Sūrah Mā’idah (32-63) part (2/2)

Sūrah Mā’idah (32-63) part (2/2)


Qur'ānic Exegesis

Javed Ahmad Ghāmidī

(Translated from Al-Bayān by Dr Shehzad Saleem)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَمُهَيْمِنًا عَلَيْهِ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءهُمْ عَمَّا جَاءكَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا

Then [O Prophet!] We have revealed to you this Book with truth in corroboration of the Book before it,[2] and standing as a guardian over it.[3] Therefore, give judgement among them

مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجًا وَلَوْ شَاء اللّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَـكِن لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَآ آتَاكُم فَاسْتَبِقُوا الخَيْرَاتِ إِلَى الله مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعًا فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ

according to the guidance revealed by God, and do not yield to their whims by swerving from the truth revealed to you.[4]For each of you, We have ordained a sharī'ah that is a line of action.[5] Had God pleased, He could have made of you one community: [but he did not do this] because He wanted to try you by what He has blessed you with.[6] So, try to outdo one another in good deeds.[7]

(48) وَأَنِ احْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ اللّهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءهُمْ وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَن يَفْتِنُوكَ عَن بَعْضِ مَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ إِلَيْكَ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللّهُ أَن يُصِيبَهُم بِبَعْضِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ

To God shall you all [one day] return. Then He shall disclose upon you all your differences. [This is the correct attitude as far as religion and sharī'ah are concerned] and this also that you judge them according the law revealed by God and not follow their desires and beware of them lest they turn you away from some part of the guidance which God has revealed to you.[8]Then if they show aversion, then be informed that God wants to punish them for some of their sins.[9] And in reality, a great many of

وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ لَفَاسِقُونَ (49) أَفَحُكْمَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللّهِ حُكْمًا لِّقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ (50)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاء بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاء بَعْضٍ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ (51) فَتَرَى الَّذِينَ

them are defiant. [Leaving aside the sharī'ah of God], do they then wish to be judged by pagan laws?[10]Even though who is a better judge than God for those who have conviction in [God and the Hereafter]? (48-50)

Believers, take not these Jews and Christians for your friends.[11] They are friends with one another[12] and [remember that] if anyone befriends them [in spite of this warning] then he shall be counted among them. God never guides such people who wrong their souls.[13] Thus you see those who have the

فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ يُسَارِعُونَ فِيهِمْ يَقُولُونَ نَخْشَى أَن تُصِيبَنَا دَآئِرَةٌ فَعَسَى اللّهُ أَن يَأْتِيَ بِالْفَتْحِ أَوْ أَمْرٍ مِّنْ عِندِهِ فَيُصْبِحُواْ عَلَى مَا أَسَرُّواْ فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ نَادِمِينَ (52) وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَهَـؤُلاء الَّذِينَ أَقْسَمُواْ بِاللّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ إِنَّهُمْ لَمَعَكُمْ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَأَصْبَحُواْ خَاسِرِينَ (53)

malady [of hypocrisy] in their hearts hastening to befriend them. They say: "We fear that we might be inflicted by a calamity."[14]But it may well be[15]that God grants you victory[16]or reveal something else from Himself[17]so that they may regretwhat they conceal in their hearts. [Be convinced that this is what will happen with them] and the believers [at that time] will say: "Are they the same ones who would vehemently swear oaths by God to say that they are with you." [Alas!] all their deeds came to nothing and they ended up losers.[18] (51-53)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مَن يَرْتَدَّ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِي اللّهُ بِقَوْمٍ يُحِبُّهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَهُ أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ يُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَلاَ

Believers! [This is the attitude of renouncing religion. So remember that], he among you who renounces his religion [God does not care about him] because soon God will bring forth people whom God will love and who will love God;[19] who are soft to the believers and very stern to these disbelievers;[20] they will fight for the cause of God and [in this matter] will not care about the reproaches of a reproacher.[21] Such is the grace of God. He will

يَخَافُونَ لَوْمَةَ لآئِمٍ ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاء وَاللّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ (54)

إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ (55) وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ فَإِنَّ حِزْبَ اللّهِ هُمُ

bestow it [according to His law and wisdom] to whomsoever He desires.[22]God is munificent and all-knowing. (54)

[They are not your friends]. Your real friends are God and His Messenger and those believers who with humility and submission attend diligently to the prayer and pay zakāh.[23]And

الْغَالِبُونَ (56)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواْ دِينَكُمْ هُزُوًا وَلَعِبًا مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَالْكُفَّارَ أَوْلِيَاء وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ (57) وَإِذَا نَادَيْتُمْ

those who befriend God and His Messenger and true believers [shall be dominant][24] because it is God's faction which will be dominant.[25] (55-56)

Believers! Do not befriend those from among the people who were given the Book before you who made your religion a jest and an amusement nor befriend the disbelievers and fear God if you are true believers.[26][Don't you see that] when you give the call to the prayer, they make fun of it and make it an amusement.[27]This is because they are devoid of understanding.[28]

إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ اتَّخَذُوهَا هُزُوًا وَلَعِبًا ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لاَّ يَعْقِلُونَ (58) قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ هَلْ تَنقِمُونَ مِنَّا إِلاَّ أَنْ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلُ وَأَنَّ أَكْثَرَكُمْ فَاسِقُونَ (59) قُلْ هَلْ أُنَبِّئُكُم بِشَرٍّ مِّن ذَلِكَ مَثُوبَةً عِندَ اللّهِ مَن لَّعَنَهُ اللّهُ وَغَضِبَ عَلَيْهِ وَجَعَلَ مِنْهُمُ الْقِرَدَةَ وَالْخَنَازِيرَ وَعَبَدَ الطَّاغُوتَ أُوْلَـئِكَ شَرٌّ مَّكَاناً وَأَضَلُّ عَن سَوَاء السَّبِيلِ (60)

وَإِذَا جَآؤُوكُمْ قَالُوَاْ آمَنَّا وَقَد دَّخَلُواْ بِالْكُفْرِ وَهُمْ قَدْ خَرَجُواْ بِهِ وَاللّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا

Tell them: "People of the Book! Are you venting your anger on us merely because we professed faith in God and in that which was revealed to us and in that which was revealed before us and because most of you are disobedient."[29]Tell them: "Shall I inform you of people who will have with God a fate worse [that what you contemplate for us]?"[30]They are those who God has cursed, with whom He has been angry, from among whom He made apes and swine,[31]and who worshipped Satan. Worse is their state and have strayed very far from the right path.[32](57-60)

When they come to you they say: "We have embraced faith," even though with disbelief they come and with disbelief they depart and [do not know that] God knows full well what they

كَانُواْ يَكْتُمُونَ (61) وَتَرَى كَثِيرًا مِّنْهُمْ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَأَكْلِهِمُ السُّحْتَ لَبِئْسَ مَا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ (62) لَوْلاَ يَنْهَاهُمُ الرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالأَحْبَارُ عَن قَوْلِهِمُ الإِثْمَ وَأَكْلِهِمُ السُّحْتَ لَبِئْسَ مَا كَانُواْ يَصْنَعُونَ (63)

conceal in their hearts.[33]You see that most of them are deeply involved in usurping rights, committing excesses and corruption.[34]How evil is what they are doing! Why don't their rabbis and scholars stop them from saying what is sinful and from corruption? How evil is what they are doing.[35](61-63)




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