Surahs Nazi‘at-‘Abas

Surahs Nazi‘at-‘Abas


Qur'anic Exegesis

Both these surahs form a pair with regard to the subject discussed in them. In the first surah, the attitude on which the leadership of the Quraysh has been warned is condemned in the wake of an event in the second surah in such an extremely severe tone that anger seems to exude from every verse.

In the second surah, though the Prophet (sws) is also seemingly addressed, a little deliberation shows that both surahs are directed at the arrogant leadership of the Quraysh,and it is evident from their content that, like the previous surahs, they were also revealed in Makkah in the phase of indhar-i 'am of the Prophet's mission (sws).

In the first surah, arguments on the actual theme are presented from various signs in the world around man and from history.

In the second surah, along with evidence from the world around man, the testimony of the various signs of God's power and mercy found in the creation of man is also presented.

The themes of both surahs substantiate the Day of Judgment, warn the Quraysh with reference to it and admonish them on their behaviour towards it.

In the second surah however, this admonishment has taken the form of a severe reprimand.

Explanation

Surah Nazi'at

وَالنَّازِعَاتِ غَرْقًا وَالنَّاشِطَاتِ نَشْطًا وَالسَّابِحَاتِ سَبْحًا فَالسَّابِقَاتِ سَبْقًا

In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.

These winds which tear out from the roots,[1] and these winds which blow very gently bear witness.[2] And these clouds which drift and dash [in the air],[3] then outrun each other in this dash, then conduct orders[4] bear witness[5] [that what you are being

فَالْمُدَبِّرَاتِ أَمْرًا (1-5)

يَوْمَ تَرْجُفُ الرَّاجِفَةُ تَتْبَعُهَا الرَّادِفَةُ قُلُوبٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَاجِفَةٌ أَبْصَارُهَا خَاشِعَةٌ (6-9(

يَقُولُونَ أَئِنَّا لَمَرْدُودُونَ فِي الْحَافِرَةِ أَئِذَا كُنَّا عِظَامًا نَّخِرَةً قَالُوا تِلْكَ إِذًا كَرَّةٌ

promised with is bound to happen.[6]] 1-5

The day when a shudder will take place, followed by another[7]; on that day many a heart will be trembling [with fear], their eyes[8] downcast. (6-9)

They ask: "Shall we be really restored to life like this [after death]?[9]What! When we become decayed out bones?[10] They

[خَاسِرَةٌ (10-12)

فَإِنَّمَا هِيَ زَجْرَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ فَإِذَا هُم بِالسَّاهِرَةِ (13-14)

هَلْ أتَاكَ حَدِيثُ مُوسَى إِذْ نَادَاهُ رَبُّهُ بِالْوَادِ الْمُقَدَّسِ طُوًى اذْهَبْ إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّهُ طَغَى فَقُلْ هَل لَّكَ إِلَى أَن تَزَكَّى وَأَهْدِيَكَ إِلَى رَبِّكَ فَتَخْشَى فَأَرَاهُ الْآيَةَ

said: "Then this return would be a return of great loss!"[11] (10-12)

[So, if they make fun, then should listen up:] It will be just a single shout; then all of a sudden, they will be standing in a field. (13-14)

[Now, listen:[12]] Has the account of Moses reached you? When his Lord called out[13] to him in the sacred valley of Tuwa: "Go you to the Pharaoh; he has transgressed all bounds.[14] And ask him: 'Do you desire to purify yourself?[15] Shall I show you the

الْكُبْرَى فَكَذَّبَ وَعَصَى ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَ يَسْعَى فَحَشَرَ فَنَادَى فَقَالَ أَنَا رَبُّكُمُ الْأَعْلَى فَأَخَذَهُ اللَّهُ نَكَالَ الْآخِرَةِ وَالْأُولَى إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَعِبْرَةً لِّمَن يَخْشَى (15-26)

أَأَنتُمْ أَشَدُّ خَلْقًا أَمِ السَّمَاء بَنَاهَا رَفَعَ سَمْكَهَا فَسَوَّاهَا وَأَغْطَشَ لَيْلَهَا وَأَخْرَجَ ضُحَاهَا وَالْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ دَحَاهَا أَخْرَجَ مِنْهَا مَاءهَا وَمَرْعَاهَا وَالْجِبَالَ أَرْسَاهَا مَتَاعًا لَّكُمْ وَلِأَنْعَامِكُمْ (27-33)

way to your Lord that you may become fearful of Him?'"[16] Then he [went to the Pharaoh and] showed him the great sign[17] but he denied it and did not accept it. Then he turned back to his activities and gathered people and proclaimed. He said: "It is Me who is your supreme Lord."[18] Then at last God seized him in the chastisement of the both the Herein and the Hereafter. [People!] There is surely a great lesson in this [account] for those who fear.[19] (15-26)

[20][If you do not believe, then speak up:] "Are you more difficult to create or the sky?" God has made it, raised high its dome, then perfected it, and covered its night [which was spread over it] and has uncovered its day. After that, He spread the earth,[21]brought forth from it its water and its fodder, and set firm its mountains [over it]. As a means of sustenance for you and for your cattle.[22] (27-33)

فَإِذَا جَاءتِ الطَّامَّةُ الْكُبْرَى يَوْمَ يَتَذَكَّرُ الْإِنسَانُ مَا سَعَى وَبُرِّزَتِ الْجَحِيمُ لِمَن يَرَى فَأَمَّا مَن طَغَى وَآثَرَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا فَإِنَّ الْجَحِيمَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَى وَأَمَّا مَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ وَنَهَى النَّفْسَ عَنِ الْهَوَى فَإِنَّ الْجَنَّةَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَى (34-41)

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْسَاهَا فِيمَ أَنتَ مِن ذِكْرَاهَا إِلَى رَبِّكَ مُنتَهَاهَا إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُنذِرُ مَن يَخْشَاهَا كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَهَا لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا عَشِيَّةً أَوْ ضُحَاهَا (42-46)

Thus [this is a fact that] when that great upheaval takes place [all of this will be annihilated].[23] On that day,[24] man will remember whatever he had done, and Hell will be unveiled for those who will encounter it. Then he who transgressed all bounds and preferred the life of this world,[25] Hell shall be his abode, and he who feared the standing before his Lord and restrained his soul from lowly desires, then for him Paradise shall be his abode. (34-41)

About this hour of doom, they ask you: "When will it come to port?[26] What have you to do with this? Unto your Lord rests its knowledge. You are but a warner for those who fear it. The day when they will see it, they will think that they have remained [in this world] for not more than one evening or one of its mornings. (42-46)

Surah 'Abas

عَبَسَ وَتَوَلَّى أَن جَاءهُ الْأَعْمَى وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّهُ يَزَّكَّى أَوْ يَذَّكَّرُ فَتَنفَعَهُ

In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Ever-Merciful.

Frowned and turned away because there came to his gathering that blind man.[27] Whatdo you know [O Prophet!] that he might

الذِّكْرَى (1-4)

أَمَّا مَنِ اسْتَغْنَى فَأَنتَ لَهُ تَصَدَّى وَمَا عَلَيْكَ أَلَّا يَزَّكَّى وَأَمَّا مَن جَاءكَ يَسْعَى وَهُوَ يَخْشَى فَأَنتَ عَنْهُ تَلَهَّى (5-10)

have [asked and] reformed [himself] or might have paid heed to [your] advice [when you gave it] and might have gained from this advice. (1-4)

These who show indifference, you go after them,[28] even though you are not responsible if they are not reformed; and he who comes to you with zeal[29] and also fears [God],[30] you neglect him.[31] (5-10)

كَلَّا إِنَّهَا تَذْكِرَةٌ فَمَن شَاء ذَكَرَهُ فِي صُحُفٍ مُّكَرَّمَةٍ مَّرْفُوعَةٍ مُّطَهَّرَةٍ بِأَيْدِي سَفَرَةٍ كِرَامٍ بَرَرَةٍ (11-16)

Certainly not! [There is no need to go after them]. This is but a reminder;[32] so whoever wishes, can be reminded through it [and whoever wishes can turn a deaf ear towards it][33] – in honoured[34] pages, exalted and untouched,[35] in the custody of scribes,[36] very honourable[37] and very faithful[38].[39] (11-16)

قُتِلَ الْإِنسَانُ مَا أَكْفَرَهُ مِنْ أَيِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ خَلَقَهُ فَقَدَّرَهُ ثُمَّ السَّبِيلَ يَسَّرَهُ ثُمَّ أَمَاتَهُ فَأَقْبَرَهُ ثُمَّ إِذَا شَاء أَنشَرَهُ (17-22)

Woe to man![40] How ungrateful he is![41] [Does he not know from] what God has created him?[42] From a drop of fluid. He made him and proportioned him. Then smoothed out for him the path of life.[43] He then gave him death; then He had him put in a grave.[44] Then [with no difficulty at all] He will bring him back [to Life] again whenever He desires.[45] (17-22)

كَلَّا لَمَّا يَقْضِ مَا أَمَرَهُ فَلْيَنظُرِ الْإِنسَانُ إِلَى طَعَامِهِ أَنَّا صَبَبْنَا الْمَاء صَبًّا ثُمَّ شَقَقْنَا الْأَرْضَ شَقًّا فَأَنبَتْنَا فِيهَا حَبًّا وَعِنَبًا وَقَضْبًا وَزَيْتُونًا وَنَخْلًا وَحَدَائِقَ غُلْبًا وَفَاكِهَةً وَأَبًّا مَّتَاعًا لَّكُمْ وَلِأَنْعَامِكُمْ (23-32)

فَإِذَا جَاءتِ الصَّاخَّةُ يَوْمَ يَفِرُّ الْمَرْءُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ وَأُمِّهِ وَأَبِيهِ وَصَاحِبَتِهِ وَبَنِيهِ لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مِّنْهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ شَأْنٌ يُغْنِيهِ وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ مُّسْفِرَةٌ ضَاحِكَةٌ مُّسْتَبْشِرَةٌ

Certainly not! [He shall never be left without being held accountable]. He has still not complied[46] with what his Lord had asked him.[47] [He needs evidence!] Then he should only see his food: We poured forth water in abundance, then cleaved the earth asunder, then produced grain in it, and grapes and vegetables and olives and dates and luxurious gardens and fruits and fresh herbage as means of sustenance for you and your cattle. (23-32)

So, when the deafening blast comes [ask them: Where will they go].[48] On that day, man will flee from his brother and from his mother and his father, his wife and his children. On that day, everyone from among them will be concerned with his own self. Many a face on that day willbe bright, smiling and rejoicing,

وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَلَيْهَا غَبَرَةٌ تَرْهَقُهَا قَتَرَةٌ أُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْكَفَرَةُ الْفَجَرَةُ (33-42)

and many a face on that day will be gloomy, veiled in darkness. They will be these very disbelievers, these very wrongdoers.[49] (33-42)

Karachi

23rd February 2010

(Translated from Al-Bayan by Dr Shehzad Saleem)

[1]. The actual word is: نَازِعَات. It is stated in Surah Qamar:تَنزِعُ النَّاسَ كَأَنَّهُمْ أَعْجَازُ نَخْلٍ مُنْقَعِرٍ (54: 19-20). The word نَازِعَاتis an attribute formed from the verb تَنزِعُ. The word غَرْقًا occurs in the accusative because of being a verbal noun. With regard to the meaning, this word and the word نَزْعا are almost synonymous.

[2]. The actual word is: نَاشِطَاتٌ. It is from نَشْطٌ which also means to do something gently. Here, there is a strong indication that this wordhas been used for gentle and mild winds in much the same way the wordsفَالْجَارِيَاتِ يُسْرًا (51: 3) occur in Surah Dhariyat. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

It should be kept in consideration that the apparent effects of strong and gentle winds are different; however, the grandeur and majesty of God is evident in both. Surah Dhariyat has a different context in which the gentleness of the wind is mentioned as a prelude to the mention of rain. Here the wind is mentioned independently because of which it can include both its good and bad effects. Its good effects are obvious because its blowing becomes a source of life, freshness and delight; however, both these type of effects are totally in the hands of the Almighty. If He wants, even gentle winds can become a source of destruction. Consequently, the account of Moses (sws) and the Pharaoh mentioned further ahead in the surah attests to this fact. The Almighty saved Moses (sws) and the Israelites through the impact of the strong easterly wind and it was the gentleness of this wind which destroyed the Pharaoh and his armies. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 9, 176)

[3]. The actual word is: سَابِحَات. It is from سَبْحٌ which also means "to float." Its mention with the winds shows that it is used as attribute for clouds. The two attributes mentioned subsequently begin with the particle ف which is a clear indication that these attributes are those of سَابِحَات and there is also a sequence also between these attributes.

[4]. What is mentioned in the verses by the words فَالْمُدَبِّرَاتِ أَمْراً فَالسَّابِقَاتِ سَبْقًا is very much the same as the one mentioned in Surah Dhariyat and Surah Mursalat in the very similar verses:فَالْجَارِيَاتِ يُسْرًا فَالْمُقَسِّمَاتِ أَمْرًا (51: 3-4) and (77: 4-5) فَالْفَارِقَاتِ فَرْقاً فَالْمُلْقِيَاتِ ذِكْراً respectively. In other words, what is said in Surah Dhariyat by the words فَالْمُقَسِّمَاتِ أَمْرًا is said here by the words: فَالْمُدَبِّرَاتِ أَمْرًا. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

Prior to this, the words فَالسَّابِقَاتِ سَبْقًا portray the racing of clouds which becomes evident in the skies when various groups of clouds appear and try to outrun one another. It looks as if they are competing with each other at divine bidding and each one of them is desirous of fulfilling its duty first. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 9, 177)

[5]. Ie., history through these anecdotes bears witness that at times these clouds and rains devastate a people and at others bring mercy for them.

[6]. The testimony of the winds and clouds is presented in the form of an oath. This statement forms the complement of oath and has been suppressed because of contextual indications.

[7]. This is a reference to the two jolts which, in accordance with verse 68 of Surah Zumar, will take place when the trumpet is sounded at the first and second times respectively.

[8]. Literally: "eyes of the hearts." This alludes to the fact that a person's heart is actually the true representative of his personality. The eyes merely reveal what the hearts conceal. The most covert secrets of the heart can be gauged from the eyes.

[9]. The actual words are: أَئِنَّا لَمَرْدُودُونَ فِي الْحَافِرَةِ. The word حَافِرةٌ means "footstep"; It is used in the Arabic idioms: رد في الحافرة and رد على الحافرة which mean "reversion to the original state."

[10]. This is an expression of wonder after wonder that has resulted by raising the second question after the first.

[11]. They say this as if they are very serious. Though this remark is said in jest yet it also depicts their inner self: they are not totally convinced in denying the Day of Judgement. They do feel there is substance in the arguments offered in its support, and fear the consequences of not believing in it – yet their nature is not willing to accept it.

[12]. From here onwards, arguments are drawn from the account of Moses (sws) and the Pharaoh. The arrogant Quraysh are indirectly warned and threatened of the Day of Judgement by citing this incident.

[13]. This is a reference to the incident which took place when Moses (sws) was returning from Madyan; in the valley of Tur, he had seen a fire burning and went towards it to fetch it or to find his way.

[14]. This refers to the Pharaoh's claim of being God and to the oppressive attitude he had adopted towards the Israelites.

[15]. The purpose of the message and religion brought by the prophets of God is this purification (tazkiyah). The eloquent way in which this objective is stated needs consideration. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

… A little reflection on this sentence will show that it simultaneously has great affection and also great majesty which should be the hallmark of an envoy of God. The implication is that till then his attitude showed that there was little hope of any good from him; however, the Almighty was very gracious; even then if the Pharaoh showed inclination to mend his ways, he would be guided to the right path. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 9, 180)

[16]. It is evident from this that it is only the fear of God that makes a person acquire purification and the fear of God in turn is dependent on true comprehension of Him.

[17]. Ie., the sign of the staff turning into a snake.

[18]. This is a reference to the Pharaoh's speech quoted in detail in verses 51-55 of Surah Zukhruf.

[19]. Though the statement is a general one, yet it is quite obvious that it is directed towards the Quraysh.

[20]. From here till verse 33, arguments are presented from the signs and testimonies of the world around man.

[21]. It is evident from the phases of creation mentioned in the Qur'an that first the earth assumed a structured form and then the sky was finalized. At the very end, the earth was made conducive to life. The verse under discussion refers to this phase.

[22]. The implication is that people should observe these signs and testimonies and reflect why God has made such elaborate arrangements to nourish and nurture them? Is it merely so that they can eat and drink and then pass away? Do they really think that this world is a place that has been made for the entertainment of God? They should reflect on what a strange opinion they have formed of the Creator whose wisdom is evident from every particle of this universe.

[23]. This is the answer to the conditional clause that began with إذْ. It has been suppressed because of contextual indications.

[24]. The actual words are: يَوْمَ يَتَذَكَّرُ الْإِنسَانُ. The word يَوْمَ is in the accusative from the suppressed answer just as it is in the accusative from the suppressed oath complement in verse 6.

[25]. Both these things necessitate one another. Only a person who ignores the next world and becomes a slave of this world and its wealth and riches will transgress all bounds.

[26]. The actual word is: مُرْسَى. It means "to come to port and set anchor." Concealed in this word is a kind of sarcasm: these disbelievers ask: "For long have we been hearing news that the Day of Judgement is about to come; where has it stopped on its way? When will this ship set anchor on our shores?"

[27]. It is evident from various Ahadith that the blind person referred to here is 'Abdullah ibn Umm Maktum, a paternal cousin of the Prophet's wife Khadijah (rta). One day, he had suddenly intruded into one of the Prophet's sittings (sws) with the leadership of the Quraysh. The displeasure shown by the Prophet (sws) at his arrival was probably because he thought that this might have an undesirable affect on the chiefs of the Qurayshand as such he might lose an opportunity to present his message to them.

The pitch and tone of the surah evidently indicates that the Prophet (sws) has been chided by the Almighty on showing indifference to a poor blind person, yet a deeper analysis of the surah reveals that it is the leadership of the Quraysh who have been actually chided and censured. In the initial verses, the address is indirect because a direct address would have turned an affectionate warning into an anger-laden reprimand. The matter was only that the Prophet (sws) had done much more than what he was responsible for merely to please the Almighty. It is evident from subsequent verses that he hadtaken much more upon himself with regard to the leaders of the Quraysh than was actually required of him by the Almighty. He had fulfilled his obligation towards them. He should not, then, neglect his own followers by going after those wretched people. Only those who came to his gatherings to correct themselves and receive counsel were worthy of his attention. Indifferent people should then be left to themselves. The Prophet (sws) was not responsible for them. Imam Hamid al-Din Farahi has explained the direction of this reprimand in this surahthrough an example. He writes:

An example would perhaps serve to illustrate the point further. Consider a very conscientious and vigilant shepherd who is looking for one of his well-bred sheep that has wandered off from the main herd; he sets out to find it and at every step he sees its footsteps; he is also able to hear its voice coming from some corner of the jungle; thinking that success is near, he wanders far off and becomes neglectful of his herd. When he returns, his master rebukes him for this negligence saying: "You have spent a lot of time in needlessly looking for a foolish goat; you should have left it to die in the wilderness or become prey to some hound; such a crazy animal does not deserve your attention." Who is rebuked here? The shepherd or the lost sheep? Likewise, in these verses, it seems that it is the Prophet (sws) who has been rebuked; however, actually, it is the Quraysh who have been rebuked though they have not been directly addressed. For the Prophet (sws), there are several aspects of affection and fondness concealed in this rebuke. (Hamid al-Din Farahi, Majmu'ah tafasir, 257)

[28]. The actual word is: تَصَدَّى. It is actually تَصَدَّدَ in which دis suppressed and replaced by ى.

[29]. The actual word is: يَسْعَى. Its real meaning is to do something with zeal and enthusiasm. "Running about" is not a necessary meaning found in the word though at times it embraces this meaning. Here it is used in its real meaning.

[30]. The actual words are: وَهُوَ يَخْشَى. They occur in contrast to أَمَّا مَنْ اسْتَغْنَى. In other words, on the one hand are people who show indifference, and, on the other hand, is this servant of God who comes to the Prophet (sws) as an embodiment of fearing God.

[31]. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has explained the meanings of the surah which these words reflect. He writes:

Firstly, the admonition sounded in these verses which apparently seems directed at the Prophet (sws) is actually directed at the unworthy leaders of the Qurasyh from whom there was no hope of the right attitude. Hence it became necessary that the Prophet (sws) ignore them and make the poor Muslims the real focus of his attention. For they were the ones who had embraced faith and were actually worthy of his preaching efforts.

Secondly, the Prophet (sws) has not been checked for being irresponsible in any manner; he has actually been checked for burdening himself with much more than the responsibility actually imposed on him by the Almighty. Besides other examples, one example of such an affectionate admonition can be seen in the following verse: لَعَلَّكَ بَاخِعٌ نَّفْسَكَ أَلَّا يَكُونُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ (3:26) (you will perhaps fret yourself that they are not becoming believers, (26:3)).

Thirdly, the Prophet (sws) has been guided that the real asset of Islam are the poor Muslims who are instilled with the fear of God and not the affluent whose hearts are devoid of the fear of God. Therefore, he should primarily direct his attention to them and not waste his time on those for whom there is no hope for any reformation. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 9, 200)

[32]. The actual words are: إِنَّهَا تَذْكِرَةٌ. The antecedent of the pronoun in إِنَّهَا and ذَكَرَهُ is ذِكْرَى which occurs in verse four. Since both ذِكْرَى and تَذْكِرَةٌ refer to the Qur'an, the objective of bringing the masculine pronoun is to refer to the real meaning.

[33]. This portion of the discourse is suppressed because of linguistic principles.

[34]. The actual words are: فِي صُحُفٍ مُّكَرَّمَةٍ. The inchoative (mubtada') is suppressed here; the actual construction is: فِي صُحُفٍ مُّكَرَّمَةٍهُو. The word صحف is the plural of صحيفة. When used in this plural form, at times it is also used for a book. Here it refers to the lawh-i mahfuz (the guarded tablet).

[35]. This attribute explains that the Qur'an cannot be accessed by any evil spirit or devil.

[36]. The actual word is سَفَرَة. It is the plural of سافر. Its actual meaning is one who writes and here it is used in this meaning.

[37]. Ie., so exalted status and honourable are they that there is no fear of any disloyalty from them; neither can they themselves change or alter the Qur'an nor can they give this opportunity to any devil.

[38]. This attribute explains their trustworthiness.

[39]. The purport of these verses is that the Qur'an is not a book that should be presented to people through begging and imploring them. It is a very noble and exalted discourse. Thus it should be presented in this capacity with full majesty. It is not in need of people's acceptance; on the contrary, people are in need of it. If its addressees are showing indifference to it, they are only harming themselves. The Prophet (sws) should rest assured. Soon their arrogance and haughtiness shall be severely dealt with.

[40]. Though a general word "man" has been used, it actually implies the arrogant leaders of the Quraysh who are under discussion since the previous verses. In order to express aversion to them, this indirect style of address has been adopted as if the face has been turned away from them.

[41]. Deliberation will show that this style embraces both hate and amazement.

[42]. Ie., with what arrogance is he afflicted? On what basis does he reject the Day of Judgement and how does he say that if ever the Hereafter comes he will enjoy the same benefits there as he enjoys in this world? Does he not know with what and how his Creator has created him?

[43]. This refers to that smoothing out and guidance which a person gets from God from birth through life in its ups and downs.

[44]. The actual word is: أَقْبَرَهُ. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

… Found in this word is a subtle reference to the fact that death does not destroy a person; he is given in the custody of the earth by providence. What is given in custody has to be returned one day. Consequently, when the time comes, the Almighty will take back what was consigned to the earth's custody. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 9, 207)

[45]. This is the obvious consequence to substantiate which the verses of this paragraph highlight the Almighty's measuring out, planning and guidance found in man's birth, in his nourishment and upbringing, in his childhood, adolescence and old age and in this way corroborate the immense power and profound wisdom in man's creation. The purpose is to make evident to the unfounded nature of their pride and they are also able to see a reflection of the reward and punishment the Qur'an is warning them of.

[46]. This verse occurs in parallel to the above quoted verse: قُتِلَ الْإِنْسَانُ مَا أَكْفَرَهُ (Woe to man! How ungrateful he is!). Just as after these words once wonder is expressed at the stubbornness of these stubborn, the Day of Judgement is substantiated through various phases of man's creation, here after the addressees of the surah are scolded and reprimanded by the words: كَلَّا لَمَّا يَقْضِ مَا أَمَرَهُ, the Day of Judgement is substantiated from the various signs of God's providence found around man.

[47]. Ie., innate acknowledgement found in his nature of God's providence and belief in a day of reward and punishment and of which he was reminded by prophets of God.

[48]. This is the answer to the conditional particle إذا. It was suppressed because of contextual indications.

[49]. Ie., the faces will be of these very disbelievers and wrongdoers, people who are today in front of the Prophet (sws).

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