وَ یَسۡـَٔلُوۡنَکَ عَنِ الۡجِبَالِ فَقُلۡ یَنۡسِفُہَا رَبِّیۡ نَسۡفًا ﴿۱۰۵﴾ۙ فَیَذَرُہَا قَاعًا صَفۡصَفًا ﴿۱۰۶﴾ۙ لَّا تَرٰی فِیۡہَا عِوَجًا وَّ لَاۤ اَمۡتًا ﴿۱۰۷﴾ؕ یَوۡمَئِذٍ یَّتَّبِعُوۡنَ الدَّاعِیَ لَا عِوَجَ لَہٗ ۚ وَ خَشَعَتِ الۡاَصۡوَاتُ لِلرَّحۡمٰنِ فَلَا تَسۡمَعُ اِلَّا ہَمۡسًا ﴿۱۰۸﴾ یَوۡمَئِذٍ لَّا تَنۡفَعُ الشَّفَاعَۃُ اِلَّا مَنۡ اَذِنَ لَہُ الرَّحۡمٰنُ وَ رَضِیَ لَہٗ قَوۡلًا ﴿۱۰۹﴾ یَعۡلَمُ مَا بَیۡنَ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ وَ مَا خَلۡفَہُمۡ وَ لَا یُحِیۡطُوۡنَ بِہٖ عِلۡمًا ﴿۱۱۰﴾ وَ عَنَتِ الۡوُجُوۡہُ لِلۡحَیِّ الۡقَیُّوۡمِ ؕ وَ قَدۡ خَابَ مَنۡ حَمَلَ ظُلۡمًا ﴿۱۱۱﴾ وَ مَنۡ یَّعۡمَلۡ مِنَ الصّٰلِحٰتِ وَ ہُوَ مُؤۡمِنٌ فَلَا یَخٰفُ ظُلۡمًا وَّ لَا ہَضۡمًا ﴿۱۱۲﴾
They ask you about the mountains [as to what will happen to them on that Day]. Say: "My Lord will scatter them away in the form of dust; then leave the earth in the form of a barren land such that you will not find in it any bend or mound." On that Day, everyone will follow the one who calls out. They will not the slightest deviate from him and all voices will be lowered before the Most Merciful God. So, you will only hear a hushed whisper. On that Day, intercession shall be of no avail except if the Merciful allows someone and approves of him to say something. [This is because] He knows whatever is in front of them and behind them and their knowledge cannot grasp Him. Everyone's faces will be bent down before that Ever-Living and Ever-Existing being. [On that Day,] humiliation is for those who will be carrying the burden of oppression. Contrary tothis, he who does righteous deeds, and with this also has faith, shall however not fear any injustice or wrong [on that Day]. (105-112)
وَکَذٰلِکَ اَنۡزَلۡنٰہُ قُرۡاٰنًا عَرَبِیًّا وَّ صَرَّفۡنَا فِیۡہِ مِنَ الۡوَعِیۡدِ لَعَلَّہُمۡ یَتَّقُوۡنَ اَوۡ یُحۡدِثُ لَہُمۡ ذِکۡرًا ﴿۱۱۳﴾ فَتَعٰلَی اللّٰہُ الۡمَلِکُ الۡحَقُّ ۚ وَ لَا تَعۡجَلۡ بِالۡقُرۡاٰنِ مِنۡ قَبۡلِ اَنۡ یُّقۡضٰۤی اِلَیۡکَ وَحۡیُہٗ ۫ وَ قُلۡ رَّبِّ زِدۡنِیۡ عِلۡمًا ﴿۱۱۴﴾
[O Prophet!] We have revealed this [reminder] in this way in the form of an Arabic Qur'an and have mentioned My warning in it in various ways so that these people remain secure from God's wrath or it may produce some thought in them. So, exalted is God, the real king. [He will reveal it in the gradual way He has prescribed for it in accordance with His wisdom.] And you should not show haste in acquiring the Qur'an before its revelation is complete and keep praying: "Lord! Increase my knowledge further." (113-114)
وَ لَقَدۡ عَہِدۡنَاۤ اِلٰۤی اٰدَمَ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ فَنَسِیَ وَ لَمۡ نَجِدۡ لَہٗ عَزۡمًا ﴿۱۱۵﴾ وَ اِذۡ قُلۡنَا لِلۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ اسۡجُدُوۡا لِاٰدَمَ فَسَجَدُوۡۤا اِلَّاۤ اِبۡلِیۡسَ ؕاَبٰی ﴿۱۱۶﴾ فَقُلۡنَا یٰۤـاٰدَمُ اِنَّ ہٰذَا عَدُوٌّ لَّکَ وَ لِزَوۡجِکَ فَلَا یُخۡرِجَنَّکُمَا مِنَ الۡجَنَّۃِ فَتَشۡقٰی ﴿۱۱۷﴾ اِنَّ لَکَ اَلَّا تَجُوۡعَ فِیۡہَا وَ لَا تَعۡرٰی ﴿۱۱۸﴾ ۙوَ اَنَّکَ لَا تَظۡمَؤُا فِیۡہَا وَ لَا تَضۡحٰی ﴿۱۱۹﴾ فَوَسۡوَسَ اِلَیۡہِ الشَّیۡطٰنُ قَالَ یٰۤـاٰدَمُ ہَلۡ اَدُلُّکَ عَلٰی شَجَرَۃِ الۡخُلۡدِ وَ مُلۡکٍ لَّا یَبۡلٰی ﴿۱۲۰﴾ فَاَکَلَا مِنۡہَا فَبَدَتۡ لَہُمَا سَوۡاٰتُہُمَا وَ طَفِقَا یَخۡصِفٰنِ عَلَیۡہِمَا مِنۡ وَّرَقِ الۡجَنَّۃِ ۫ وَ عَصٰۤی اٰدَمُ رَبَّہٗ فَغَوٰی ﴿۱۲۱﴾ ۪ۖثُمَّ اجۡتَبٰہُ رَبُّہٗ فَتَابَ عَلَیۡہِ وَ ہَدٰی ﴿۱۲۲﴾ قَالَ اہۡبِطَا مِنۡہَا جَمِیۡعًۢا بَعۡضُکُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۚ فَاِمَّا یَاۡتِیَنَّکُمۡ مِّنِّیۡ ہُدًی ۬ۙ فَمَنِ اتَّبَعَ ہُدَایَ فَلَا یَضِلُّ وَ لَا یَشۡقٰی ﴿۱۲۳﴾ وَ مَنۡ اَعۡرَضَ عَنۡ ذِکۡرِیۡ فَاِنَّلَہٗ مَعِیۡشَۃً ضَنۡکًا وَّ نَحۡشُرُہٗیَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ اَعۡمٰی ﴿۱۲۴﴾ قَالَ رَبِّ لِمَ حَشَرۡتَنِیۡۤ اَعۡمٰی وَ قَدۡ کُنۡتُ بَصِیۡرًا ﴿۱۲۵﴾ قَالَ کَذٰلِکَ اَتَتۡکَ اٰیٰتُنَا فَنَسِیۡتَہَا ۚ وَکَذٰلِکَ الۡیَوۡمَ تُنۡسٰی ﴿۱۲۶﴾ وَ کَذٰلِکَ نَجۡزِیۡ مَنۡ اَسۡرَفَ وَ لَمۡ یُؤۡمِنۡۢ بِاٰیٰتِ رَبِّہٖ ؕ وَ لَعَذَابُ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ اَشَدُّ وَ اَبۡقٰی ﴿۱۲۷﴾
[This is because the responsibility you have been sent to fulfill is burdensome.] Before this, We had imposed the responsibility of a promise on Adam. So, he forgot and We did not find him strong-willed. Recall when We had asked the angels to prostrate before Adam. So, they prostrated but Iblis did not comply. He refused. At this, We said: "Adam! He is an enemy to you and to your wife. So, this should not happen that he is able to expel you and your wife from this orchard. Then youend up deprived. Here you have the comfort of not being hungry nor do you need any clothes; neither do you feel thirsty nor does the sun bother you." But Satan tempted him. He said: "Adam! Should I inform you of a tree which has eternal life and of a kingdom which will never perish?" So, [at his temptation, Adam and Eve] both ate that tree's fruit. At this, their hidden parts became evident to them and [in order to hide them] both began covering themselves with the leaves of that orchard. In this way, Adam disobeyed his Lord and strayed from the right path. Then his Lord chose him. So, He graciously accepted his repentance and showed him the way. He said: "Both you groups get down from here, together. You will remain enemies of one another. Then if there comes to you a guidance from Me follow it because he who follows My guidance will neither go astray nor will be deprived. And he who turns away from reminder, for him is a life of trouble and on the Day of Judgement, We will raise him as a blind person. He will say: "Lord! Why did you raise me blind? I was one who had eyesight?" God will reply: "Our revelations came to you and you had similarly ignored them. Today you shall be ignored likewise." Thus will We reward those who exceeded the limits and did not profess faith in the revelations of their Lord and the torment of the Hereafter is more severe and more lasting. (115-127)
اَفَلَمۡ یَہۡدِ لَہُمۡ کَمۡ اَہۡلَکۡنَا قَبۡلَہُمۡ مِّنَ الۡقُرُوۡنِ یَمۡشُوۡنَ فِیۡ مَسٰکِنِہِمۡ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّاُولِی النُّہٰی ﴿۱۲۸﴾ وَ لَوۡ لَا کَلِمَۃٌ سَبَقَتۡ مِنۡرَّبِّکَ لَکَانَ لِزَامًا وَّ اَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّی ﴿۱۲۹﴾ ؕفَاصۡبِرۡ عَلٰی مَا یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ وَ سَبِّحۡ بِحَمۡدِ رَبِّکَ قَبۡلَ طُلُوۡعِ الشَّمۡسِ وَ قَبۡلَ غُرُوۡبِہَا ۚ وَ مِنۡ اٰنَآیِٔ الَّیۡلِ فَسَبِّحۡ وَ اَطۡرَافَ النَّہَارِ لَعَلَّکَ تَرۡضٰی ﴿۱۳۰﴾ وَ لَا تَمُدَّنَّ عَیۡنَیۡکَ اِلٰی مَا مَتَّعۡنَا بِہٖۤ اَزۡوَاجًا مِّنۡہُمۡ زَہۡرَۃَ الۡحَیٰوۃِ الدُّنۡیَا ۬ۙ لِنَفۡتِنَہُمۡ فِیۡہِ ؕ وَ رِزۡقُ رَبِّکَ خَیۡرٌ وَّ اَبۡقٰی ﴿۱۳۱﴾ وَ اۡمُرۡ اَہۡلَکَ بِالصَّلٰوۃِ وَ اصۡطَبِرۡ عَلَیۡہَا ؕ لَا نَسۡـَٔلُکَ رِزۡقًا ؕ نَحۡنُ نَرۡزُقُکَ ؕ وَ الۡعَاقِبَۃُ لِلتَّقۡوٰی ﴿۱۳۲﴾
Then were these people not able to obtain guidance from the fact that We have destroyed many nations before them whose settlements they now walk about. Indeed, there are many signs in this for those who have intellect. [O Prophet!] Had a matter not been decreed earlier by your Lord and there was not a prescribed time [of respite], then a torment would have surely visited [them because of the attitude they have adopted]. So, show patience on whatever they say and keep extolling your Lord while glorifying Him before the sun rises and before it sets and glorify him in the night times too and on the margins of the day also. This is because [as a reward for this] you are showered [with God's favours]. And do not even glance at the sources of worldly pleasures We have given some of their groups in it for their trial, and [remember that] your Lord's sustenance is better and lasting. Urge your people to the Prayer and adhere to it yourself also. We do not ask for any sustenance from you [for them so that for it you may need to look at their means and sources]. It is We Who will provide sustenance to you. [We require piety from you] and success in the end is for piety. (128-132)
وَ قَالُوۡا لَوۡ لَا یَاۡتِیۡنَا بِاٰیَۃٍ مِّنۡ رَّبِّہٖ ؕ اَوَ لَمۡ تَاۡتِہِمۡ بَیِّنَۃُ مَا فِی الصُّحُفِ الۡاُوۡلٰی ﴿۱۳۳﴾ وَ لَوۡ اَنَّـاۤ اَہۡلَکۡنٰہُمۡ بِعَذَابٍ مِّنۡ قَبۡلِہٖ لَقَالُوۡا رَبَّنَا لَوۡ لَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡتَ اِلَیۡنَا رَسُوۡلًا فَنَتَّبِعَ اٰیٰتِکَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِ اَنۡ نَّذِلَّ وَ نَخۡزٰی ﴿۱۳۴﴾ قُلۡ کُلٌّ مُّتَرَبِّصٌ فَتَرَبَّصُوۡا ۚ فَسَتَعۡلَمُوۡنَ مَنۡ اَصۡحٰبُ الصِّرَاطِ السَّوِیِّ وَ مَنِ اہۡتَدٰی ﴿۱۳۵﴾
They insist: "Why does he not bring a sign from his Lord for us?" Has not the testimony of what they have in the earlier scriptures reached them? Had We destroyed them before this through some torment, they would have said: "Lord! Why did you not send a messenger to us that we may have followed your revelations before being humiliated and disgraced?" Tell them: "Each one is waiting; so, you also wait. Then soon you will know who [is treading] the right path [and who the wrong one] and who has the reached the destination [and who has wandered astray]." (133-135)
(Translated by Dr Shehzad Saleem)
.The general view of the Arabs was that everything can be destroyed except the mountains that towered above them. A sagacious poet as Zuhayr has also said that nothing can withstand the onslaughts of time except الجبال الرواسي. This question would be posed because of this misconception and to make derisive fun.
.In actual the pronoun هاoccurs. Its antecedent is absolutely evident. This is a common style of Arabic. Such pronouns occur for the heavens and the earth at a number of places in the Qur'an.
.This is a refutation of the alleged intercession by the Arabs. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
... They claimed that the deities they worshipped were favoured and loved ones of God. These deities would take the initiative and intercede for whoever among the worshippers they wanted to and save them from God's grasp. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 92)
.Ie., when He Himself has knowledge of the past and future of people and no one can have access to this knowledge unless He allows it, on what basis will intercession be done? Will anyone intercede to increase God's information?
.Ie., even those about whom they think that they have a special status of nearness with the Almighty and on this basis can convince Him to do anything will stand with heads bent down in humility let alone the common masses. Do they know before whom? Someone who is not a silent cause of causes. He is the living God Who is governing the affairs of His universe.
.When the word ظُلْمoccurs in the Qur'an the way it has occurred here, it refers to polytheism.
.Ie., it encompasses this reminder and warning couched in the Arabic language because the language of the people for whom it has been revealed is Arabic. Thus it is God's favour that He has conclusively delivered the truth to them in their own language so that they are not able to present any excuse against the verdict that is about to be pronounced for them.
.Conclusive communication of the truth to his nation was the Prophet's (sws) obligation in accordance with the status of prophethood granted to him. It was but natural for him to have the desire to fulfil this obligation as soon as possible with flying colours. Moroever, the Quraysh too demanded that if the Qur'an was being revealed from God why was it not sent down all at once. It should not be a matter of amazement for a person who is being given a matchless Book as the Qur'an from the lord of the heavens and the earth to have the desire to receive all of it very soon. It was the Qur'an from which his heart gained strength, his soul acquired life, his intellect received guidance and his will-power was bolstered. This also made him enthusiastic to receive the whole of the Qur'an soon. This verse advises him to wait, show patience and not be hasty.
. Ie., the responsibility that after conclusive communication of the truth to his nation their fate be decided.
.It is this weakness of a human being as a result of which he exceeds limits and succumbs to sin. The implication is that the Prophet (sws) has earlier seen the result of Moses' (sws) impulsiveness. The same mistake was committed by his father Adam (sws). In order to obtain eternal life, he became impetuous. There is no doubt that a human being wants immediate results for the effort he puts in but at times he loses his way in this haste. Hence whatever amount of the Qur'an is revealed the Prophet (sws) should present it to his nation. The extent of the Qur'an that is to be revealed and its timing will proceed in accordance with the planning of God, the real king. He should not be in any haste to acquire it. If he does this, a satan or a samiri might take advantage of it and mislead his people.
.This prostration was meant to show respect and was done at God's behest. Hence there is no semblance of polytheism in it. The Almighty tested the obedience of the angels firstly to make it evident to Adam (sws) and through him to his progeny that real success does not hinge on being created from light or fire but on showing obedience to God; thus they should always submit to the truth and not succumb to their ego. Secondly, he should understand that when God has granted him this status that the angels have prostrated before him, then it is not befitting for him to make any superior creature of God as His associate and worship it. It is only God's right to be worshipped and served. If he associates anyone in this right, he does not merely show disrespect to God but to his own self as well.
.It is specified in Surah al-Kahf that Iblis was a jinn. Hence this exception evidences the fact that since with regard to the substance of creation the jinn are not far from the angels, hence when the latter were directed to prostrate the jinn too were included in it. This principle is called addressing the dominant element while subsuming the less dominant one in the address.
.This is stated because the enmity of Iblis with Adam's progeny had become evident from the challenge thrown by him after he had refused to prostrate. It is mentioned in verses 16-17 of Surah al-A'raf: "So, I will surely lie in ambush at Your straight path to waylay the progeny of Adam. Then I will pounce upon them from their front and behind, from their right and left – from all sides. And You will find most of them to be ungrateful to You."
.It was probably an orchard of this world which was regarded as a place of stay for Adam and Eve. It became evident from this trial through which both were made to pass what would be the nature of Satan's onslaught.
.These words are used with respect to their consequences. The implication is that they would be made to stay in an orchard in such moderate weather that they will not feel any heat or cold. Thus whatever is available is sufficient for their living. Nothing extra-ordinary is needed for it. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
... In cold weather, hunger and shelter are needed and in hot weather protection from the sun and water for drinking are needed. Those who are aware of classical Arabic literature know that they would refer to the pangs of hot and cold weather by mentioning these aspects. Some people are of the view that it would have been more apt to mention thirst with hunger and the heat of the sun with shelter. In our opinion, this is the result of a deprivation of literary flair for Arabic. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 98)
.These words show that the word شَجَرَة occurs in its metaphorical meaning and it refers to the tree of procreation eating the fruit of which sustains mankind in this world. Thus Iblis lured Adam and Eve by telling them that eternal life and an abiding kingdom is found in the fruit of this tree of which they have been deprived. If they eat its fruit, they will live otherwise they will soon face death. Deliberation shows that Satan was not that wrong in claiming this because it is eating the fruit of this tree which keeps man's species alive on this earth.
.This should not be any cause of amazement because the extraordinary state a person enters after he desires this fruit even today makes him forgets God guidance once he is overwhelmed by this frenzy.
.Ie., it became evident to them that these parts are not merely meant to relieve one's self from the call of nature but another thing is also concealed in them which becomes evident only after eating their fruit.
.It is evident from this that the feeling of shame and modesty with regard to sex and sexual organs is innately found in human nature. It is not an externally acquired feeling nor does it arise artificially as a result of evolution of societies. On the contrary, God has placed it within human beings at their birth. It becomes evident as soon as a person becomes aware of his or her sexuality. Thus a human being tries to hide the parts which give sexual pleasure.
.Ie., chose him for a special task. Thus God provided him with the urge to repent and even revealed the words of repentance. Verse 23 of Surah al-A'raf cites these words. It is evident from this that when Adam (sws) made this mistake, he was very ashamed immediately after it. It was this feeling that urged him to repent and as a result he became worthy of God's selection.
.The actual words are: فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ. In them the preposition عَلَی evidences the fact that they encompass the meaning of أَقبل ie., he once again received God's attention and favour.
.Ie., showed him the way for the coming phases so that he is able to counter the onslaughts of Satan.
.These words do not address Adam (sws) and Eve. They in fact address Adam and Satan as two groups. The word of emphasis جَمِيْعًاin the verse makes this very evident. At other instances, for this very reason, plurals are used.
.Iblis has declared his enmity with Adam (sws) till the Day of Judgement. The necessary consequence of this is that the progeny of Adam too – unless it is absolutely foolish and short-sighted – will consider him to be its enemy. These words express this fact.
.This is a mention of the guidance acquired through divine revelation. It is God's favour that besides innate guidance He has also blessed human beings with this guidance so that in spite of the lurings of Satan they are able to adhere to the path that leads them to God's Paradise. This guidance was given to Adam (sws) the foremost and for this purpose he was made a prophet. It is obvious from this that keeping in view his circumstances, the Almighty must have definitely given a suitable shari'ah to him as well.
.Ie., a life which will be devoid of peace of mind, contentmentand comfort.
... There is a vacuum in a human being which is only filled by faith in God. So unless he has this faith in him nothing else can give him peace of mind and assurance. Other things, however grand and attractive they may be, can provide temporary joy but they cannot give relief to the anxiety found in the heart and soul of a person. When a child cries because of hunger, it can be appeased for a little while through a nipple or a soother but it receives satisfaction only when a mother feeds it. Without this arrangement, the child remains restless. Similar is the case with a human being. He may provide himself with various means and resources but if he is deprived of faith in God he will remain dissatisfied, hesistant, fearful, unstable and in a state of spiritual crises however much he may try to hide this. The kingdom of the satisfied soul is acquired by true and firm faith. ألَا بِذِكْرِاللهِ تَطْمَئِنَّ القُلُوْبُ
A question may arise here: there are many people who lay claim to faith but they spend their lives in great worries and straitened circumstances; on the other hand, there are so many who regard faith in God to be a hoax but they lead very comfortable and happy lives. The answer to this question is that in the first place here the discussion is not with those who merely lay claim to faith but with those who have true faith. Secondly, we only see the apparent splendour of those whom we regard to be very happy even though they are indifferent to God. If we were able to creep into their hearts, we would be able to see so many dangers, doubts and fears concealed in them but they are not apparent to everyone. Only they themselves can see them or those who have the insight of faith in them. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 103)
.This blindness will be with regard to the consequences: although they will be able to see but will be deprived of the light which believers will have on that day in the radiance of which they will be able to determine their path and destination at every moment. In verse 13 of Surah al-Hadid, this is has been explained.
.This is a reference to the life of trouble mentioned earlier.
.This is an allusion to the settlements of the 'Ad and the Thamud. The Quraysh would pass by their ruins during their trade journeys.
.This expression connotes the prayer with reference to God's remembrance. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
This remembrance of God has two parts: tasbih and hamd. The former has a ring of negation in it and means "to absolve God from things which are against His majesty," while the latter has a ring of affirmation in it and means "to affirm all attributes which are in accordance with His majesty." Together this negation and affirmation firmly instil the true comprehension of God in the hearts of people and it is through this firm instilment that the relationship of a person with his Creator is established on a sound footing, which is the fountainhead of all patience and trust. If some weakness or imbalance arises in them, then a person's concept of God becomes defective and this mistake totally disrupts his thoughts and deeds. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 7, 567)
.Ie., at the times of fajr and 'asr.
.The prayers of 'isha' and tahajjud are offered at night. This is a reference to them. The repetition of the verb in the verse is meant for emphasis.
.These can only be three: the margins of morning, midday and the the evening. The prayers of ẓuhr, maghrib and 'isha' are offered at these margins of the day. This directive of the prayer has been given as a measure to acquire patience because a person can only have this trait with God's help and the sole way to receive His help is the prayer. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
... These verses were revealed in the very tough phase of the struggle between truth and evil. In them, the Prophet (sws) and through him all the ummah are informed of a measure that will make them persevere in trying circumstances and make them worthy of God's help as well. In such circumstances, it is not merely the obligatory prayers which are needed; to be diligent in the optional ones is also required. This view of ours is corroborated by the Qur'an, the sayings of the Prophet (sws) and the practice of the righteous. In general circumstances, the prayers of tahajjud and ishraq are optional prayers but in challenging and difficult circumstances, whether they are individual or collective, these prayers must be adhered to as well. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 107)
.The world of glad tidings concealed in these words can be felt by every connoisseur of language.
.The Prophet (sws) desired that the people accept faith because of his love for his preaching and because he was their well-wisher. This precisely was the reason that he directed his attention to the leaders and affluent people of the Quraysh; there was not the slightest trace of any greed in it. However, the Almighty stopped him even from this because after their evasion and arrogance they did not even deserve this in the ongoing phase of preaching.
.The actual words are: زَهْرَةَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا. They are in the accusative of state from the genetive pronoun of بِهِ in مَتَّعْنَا بِهِ. Accusatives of state from genetive pronouns are very common in eloquent Arabic. The words "some of their groups" refer to the people of Makkah and Ta'if who were nobles and possessed political authority there. By referring to their wealth and authority by the words زَهْرَةَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا, the Qur'an has pointed to the fact that whatever they have has temporary radiance only.
.Ie., God has given them these favours not because they deserved them but to try and test them whether they show gratitude for them or show arrogance before Him.
.Ie., it will remain even after death; in fact, will assume the form of an abiding and eternal kingdom beyond which no favour can be imagined.
.The actual word is: أَهْلَكَ. It refers to all those people who till that time had accepted faith. The word أَهْل in Arabic has this vastness in it. Here the eloquence found in its usage is that the status of the poor and the needy is raised such that they have become members of the Prophet's (sws) family.
.The implication is that the Prophet (sws) should not think that if these people do not accept faith then the message of God and the poor and needy who come forward to accept it will be left helpless in this land. He should not think along any of these lines. The Prophet (sws) does not require the help of these ingrates for his followers and for furthering his message. He has God with him and He is sufficient to help and strengthen him and his companions.
.Ie., to him and to those who will become his associates in his preaching mission. It is God's responsibility to provide it to them and when He assigns some task to someone, He takes upon Himself the responsibility of providing for him. Hence the Prophet should do God's work and be diligent in the prayer. The rest is God's responsibility and he should leave it to Him and not be worried about it. If he is fulfilling his duty, then in the words of Jesus (sws), he deserves his remuneration.
.Ie., piety both in knowledge and in deeds and also in the task God has assigned him.
.Since this answer is given to the question implanted in their minds by the People of the Book, hence it keeps this aspect in consideration.
.The actual words are: مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ نَذِلَّ وَ نَخْزى. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
The words ذلت and خزي are generally used synonymously but when they occur together the way they do here, there is a subtle difference between the two. In this case, ذلت refers to the humiliation which a person feels internally and خزي refers to one which is before others. Their implication was that they would neither have been disgraced before their own selves nor before others. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 5, 112)
.Ie., they also and all those who are observing this struggle.
.This style of address is meant to express extreme anger.
.Parallel clauses in this sentence are suppressed. They have been expressed in the translation.