Sūrah Nisā’ (1-14)

Sūrah Nisā’ (1-14)


Qur'ānic Exegesis

(Translated from Al-Bayān by Shehzad Saleem)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالاً كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاء وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءلُونَ بِهِ وَالأَرْحَامَ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا (1)

You people! Have fear of your Lord, who created you from a single soul and from its genre He created its spouse,[1] and through these two scattered many men and women [in the earth]. Fear God, in whose name you plead with one another,[2] and fear breaking blood relations. Indeed, God is ever-watching you.[3] (1)

وَآتُواْ الْيَتَامَى أَمْوَالَهُمْ وَلاَ تَتَبَدَّلُواْ الْخَبِيثَ بِالطَّيِّبِ وَلاَ تَأْكُلُواْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ إِلَى أَمْوَالِكُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حُوبًا كَبِيرًا (2)

وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلاَّ تُقْسِطُواْ فِي الْيَتَامَى فَانكِحُواْ مَا طَابَ لَكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاء مَثْنَى

[Fear God] and give the orphans the wealth which belongs to them. Neither exchange their valuables for your worthless ones[4] nor devour their wealth by mixing it with yours.[5] This is because it is a grievous sin.[6] (2)

And if you fear that you cannot treat orphans with justice, then you may marry the women [with them] who seem appropriate to you:[7] two two, three three, or four four of them. But if you fear that you cannot maintain justice [among them], marry one only[8]

وَثُلاَثَ وَرُبَاعَ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلاَّ تَعْدِلُواْ فَوَاحِدَةً أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ذَلِكَ أَدْنَى أَلاَّ

or any slave-girls you may own.[9] This will make it easier for you to avoid injustice. And give these women their dowers also the

تَعُولُواْ وَآتُواْ النَّسَاء صَدُقَاتِهِنَّ نِحْلَةً فَإِن طِبْنَ لَكُمْ عَن شَيْءٍ مِّنْهُ نَفْسًا فَكُلُوهُ هَنِيئًا مَّرِيئًا (3-4)

وَلاَ تُؤْتُواْ السُّفَهَاء أَمْوَالَكُمُ الَّتِي جَعَلَ اللّهُ لَكُمْ قِيَاماً وَارْزُقُوهُمْ فِيهَا وَاكْسُوهُمْ وَقُولُواْ لَهُمْ قَوْلاً مَّعْرُوفًا وَابْتَلُواْ الْيَتَامَى حَتَّىَ إِذَا بَلَغُواْ النِّكَاحَ فَإِنْ آنَسْتُم مِّنْهُمْ

way dowers are given;[10]but if [however] they, of their own good pleasure,[11]remit any part of it to you, take it and consume it gladly. (3-4)

And [if the orphan is naive and mentally immature as yet], do not give to these immature the wealth with which Allah has entrusted you for your sustenance and support;[12] but generously feed and clothe them with its proceeds,[13] and say words of kindness to them. And keep evaluating these orphans until they

رُشْدًا فَادْفَعُواْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ وَلاَ تَأْكُلُوهَا إِسْرَافًا وَبِدَارًا أَن يَكْبَرُواْ وَمَن كَانَ غَنِيًّا فَلْيَسْتَعْفِفْ وَمَن كَانَ فَقِيرًا فَلْيَأْكُلْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ فَإِذَا دَفَعْتُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فَأَشْهِدُواْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكَفَى بِاللّهِ حَسِيبًا (5-6)

لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصيِبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالأَقْرَبُونَ وَلِلنِّسَاء نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ

reach marriageable age.[14] Then if you find them capable, hand over their wealth to them, and do not devour it by squandering it and consuming it hastily fearing that they would soon come of age. And the [guardian of the orphan] who is rich should abstain [from his wealth] and he who is poor should eat [from it in lieu of his service] according to the norms [of society].[15] Then when you hand over their wealth to them, call in witnesses; And [remember that] Allah alone suffices to take account of all your actions.[16] (5-6)

Men shall also have a share in what [your] parents and kinsmen leave and women shall also have a share in what [your] parents and kinsmen leave whether this legacy be little or much, as an

وَالأَقْرَبُونَ مِمَّا قَلَّ مِنْهُ أَوْ كَثُرَ نَصِيبًا مَّفْرُوضًا وَإِذَا حَضَرَ الْقِسْمَةَ أُوْلُواْ الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينُ فَارْزُقُوهُم مِّنْهُ وَقُولُواْ لَهُمْ قَوْلاً مَّعْرُوفًا وَلْيَخْشَ الَّذِينَ لَوْ تَرَكُواْ مِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّةً ضِعَافًا خَافُواْ عَلَيْهِمْ فَلْيَتَّقُوا اللّهَ وَلْيَقُولُواْ قَوْلاً سَدِيدًا (7-9)

ascertained amount.[17] However, if relatives, orphans, or the needy who happen to come by at the distribution of an inheritance, give them too a share of it, and speak to them kind words.[18] Those people should fear that if they themselves would have left their young children after their own death, they would have been very anxious. For this reason, they should fear Allah and speak justly [in every matter]. (7-9)

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ الْيَتَامَى ظُلْمًا إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ نَارًا وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيرًا (10)

يُوصِيكُمُ اللّهُ فِي أَوْلاَدِكُمْ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأُنثَيَيْنِ فَإِن كُنَّ نِسَاء فَوْقَ اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُنَّ ثُلُثَا مَا تَرَكَ وَإِن كَانَتْ وَاحِدَةً فَلَهَا النِّصْفُ وَلأَبَوَيْهِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا

[Listen! And Beware!] Undoubtedly, those who unjustly devour the wealth of orphans swallow fire into their bellies; and soon they shall enter the burning fire of Hell. (10)

God enjoins you concerning your children that among them[19] a boy's share is equal to that of two girls'.[20] And, if there are only girls among the children and they are [two or] more than two,[21]

السُّدُسُ مِمَّا تَرَكَ إِن كَانَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُ وَلَدٌ وَوَرِثَهُ أَبَوَاهُ فَلأُمِّهِ الثُّلُثُ فَإِن

then they shall be given two-thirds of the inheritance, and, if there is only one girl, then her share ishalf.[22] But a sixthof the inheritance

كَانَ لَهُ إِخْوَةٌ فَلأُمِّهِ السُّدُسُ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِي بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ آبَآؤُكُمْ وَأَبناؤُكُمْ لاَ

[before this] should be given to each of the parents[23] if they have children,[24] and if there are no children and only the parents are the heirs, then the mother's share is a third [and the rest is for the father];[25] however, if there are brothers and sisters,[26] then the mother's share is the same one-sixth[27] [and the father's share is

تَدْرُونَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ لَكُمْ نَفْعاً فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللّهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَلِيما حَكِيمًا (11)

also the same one-sixth]. These shares should be given after the execution of any will he may have bequeathed[28] and after discharging any debts he [may] have left behind.

You know not who among your children and parents are nearest to you in benefit. [For this very reason], these shares are fixed by God. Indeed, God is Wise and All-Knowing.[29] (11)

وَلَكُمْ نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ أَزْوَاجُكُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَلَكُمُ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْنَ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِينَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ وَلَهُنَّ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ إِن لَّمْ

And to you belongs a half of what your wives leave, if they die childless. And if they have children, a quarter of what they leave shall be yours after execution of any will they may have bequeathed and after discharging any [outstanding] debts. And your wives shall inherit a quarter of what you leave, if you die

يَكُن لَّكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَلَهُنَّ الثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ تُوصُونَ

childless. And if you have children, then they shall inherit one-eighth, after execution of any will you may have bequeathed, and after discharging any of your [outstanding] debts.[30]

And [in the absence of these heirs] if a man or a woman is made an heir on account of being a relative [of the deceased][31]

and he [or she] has one brother or sister, then the brother and sister

بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ وَإِن كَانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلاَلَةً أَو امْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ فَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ فَإِن كَانُوَاْ أَكْثَرَ مِن ذَلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكَاء فِي الثُّلُثِ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصَى بِهَآ أَوْ دَيْنٍ غَيْرَ مُضَآرٍّ وَصِيَّةً مِّنَ اللّهِ وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَلِيمٌ (12)

shall receive a sixth, and if they be more than this, then they shall be sharers in one-third [and the remaining shall be given to the person who is made an heir],[32] after the execution of any will bequeathed and any [outstanding] debts – without harming anyone. This is a command from God, and God is Gracious and All-Knowing.[33] (12)

تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللّهِ وَمَن يُطِعِ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا وَذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ نَارًا خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَلَهُ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ (13-14)

These are the bounds set by God [do not exceed them], and [remember], those who obey God and His Messenger, He shall admit them in gardens beneath which streams flow. They shall remain in them forever and this is the supreme triumph. And those who defy God and His Messenger and exceed the bounds set by Him, He shall cast them into a Fire wherein they will abide forever. And for them is a humiliating punishment. (13-14)




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