡیَنَ ۬ۙ ثُمَّ جِئۡتَ عَلٰی قَدَرٍ یّٰمُوۡسٰی ﴿۴۰﴾ وَ اصۡطَنَعۡتُکَ لِنَفۡسِیۡ ﴿ۚ۴۱﴾
And [remember that] you had killed a person. Then We delivered you from that sorrow as well and fully tested you. Then [because of Our grace] you stayed for many years with the people of Madyan. Then you have reached [here] at a precisely appointed time, O Moses! And [now after passing through all these phases] I have groomed you for [this special assignment] from Myself. (40-41)
اِذۡہَبۡ اَنۡتَ وَ اَخُوۡکَ بِاٰیٰتِیۡ وَ لَا تَنِیَا فِیۡ ذِکۡرِیۡ ﴿ۚ۴۲﴾ اِذۡہَبَاۤ اِلٰی فِرۡعَوۡنَ اِنَّہٗ طَغٰی ﴿ۚۖ۴۳﴾ فَقُوۡلَا لَہٗ قَوۡلًا لَّیِّنًا لَّعَلَّہٗ یَتَذَکَّرُ اَوۡ یَخۡشٰی ﴿۴۴﴾
[After that, when Moses reached Egypt, God said:] "Go you and your brother with My signs and [be careful] to not be negligent in remembering me. Go both of you to the Pharaoh. Indeed, he has become very rebellious. So, speak to him softly; he may pay heed or fear [My wrath]." (42-44)
قَالَا رَبَّنَاۤ اِنَّنَا نَخَافُ اَنۡ یَّفۡرُطَ عَلَیۡنَاۤ اَوۡ اَنۡ یَّطۡغٰی﴿۴۵﴾ قَالَ لَا تَخَافَاۤ اِنَّنِیۡ مَعَکُمَاۤ اَسۡمَعُ وَ اَرٰی﴿۴۶﴾ فَاۡتِیٰہُ فَقُوۡلَاۤ اِنَّا رَسُوۡلَا رَبِّکَفَاَرۡسِلۡ مَعَنَابَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ ۬ۙ وَ لَا تُعَذِّبۡہُمۡ ؕ قَدۡ جِئۡنٰکَ بِاٰیَۃٍ مِّنۡ رَّبِّکَ ؕ وَ السَّلٰمُ عَلٰی مَنِ اتَّبَعَ الۡہُدٰی ﴿۴۷﴾اِنَّا قَدۡ اُوۡحِیَ اِلَیۡنَاۤ اَنَّ الۡعَذَابَ عَلٰی مَنۡ کَذَّبَ وَ تَوَلّٰی ﴿۴۸﴾
Both said: "Our Lord! We fear that as soon as he hears this he will be cruel to us or his rebelliousness may increase a little further." God said: "Fear not! I am with both of you. I hear and see [everything]. So, go to him and tell him: 'We are messengers of your Lord; so let the Israelites go with us and do not harass them. We have brought to you a big sign of your Lord and [this message also that] peace is only on them who follow the guidance. It has been revealed to us that there is however torment for those who deny and turn away.'" (45-48)
قَالَ فَمَنۡ رَّبُّکُمَا یٰمُوۡسٰی ﴿۴۹﴾ قَالَ رَبُّنَا الَّذِیۡۤ اَعۡطٰی کُلَّ شَیۡءٍ خَلۡقَہٗ ثُمَّ ہَدٰی ﴿۵۰﴾ قَالَ فَمَا بَالُ الۡقُرُوۡنِ الۡاُوۡلٰی ﴿۵۱﴾ قَالَ عِلۡمُہَا عِنۡدَ رَبِّیۡ فِیۡ کِتٰبٍ ۚ لَا یَضِلُّ رَبِّیۡ وَ لَا یَنۡسَی ﴿۫۵۲﴾ الَّذِیۡ جَعَلَ لَکُمُ الۡاَرۡضَ مَہۡدًا وَّ سَلَکَ لَکُمۡ فِیۡہَا سُبُلًا وَّ اَنۡزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً ؕ فَاَخۡرَجۡنَا بِہٖۤ اَزۡوَاجًا مِّنۡ نَّبَاتٍ شَتّٰی ﴿۵۳﴾ کُلُوۡا وَ ارۡعَوۡا اَنۡعَامَکُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّاُولِی النُّہٰی ﴿۵۴﴾ مِنۡہَا خَلَقۡنٰکُمۡ وَ فِیۡہَا نُعِیۡدُکُمۡ وَ مِنۡہَا نُخۡرِجُکُمۡ تَارَۃً اُخۡرٰی ﴿۵۵﴾
[They came over and communicated this message to him. At this,] the Pharaoh said: "So, who is the Lord of both of you, O Moses?!" He replied: "Our Lord is one who has given every thing its physical existence; then gave guidance." The Pharaoh said: "Then what is situation of the previous nations?" Moses replied: "Their knowledge is secure with my Lord in a register. My Lord neither errs nor forgets," – He Who has made the earth a cradle for you and made in it pathways for you and sent down water from the heavens; then from it We produced various types of diverse plants. Eat and feed your cattle. Indeed, there are great signs in this for those who have intellect. [If you understand,then the fact is that] from this very earth We created you, to it We will return you and from it bring you out again. (49-55)
وَ لَقَدۡ اَرَیۡنٰہُ اٰیٰتِنَا کُلَّہَا فَکَذَّبَ وَ اَبٰی ﴿۵۶﴾ قَالَ اَجِئۡتَنَا لِتُخۡرِجَنَا مِنۡ اَرۡضِنَا بِسِحۡرِکَ یٰمُوۡسٰی ﴿۵۷﴾ فَلَنَاۡتِیَنَّکَ بِسِحۡرٍ مِّثۡلِہٖ فَاجۡعَلۡ بَیۡنَنَا وَ بَیۡنَکَ مَوۡعِدًا لَّا نُخۡلِفُہٗ نَحۡنُ وَ لَاۤ اَنۡتَ مَکَانًا سُوًی ﴿۵۸﴾
We showed the Pharaoh all Our signs. In spite of this, he kept on denying and did not listen. He said: "Moses! Have you come to us to turn us out from our land by a spell of your magic? If this is the case, we too will bring a similar magic against you. So, appoint a promise between us and yourself, some place in the middle. Neither will we breach it nor should you." (56-58)
. Here the Prophet (sws) has been assured in a very affectionate way: he should not fret and worry about the faith of others; God does not expect him to make his addressees believe at all cost; if they do not recognize his status and importance, he should not take great pains to convince them; his Lord has not imposed this responsibility on him.
. Ie., a reminder of the facts that are innately found in human beings – of which arguments are found in the treasures of their intellect and preserved in their history.
. It is evident from this that the prophets of God come to remind and counsel their addressees. They are not sent to force people to accept their message. Their only responsibility is to remind people of the lessons they have forgotten. It is then left to the people whether they are reminded by them and achieve success or become the fuel of Hell by rejecting them.
. The exaltedness of the Qur'an is explained here: it is not the request of a petitioner; it is in fact sent down by the creator of the heavens and the earth and it is incumbent for its addressees to follow it. It was a requisite of God's mercy to arrange for the guidance of people. Hence He revealed this Book. He is not unconcerned about the affairs of this universe after creating it; He is governing it and ruling over His creatures. Through this Book, He has informed people of His directives and laws. Now if they have not recognized His status and significance and keep rejecting Him in this way, the Prophet (sws) is not responsible for this. They themselves will bear its consequence. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
There is an indication in this for the Prophet (sws) that he should present this Book before people the way the words of the creator and master of the heavens and the earth should be presented. Neither should he console and reassure them nor force or pressurize them. If they accept it, they themselves are the beneficiaries and not God. It is not a meek request; it is in fact a scripture of guidance for people. Those who reject it will face the consequence and not harm the Prophet (sws) in any way. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 16)
. This part of the sentence is suppressed in accordance with linguistic principles of Arabic.
. Here the Prophet (sws) is assured through another angle. The implication is that whether it is the questions and worries found in the hidden parts of the heart and mind or the difficulties and desires expressed in his supplications and pleadings, God is aware of everything. The Prophet (sws) should rest assured that God will resolve all his difficulties and he will not be deprived of His guidance at any stage of his preaching.
. This is a directive to completely consign himself to God. He is the only being worthy of worship. In His presence, the Prophet (sws) does not need to worry.
. In the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi, this part of the verse is a treasure of assurance and comfort for the Prophet (sws). He writes:
... The assurance sounded to the Prophet in the previous verses is given in the light of the consequences of His exaltedness, His mercy, His sovereignty, His oneness and His knowledge. Yet these are not the only attributes of God. He possesses all good and lofty attributes. So, obviously the consequences of these attributes will manifest themselves for the Prophet (sws) in accordance with his circumstances. In other words, glad tidings are given to the Prophet (sws) in this part of the verse that all good attributes belong to God and they protect everyone. Whichever among them he seeks support of, he will gain its blessings and benefits. He does not need any support except them. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 16)
. In the previous verses, the Prophet (sws) was sounded assurance with reference to God's attributes. Now he is urged to understand some more facts about this assurance from the account of Moses (sws). The implication is that whatever he has been informed of, he can also see in the life and preaching mission of a celebrated prophet of God, who was similarly assigned with a Book and shari'ah to decide the fate of his addressees in this world.
. This incident happened when, after spending some years in Madyan, Moses (sws) was going to Egypt with his wife. At another place, it has been mentioned in the Qur'an that an Egyptian had been killed by Moses (sws) and fearing that he would not be treated with justice he ran away from Egypt and sought refuge in Madyan. There he got married and after fulfilling his period of stay with his father-in-law it then become possible for him to return to his people.
. The actual words are: آنَسْتَ. It is evident from this that he had not seen a big fire burning but only some sort of a flame which shimmered and then disappeared, and perhaps no one else saw it.
. At another place, it is mentioned that he wanted to bring the ember in order to provide warmth to his family for the duration of the night. It is evident from this that it was winter time and when he reached valley of Tur with his wife and children night had fallen and it had become difficult for him to find his way.
. It is evident from this that taking off shoes is an etiquette to come into the presence of God. Hence in general circumstances this should be observed.
. This is the name of the land which is found at the base of mount Sinai. It is called sacred because here Moses (sws) was shown God's radiant manifestation and was also addressed by Him. When the Almighty specifies a land or a part of it for Himself, it becomes sacred. For precisely this reason, the Qur'an (5:21) has called it الأَرْضُ الْمُقَدَّسًةُ.
. This is because the status on which he has been assigned is a great responsibility and he has to fulfill it come what may.
. This is the first teaching lesson given to every prophet because the whole religion is based on this belief.
. After belief in monotheism, this is the first directive of religion: when there is no deity except God, only He should be worshipped. About worship I have explained at various instances in this book that the essence of worship ('ibadah) is humility and servility. The first manifestation of this essence is serving the Almighty. Since a person also has a practical life in this world, this servitude relates to this practical life as well and in this manner becomes inclusive of obedience. The manifestations in the first case are glorifying Him and singing His praises, praying to him and supplicating before Him, kneeling and prostrating before Him, making vows (to please Him), offering animal sacrifice and doing i'tikaf. In the second case, a person, after regarding someone as an independent law giver and ruler, considers that he has the authority to give directives of what is forbidden and what is not and what is allowed and what is not and submits before all his directives. It is the verdict of God Almighty that none of the above mentioned things can be reserved for someone other than Him.
. The status monotheism occupies in beliefs is exactly the same as the prayer occupies in deeds. It is evident from the Qur'anthat the prayer is the foremost consequence of the comprehension of God which one gets after being reminded by His revelations and, as a result of this comprehension, of the emotions of love and gratitude that appear for the Almighty in a person or should appear in him.
. Besides substantiating the Day of Judgement, this stress on its certainty is because people regard it to be far-fetched. They are at loss to understand how they will be raised to life again once they die and become dust.
. These words occur in the verse as a parenthetical sentence. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
... This is a very subtle parenthetical sentence. It is not just said: "I will hide the Day of Judgement." The words used are: "I will strive to keep it hidden." Those who have an appreciation of literary Arabic know that the word أكَادُ has incorporated the meaning that even though God has concealed the Day of Judgement and will continue to do so, but it is very eager to get exposed. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 33)
. The purpose of the Day of Judgement is stated here: it is certain to come so that people are rewarded for their deeds. If this is not done, it will mean that this world is a place of amusement and nothing more. It is essential that each person be judged according to his deeds and that someone's intercession, recommendation and status not have any say in God's verdicts. The word تَسْعَی in the verse points to this fact.
. The pronoun هَا occurs in actual. It apparently seems that its antecedent should be the Day of Judgement but everyone having a flair for language knows that the verb يَصُدَّنَّ is not at all appropriate for it. Hence, this is a clear indication that its antecedent is the prayer that is mentioned earlier. Moreover, the traits mentioned of the one who stops have a mutually inclusive relation with stopping people from the prayer. In the presence of indications, disparity in pronouns is not a defect of a discourse. On the contrary, if one deliberates, it creates the beauty of brevity in it. It is a misfortune of the Jews that they wasted the prayer and also forgot the Hereafter even though their prophet had been taught these two things the foremost.
. The actual word is: يَمِيْن. It also means "a hand" irrespective of being right or left. Here concomitant indications show that it is used in this meaning.
. This question is not an actual inquiry; it is meant to express affection and liking so that Moses (sws) directs all his attention to the staff from which amazing miracles are about to emanate.
. Leaves are brought down from trees upon the flock. The words عَلَی غَنَمِی occur because of this meaning.
. Moses (sws) could have answered the query by just saying that this is his staff. But he understood from the style of the question that this was an instance of God's affection. So he gave a long answer to show his own elation. In the words of Amin Ahsan Islahi if the speaker is beloved and sought after, then the desire to have a long conversation with him is but natural.
. This addition here clearly shows that the purpose is to refute the Bible in which the whiteness of the arm is regarded to be because of the ailment of leprosy.
. Ie., as a sign in the way the staff will turn into a serpent. Obviously, there can be no doubt of any ailment in it because the whiteness of the arm was not permanent and only manifested itself when as a sign the arm was inserted into the armpit and then pulled out.
. This is a reference to bigger signs which emerged from these two signs. Miracles are generally given to prophets of God in their final phase of preaching in which the truth is conclusively conveyed to their addressees. However, they were given to Moses (sws) in the very first phase because he was being assigned as a messenger to a tyrranical and despotic ruler, who would not have easily become ready to hear him. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
... At the very onset, the Almighty gave Moses (sws) the weapon of two miracles through the help of which he remained secure from every onslaught of his enemies and, as is evident from succeeding verses, that as soon as he came to the Pharaoh he presented these miracles before him. The purpose was to caution him that if he indulged in some foul play, Moses (sws) had not come to him empty handed: he had a staff which could smash all conceit and arrogance to pieces. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 36)
. Copts were the real inhabitants of Egypt. Instead of being sent to them, Moses (sws) was directed to go to the Pharaoh because in the system of those times unless the mind and heart of the king was conquered, it was not possible to preach to the masses.
. Here the Pharaoh's tyranny is only alluded to. However, at other instances, the Qur'an has detailed that the Pharaoh had become supreme God by regarding himself to be the manifestation of the sun God. Such was the extent of his oppression and cruelty on God's servants that the male offspring of the Israelites were put to death and female ones kept alive and used as maids. Moses (sws) was aware of all these things. In fact, he was leading a life of exile precisely for fear of oppression. For this reason, the Qur'an has just made a brief reference here.
. This is a supplication of Moses (sws) at this instance. It is unmatched and unique in the annals of prophetic history. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
... Every word of this supplication shows how heavy Moses (sws) regarded this burden to be and how earnestly he pleaded before God to help him in fulfilling its responsibilities. Leaders who are slaves of worldly status live and die in their infatuation for leadership. Yet the prophets of God are devoid of any such desire. When God picks them for leadership, they tremble when they imagine its responsibilities and pray to God that if He has burdened them with this responsibility, He should provide them with the strength to bear it and help them at every step. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 37)
. This is a request from Moses (sws) to make him overcome any hesitation or doubt which any conscientous person is afflicted with when he is given such a huge responsibility. It is only God's grace which can dispel this apprehension.
. The first request was to remove any apprehension of the heart and mind. Now, this request is for favourable circumstances, easy sailing and success in the objective at hand.
. In those times, the most effective means to communicate one's messagewas oratory. It is explained at another instance in the Qur'an that Moses (sws) was not an eloquent orator. He thus requested to be blessed with articulate speech in order to fulfill the responsibility imposed on him; this would render his message the effectiveness needed to finds its roots in the hearts and minds of people. Deliberation shows that he made this request with great humility. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
... Moses (sws) never requested God to make him a magical speaker who conquers the hearts of people; on the other hand, he very humbly requested God to bless him with fluent speech so that people were able to understand. This prayer is not necessarily from a person who suffers from stammering [as has been generally understood by people]. Even a very articulate speaker prays and should pray for this ability. At times, thoughts arise in such a tumultuous way in the heart of a very eloquent person that he finds himself at a loss to express them orally or in written form. Moses (sws) was not a person who merely voiced a slogan like common people; he wanted to teach and explain the facts and secrets of religion and that too in front of people who were not only vehemently denying him but were also after his life. Moreover, Moses (sws) did not want to do his job in a perfunctory way; his desire was to vanquish the hearts of his adversaries. A change of heart was not expected from them; so he requested his Lord to bless him with the prowess and expression to make them understand his message. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 40)
. It is specified at aother instances in the Qur'an that this request was also made to reinforce him with the strength which he asked for earlier. It is evident from Jewish traditions that Aaron (sws) was very famous as a powerful speaker. Thus Moses (sws) prayed to God to make him his helper since he had the wherewithal needed to fulfil the objective at hand. It is evident from this that Moses (sws) regarded his brother to be fully capable for this responsibility as far as character and conduct were concerned.
. He did not merely want a helper. He wanted someone who would share his responsibility of propethood so that like him he too is directly guided and protected by God and discharges his responsibility as a prophet regarding himself to be accountable for it. This was an extra-ordinary request. It is not known if any prophet before him was made the helper of another.
. The implication is that through their knowledge and deeds, preaching and warning they are able to remember and glorify God day and night at every place, public or private. This is because it is through this that they will express their faith and fulfill their obligation of propethood. Two words are used in the verse for this: تسبيح (tasbih: to glorify) and ذكر (dhikr: to remember). Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has explained them. He writes:
... The element of absolving God of all evil attributes is dominant in the word تسبيح while that of affirming positive attributes in Him prevails in the word ذكر. Both are essential to establish one's relationship with the creator on a sound footing. Things which are against the majesty of God, His attributes and liking should be negated and things which are in harmony with His majesty, attributes and directives should be affirmed and expressed. Both these things come together to constitute the belief and character of a believer. Moreoever, negation has priority over affirmation. Unless a person declares to rebel against all those who false deities, he cannot be faithful to God. Before saying إلاَّ اللّه it is essential to utter: لاَ إلَهَ. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 41)
. Here Moses (sws) has presented the graciousness and magnanimity of his Lord in support of his prayer. The implication is that he and his brother have remained the beneficiaries of God's affection without even asking for it, and that He has always been their guardian. So, how can they now be deprived of His blessings when they are about to begin preaching His message.
. Exalted be God for His magnanimity. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
... Here the speech of Moses (sws) reflects great love and the words in which his prayer was accepted also show great splendour. As soon as his prayer ended, he was given glad tidings of its acceptance. In other words, every thing was accepted in the blink of an eye without any hesitation and without any exception.Obviously, included in this acceptance is also the prayer of Moses (sws) which he made to increase his power of speech. He was blessed with this power and Aaron (sws) was made his helper. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 41)
.Obviously, the nature of this revelation would have been that God instilled an idea in her heart and she also became satisfied that it was divinely inspired, otherwise taking such a step is not at all easy for a mother. Even after this assurance, one cannot imagine how she mustered the courage and nerve to consign her dearest possession to the waves.
.Moses' (sws) mother must have informed him of this incident but the divine help and sanction it had was now being brought to his notice through divine revelation.
.This directive was given because the Pharaoh had ordered that all male offspring should be put to death, as is specified elsewhere in the Qur'an (28:4). The purpose to remind him of this incident was to dispel his worry: he should go to the Pharaoh without any hesitation and rest assured that the God Who had saved him at that time will protect him now as well. He should know that God was with him and hence he should not fear taking this initiative.
.Ie., on the one hand, his mother was inspired by the aforementioned idea and on the other, the river was given this directive.
.This reference was given because God was now going to have Moses (sws) brought up through this very enemy. It is thus evident both from the Qur'an and the Bible that precisely this is what happened: The Pharaoh and his wife while strolling along the banks of Nile spotted that box and such compassion arose in them that they picked it up in spite of the fact that they thought that the child belonged to the Israelites and had been placed in the river and consigned to fate.
.This is the co-ordinated part of the causative sentence, which is suppressed in the text. The implication is that every child is charming in any case but God bestowed a further favour on Moses (sws) to make him look even more likeable. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
... Who can imagine the cuteness of a child who has been blessed with charm from God. When such an adorable and innocent looking child is seen all alone in a cane basket meandering in the waves of a river, who will not tremble at this sight? The Pharaoh was only the Pharaoh! Not a stone! (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 44)
.Ie., the reflection of love that was cast on him will become his protection and an enemy like the Pharaoh will be compelled to show affection to him. The words لِتُصْنَعَ عَلَی عَيْنِيِ of the verse express this protection and custody.
.Indefinite tenses are used in the verse and before each of them an incomplete verb is suppressed. The word "repeatedly" has been incorporated in the translation because of this.
.Here the incident has been narrated with brevity. In verses 7-13 of Surah al-Qasas this scheme of the Almighty to return Moses (sws) to her mother after he was cast in the river is stated in detail. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
... When the Pharaoh's wife saw the child, she told the Pharaoh that the boy is adorable and that he should not have him killed; he will soothe the eyes of both and they can adopt him and gain benefit. On the other hand, though Moses' (sws) mother had consigned the boy to the sea at the intimation of the Almighty but grief and worry were killing her. She asked Moses' (sws) sister to keep an eye on the box. So she kept track of it secretly. Ultimately, she came to know that it had reached near the palace of the Pharaoh and there the waves have expelled it on the shore. She reached the palace and saw that a wet nurse was trying to feed him but he was not willing to put his mouth to her breasts. She then gave a suggestion to the Pharaoh's wife that she can inform them of a household who will fully take care of the child and become affable with him. Since the Pharaoh and his wife were already worried on Moses (sws) not drinking milk, the suggestion was accepted and in this manner Moses (sws) returned to his mother's lap. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 44)
Since the Pharaoh and his wife were already worried on Moses (sws) not drinking milk, the suggestion was accepted and in this manner Moses (sws) returned to his mother's lap. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 44)
.It is mentioned in Surah al-Qasas that this incident occured when Moses (sws) had matured into a young man and at various times would go to the city from the Pharaoh's palace to see the situation of his people. When one day he entered the city, he saw that a Copt and an Israelite were fighting with one another. The Israelite pleaded to Moses (sws) for help. When Moses (sws) came to his help, the Copt started to quarrel with him. At this, Moses (sws) threw a punch at him which turned out to be fatal and he died on the spot.
.Though the killing was unintentional, Moses (sws) was a very soft-hearted person. He was overcome with grief and thought that he may be held accountable by God for this accident. The thought also crossed his mind that the person whom he had helped by regarding him to be oppressed might himself be the oppressor. What made him further sorrowful was that he did not expect any justice from the people of the Pharaoh and that they would regard it to be an act of intentional murder. Thus it is mentioned in Surah al-Qasas that he repeatedly repented until God forgave him and he came out of his state of grief.
.Ie., the Almighty made him pass through all kinds of trials so that he could become fully worthy of the responsibility he was to be chosen for.
.Ie., he was given refuge there, he was able to raise a family there and in spite of being regarded as a criminal by the Pharaoh and his people, he was secure from their stalking.
.Ie., reached there exactly in accordance with God's scheme and the plan prescribed by Him.
.The implication is that after making him pass through so many gruesome trials, the Almighty has made him more resolute and strong for a special task. It is for this reason that he has been made to pass all these stages.
.After sounding assurance to Moses (sws), the directive given in the Sinai desert is repeated again. It is thus said that both of them should go and warn the Pharaoh and show no negligence in this task – neither in remembering God nor in reminding others of His remembrance.
.Prophets of God always presented their message in this manner. It is empasized here. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
... This directive was not given merely because then Moses (sws) was not going to the Pharaoh as a helpless Israelite but as an envoy of God and he also had the staff in his hand, but because softness is the nature of every preaching effort. Prophets of God are sent to educate and reform people; hence their preaching and warning has the element of the affection of a teacher and the sympathy of a well-wisher. It is not known about any prophet imposing himself on people. Even in the toughest of circumstances their style of address and manner of response is very soft, effective and sympathetic. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 53)
.Ie., awake from his slumber of indifference and if this is not the case the fear of God's punishment jolts him and he gets ready to attentively hear and listen.
.Ie., before hearing and listening, he may attack them or as soon as he hears them, he becomes angry and unleashes even more oppression on the Israelites. The preposition عَلَی is used after يَفْرُطَ. This incorporates the meaning of "launching a hasty onslaught against someone," in the expression. Similar is the case with اَنۡ یَّطۡغٰی. Since the words إنَّهُ طَغَی are already mentioned earlier, it now does not merely refer to rebelliousness. The translation keeps all these aspects into account.
.It has been very rightly pointed out by Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi that the detail concealed in this brevity and the majesty and splendour, protection and custody found in the words "I hear and see" need no words for expression.
.The actual word used is: رَسُوْل. It is used for a higher cadre than a prophet and also as a general word for envoys of God. Concomitant indications show that here it is used in this latter meaning.
.This demand to take the Israelites with him was not from, God forbid, a nationalist leader to liberate his nation from slavery. It was made to bring forth the scheme of the Almighty according to which the progeny of Abraham (sws) was chosen for global preaching and conclusive communication of the truth. For the materialization of this scheme it was essential that they be made to inhabit a certain area chosen as the centre for their preaching of the truth. It is evident from the Book of Genesis that Moses (sws) did not fully explain this scheme to the Pharaph and his courtiers; he only said that he wanted to take them to the desert for three days to offer the ritual of animal sacrifice. He told them that the reason for this was that if what was meant to be sacrificed was sacrificed in Egypt, then their people would stone them to death.
.This is a very effective way of preaching and one can feel both warning and well-wishing concealed in it.
.The aspects of subtle expression that are found in this verse are explained by Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi in the following words:
Firstly, Moses (sws) and Aaron (sws) did not forcefully impose any punishment from themselves on the Pharaoh the way common leaders do. They only informed him of the divine revelation they had received from God that those who reject and turn away are visited by God's torment. Obviously, they adopted this method not to give the Pharaoh any pretext of anger from their own selves.
Secondly, they did not address the Pharaoh and say that if he denied and turned away, then he would be struck by a torment. On the contrary, they used general words and said that he who did that would meet a certain fate. They adopted this style so that what was meant to be communicated to the Pharaoh reached his ears and his ego was also not hurt.
Thirdly, the objects of both verbs كَذَّبَ and تَوَلَّی are suppressed. It was not said that those who rejected their prophethood and turned away from the guidance brought by them would be visited by a torment. This is because all this was understood and by expressing it would have again been a blow to his ego. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 55)
.This question expresses sarcasm and humiliation. The mental background in which it was posed has been explained by the Qur'an at other instances. The implication of the Pharaoh was that because the whole of Egypt regarded him to be Lord since he was the manifestation of the sun god, who was the Lord who had sent Moses (sws) and Aaron (sws) as His messengers? Before this he had not heard from anyone of a Lord who interfered in his kingdom and asked him to let the Israelites to go with him. If there was a creator of the heavens and the earth, let him be, for he was the Lord and God of the people of this land.
.This is a very brief answer but carries in it a world of facts and a treasure of wisdom. Through this response, Moses (sws) has tried to make evident to the Pharaoh in a very eloquent way who has the right to be called Lord. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
... The detail found in this brevity is that everything has a specific form and structure with regard to its purpose of existence and also possesses guidance from its instincts to fulfil this purpose. To fulfil the purpose for which a honey bee has been created, the Almighty has placed all the necessary abilities and powers in its tiny form. Moreover, He also guided its instinct regarding the usage of these abilities and gather honey for itself. Same is the case with the smallest and the biggest object of this universe. An ant, an insect, a spider, a goat, a lion all have been given a specific physical form by God as well as guidance to their instincts in accordance with their needs. All of them have been guided by God regarding the nature of their sustenance and the way to obtain it, the way they should procreate, the manner in which they should protect their species, the elements they should protect themselves from, the things they should adopt and the role they sould play in collectively serving this universe.
Who has inspired the nightingale to chant, the parrots to sing and the cuckoo to chirp?Obviously, their creator. So that creator is their Lord and of everyone.
The blessings of God are not merely confined to living beings. The way the plants and flowers of the orchards blossom forth, the manner in which violets, irises, roses, cypress and pine trees bloom, the amazing sight of apples, pomegranates and grapes – who has given them such form and shape? Who can claim to have created even one of these things or say that he has given the apple its distinctive taste and acacia trees their distinctive features. Who creates individual colours and odours, separate boons and benefits of every plant of an orchard, every type of grass of a piece of land and and every bush of a forest? Whoever has, is surely the Lord and not every idiot who wears a crown and claims to have a share in the sovereignty of God.
Not only the earth, we can take a look at the sky. Who has created the sun, the moon, the galaxies, the rainbows, the sky, the clouds and the air and who has guided them to discharge their duties? It is the Lord surely. It is easy to become an avatar of the sun but who can make the sun appear a minute before its scheduled time or to disappear a minute after its appointed time?
Human beings are the best of God's creation on this earth. They have been given the best form and also been blessed with very great abilities. Yet neither has anyone a share in its creation nor the abilities he has. It is God Who has blessed him with hands, feet, nose, ears and eyes as well as instinct, intellect and cognizance. It is because of these abilities that it is easy for him to equally access the land, sea and mountains. People sail across the sea and fly overhead. Not only can they access the farthest areas and nooks and corners of the earth but also the moon and planets like Mars. Human beings control electricity and harness the atom. In spite of all this, they should not be in the slightest doubt that all this is a product of their own potential and ability. A person who is under this misconception is a fool. All these marvels are the result of God-given intellect. It is as a result of this that human beings have been able to discover some physical laws and land on the moon and Mars. If they are able to discover some laws because of the intellect given to them by God and are able to reach new heights as a result, they should not become so arrogant as to challenge God and His kingdom. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 56)
.Ie., what was the fate they met? After all they were believers of the religion the Pharaoh and his people followed. These words of the Pharaoh obviously amounted to a trick in which instead of seriously contemplating the reminder sounded by Moses (sws), he wanted to change the topic and incite the emotions of the people around him. The purpose of this was that when his courtiers listened to Moses' (sws) critique on their forefathers they would definitely be enraged and as a result the Pharaoh's false impression would continue to remain on them and they would not give attention to the fact that Moses (sws) had in reality left the Pharaoh with no answer.
.The implication is that the Pharaoh should rest assured. Whatever these nations did and believed in is preserved in the record of God and he should not think that anything has been left out or not recorded properly or that God has forgotten anything. As soon as the time comes, everything will be brought forth by Him. This last statement was not uttered by Moses (sws) but the style of discourse is making it evident. In the words of Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi, this is because at times silence is much more expressive than words.
.From here onwards, the verses do not constitute the account of Moses (sws). They are direct insertions from God and in them the Quraysh of Makkah – the addressees of the surah – are addressed and the facts which Moses (sws) briefly alluded to earlier are discussed in detail. Examples of this abound in the Qur'an.
.Ie., signs that the being whose marvels of power and wisdom they see all around them is their Lord and it only befitting that He be regarded as Lord. Not only this, His thorough arrangement of providence necessitates that He bring about a day in which His perfect justice manifests itself and this is not at all difficult for Him. Thus it is this consequence that is stated in the next verse: they will be buried in the clay from which they have been created and one day raised to life from it.
.This is a reference to the signs mentioned in Surah al-A'raf. These signs are explained in detail under verse 33.
.Ie., influence people and make them their followers and rebel against the Pharaoh and his followers and turn them out of their own country. The Pharaoh said these words firstly to dispel the influence cast by the miracles worked by Moses (sws) and secondly, by regarding Moses (sws) and Aaron (sws) to be a political danger, incite his courtiers, nobles and the people of his nation to such an extent that they do not pay attention to their message.
.Ie., a place where both parties can easily gather.