Sūrah Nisā’ (15-34)

Sūrah Nisā’ (15-34)


Qur'ānic Exegesis

(Translated from Al-Bayān by Dr Shehzad Saleem)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

وَاللاَّتِي يَأْتِينَ الْفَاحِشَةَ مِن نِّسَآئِكُمْ فَاسْتَشْهِدُواْ عَلَيْهِنَّ أَرْبَعةً مِّنكُمْ فَإِن شَهِدُواْ فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ فِي الْبُيُوتِ حَتَّىَ يَتَوَفَّاهُنَّ الْمَوْتُ أَوْ يَجْعَلَ اللّهُ لَهُنَّ سَبِيلاً (15)

وَاللَّذَانَ يَأْتِيَانِهَا مِنكُمْ فَآذُوهُمَا فَإِن تَابَا وَأَصْلَحَا فَأَعْرِضُواْ عَنْهُمَا إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ

And upon those of your women who commit fornication,[1] call in as witnesses four people among yourselves to testify over them;[2] then if they testify, confine them to their homes till death overtakes them or God finds another way for them.[3](15)

And the man and woman among you who commit this sin,[4][[[

تَوَّابًا رَّحِيمًا (16)

إِنَّمَا التَّوْبَةُ عَلَى اللّهِ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السُّوَءَ بِجَهَالَةٍ ثُمَّ يَتُوبُونَ مِن قَرِيبٍ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ يَتُوبُ اللّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكَانَ اللّهُ عَلِيماً حَكِيماً وَلَيْسَتِ التَّوْبَةُ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السَّيِّئَاتِ حَتَّى إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ إِنِّي تُبْتُ الآنَ وَلاَ الَّذِينَ يَمُوتُونَ وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ أُوْلَـئِكَ أَعْتَدْنَا لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا (17-18)

punishthem both.[5]Then if they repent and mend their ways,[6]forgive them. Indeed, God is the accepter of repentance and ever-merciful. (16)

[It should, however, remain clear that] God's responsibility is to forgive only those who commit a sin while being overwhelmed with emotions[7]and then quickly repent. It is they who are forgiven by God. And God is all-knowing and wise. But He will not forgive those who sin all their lives and, when death comes to them, say: "Now I repent!" [Similarly], there is no forgiveness for those who die as disbelievers. It is for these whom We have prepared a grievous punishment.[8](17-18)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَرِثُواْ النِّسَاء كَرْهًا وَلاَ تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ لِتَذْهَبُواْ بِبَعْضِ مَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ إِلاَّ أَن يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ وَعَاشِرُوهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ فَإِن كَرِهْتُمُوهُنَّ فَعَسَى أَن تَكْرَهُواْ شَيْئًا وَيَجْعَلَ اللّهُ فِيهِ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا (19)

Believers! It is unlawful for you to inherit women against their will,[9]nor is it lawful to pester them [after marrying them] to take back somepart of what you have given them – except where they have been guilty of open lewdness.[10]And deal with

them befittingly.[11]Because if you dislike them, it may be that you

وَإِنْ أَرَدتُّمُ اسْتِبْدَالَ زَوْجٍ مَّكَانَ زَوْجٍ وَآتَيْتُمْ إِحْدَاهُنَّ قِنطَارًا فَلاَ تَأْخُذُواْ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا أَتَأْخُذُونَهُ بُهْتَاناً وَإِثْماً مُّبِيناً وَكَيْفَ تَأْخُذُونَهُ وَقَدْ أَفْضَى بَعْضُكُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ

dislike a thing and Allah brings about through it a great deal of good.[12](19)

And if you decide to take one wife in place of another, even if you had given one of them a whole treasure of wealth take not the least bit of it back:[13]Would you take it by slander and by usurping rights?[14]And how can you take it when you have lain with each

وَأَخَذْنَ مِنكُم مِّيثَاقًا غَلِيظًا (20-21)

other[15]and they have taken from you a solemn covenant?[16](20-21)

وَلاَ تَنكِحُواْ مَا نَكَحَ آبَاؤُكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاء إِلاَّ مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَمَقْتًا وَسَاء سَبِيلاً (22)

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ أُمَّهَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُمْ وَعَمَّاتُكُمْ وَخَالاَتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُ الأَخِ

And you shall not marry the women whom your fathers married except what has been done in the past.[17]Indeed, this is open lewdness, a very detestable thing and an abominable practice.[18](22)

Prohibited to you are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your maternal and paternal aunts, the daughters of your brothers and sisters;[19]also your mothers who have suckled you and your sisters through fosterage.[20][Similarly], the mothers of

وَبَنَاتُ الأُخْتِ وَأُمَّهَاتُكُمُ اللاَّتِي أَرْضَعْنَكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُم مِّنَ الرَّضَاعَةِ وَأُمَّهَاتُ نِسَآئِكُمْ وَرَبَائِبُكُمُ اللاَّتِي فِي حُجُورِكُم مِّن نِّسَآئِكُمُ اللاَّتِي دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ فَإِن لَّمْ

your wives[21][are prohibited] and your step-daughters raised under you[22]born of your wives with whom you have lain – no

تَكُونُواْ دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ فَلاَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَحَلاَئِلُ أَبْنَائِكُمُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ أَصْلاَبِكُمْ وَأَن تَجْمَعُواْ بَيْنَ الأُخْتَيْنِ إَلاَّ مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا (23)

offence if you have not lain with their mothers, and also the wives of your real sons,[23]and also prohibited are two sisters in wedlock at the same time,[24]except for what has already happened. God

وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ النِّسَاء إِلاَّ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ كِتَابَ اللّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأُحِلَّ لَكُم مَّا وَرَاء ذَلِكُمْ أَن تَبْتَغُواْ بِأَمْوَالِكُم مُّحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُم بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ

indeed is Oft-Forgiving, Ever Merciful. (23)

Also [prohibited are] women already married, except those who come into your possession; this is a written obligation upon you from God.[25]This is the law of God which is mandatory for you to obey. All women other than these are lawful for you, provided you obtain them [by paying the dower] through your wealth[26]on the condition that you are chaste and do not commit

فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً وَلاَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا تَرَاضَيْتُم بِهِ مِن بَعْدِ الْفَرِيضَةِ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا (24)

وَمَن لَّمْ يَسْتَطِعْ مِنكُمْ طَوْلاً أَن يَنكِحَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ فَمِن مِّا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُم مِّن فَتَيَاتِكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَاللّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَانِكُمْ بَعْضُكُم مِّن بَعْضٍ فَانكِحُوهُنَّ

fornication.[27]Then [if you have not given them their dowers, then] pay them their dowers as [your] obligation for the benefit you have derived from them. If after a dower is fixed, you agree mutually on something there is no blame on you. Indeed, Allah is All- Knowing All-Wise. (24)

And if any of you have not the means wherewith to wed free believing women, you may wed believing slave-girls who are in your possession:[28]and [this should be kept in mind that] God has full knowledge of your faith.[29]You are of the same species:[30]so

بِإِذْنِ أَهْلِهِنَّ وَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ مُحْصَنَاتٍ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحَاتٍ وَلاَ مُتَّخِذَاتِ أَخْدَانٍ فَإِذَا أُحْصِنَّ فَإِنْ أَتَيْنَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ فَعَلَيْهِنَّ نِصْفُ مَا عَلَى الْمُحْصَنَاتِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِذَلِكَ لِمَنْ خَشِيَ الْعَنَتَ مِنْكُمْ وَأَن تَصْبِرُواْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ (25)

wed them with the permission of their masters, and give them their dowers, according to the norms;[31]with the condition that they have remained chaste, neither being lustful, nor taking paramours. Then when they are kept chaste and then they commit fornication, their punishment is half that of free women.[32] This permissionis for those among you who fear sin;[33]but it is better for you that you practice self-restraint. And [rest assured that if in spite of exercizing caution, you make a mistake] Allah is Most Forgiving, Ever Merciful. (25)

يُرِيدُ اللّهُ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ سُنَنَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَيَتُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ (26)

وَاللّهُ يُرِيدُ أَن يَتُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَيُرِيدُ الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الشَّهَوَاتِ أَن تَمِيلُواْ مَيْلاً عَظِيمًا (27)

يُرِيدُ اللّهُ أَن يُخَفِّفَ عَنكُمْ وَخُلِقَ الإِنسَانُ ضَعِيفًا (28)

God intends to explain His verses to you[34] and to make you tread the paths of those before you, and to turn to you with mercy. And God is All-Knowing and Wise.[35] (26)

And God only wishes to forgive you, but those who follow their own desires, their desire [on the contrary] is that you stray grievously into error.[36] (27)

God wishes to lessen your restrictions[37] [so that He

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَأْكُلُواْ أَمْوَالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَاطِلِإِلاَّ أَن تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَن

accommodates your weaknesses] and [in reality] man has been created very weak.[38] (28)

Believers! Do not consume one another's wealth through evil means,[39]but rather trade it by mutual consent, and do not kill yourselves.[40]No doubtGod is merciful to you.[41]And [remember

تَرَاضٍ مِّنكُمْ وَلاَ تَقْتُلُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ عُدْوَانًا وَظُلْمًا فَسَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِ نَارًا وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللّهِ يَسِيرًا إِن تَجْتَنِبُواْ كَبَآئِرَ مَا تُنْهَوْنَ

that] those who do this through injustice and oppression,[42]We shall definitely cast them into a seething fire,[43]and this is very easy for God.[44][Abstain from these sins because] things from which you are being stopped if you abstain from their big sins

عَنْهُ نُكَفِّرْ عَنكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَنُدْخِلْكُم مُّدْخَلاً كَرِيمًا (29-31)

وَلاَ تَتَمَنَّوْاْ مَا فَضَّلَ اللّهُ بِهِ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبُواْ وَلِلنِّسَاء

then We will delete your small misdeeds from your account and admit you into a place of honour.[45] (29-31)

‏And do not desire[46]those things in which God has bestowed His favours on some of you than on others [because] men will get what they earn, and women will also necessarily get what they earn. [If you desire to outdo one another, then this is the sphere to do it] and [for this] and ask God of His bounty. Indeed, God

نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبْنَ وَاسْأَلُواْ اللّهَ مِن فَضْلِهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا وَلِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مَوَالِيَ مِمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالأَقْرَبُونَ وَالَّذِينَ عَقَدَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ فَآتُوهُمْ نَصِيبَهُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدًا (32-33)

has full knowledge of all things.[47] [These very preferences are kept in consideration in the distribution of inheritance as well] and in the wealth left by parents and relatives We have appointed heirs for each [according to these preferences; do not try to change them]. As for those with whom you have entered into agreements, given them their share. [However, in this regard, there should be no intention of harming an heir] because God is watching over all things.[48](32-33)

الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاء بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُواْ مِنْ

[On the basis of this very principle, between husbands and wives] men are the guardians of women, because God has given the one more preference over the other, and because they financially support them.[49] Consequently, pious women are

أَمْوَالِهِمْ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللّهُ وَاللاَّتِي تَخَافُونَ

obedient [to their husbands] and keep their secrets because Allah also keeps secrets.[50] And [on the basis of this very principle, you

نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلاَ تَبْغُواْ عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلاً إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا (34)

have been given the right that] as for those women from whom you fear rebellion,[51] admonish them [first] and [next] refuse to share their beds and [even then if they do not listen] punish them. Then if they obey you, take no further action against them. Indeed, Allah is Exalted and Mighty.[52] (34)

وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ شِقَاقَ بَيْنِهِمَا فَابْعَثُواْ حَكَمًا مِّنْ أَهْلِهِ وَحَكَمًا مِّنْ أَهْلِهَا إِن يُرِيدَا إِصْلاَحًا يُوَفِّقِ اللّهُ بَيْنَهُمَا إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا خَبِيرًا (35)

And if [even after this, the situation does not improve and] you fear a breach between the husband and the wife, appoint one arbitrator from the man's family, and another from the woman's;[53][it is expected that] if [the husband and wife] both wish for reformation, Allah will create harmony between them. Indeed, Allah has full knowledge, and is acquainted with all things.[54] (35)




Articles by this author


Surah al-Anfal (41-75) (2/2)

Surah al-Anfal (41-75) (1/2)

Surah al-Anfal (31-40)

Surah Nisa’ (153-176)

Surahs Muzzammil and Muddaththir

Surah al-Anfal (1-30)

Surah al-A’raf (184-205)

Surah al-A’raf (163-183)

Islamic Punishments

Surah al-A’raf (152-162)

Surah al-A‘raf (123-153)

Surah al-A‘raf (80-122)

Surah al-A‘raf (57-79)

Surah al-A‘raf (26-56) (2/2)

Surah al-A‘raf (26-56) (1/2)

Surah al-A‘raf (1-25)

Surah An‘am (128-165) (2/2)

Surah An‘am (128-165) (1/2)

Surah An‘am (100-127)

Surah An‘am (74-99)

Surah An‘am (46-73)

Surah An‘am (25-45)

The Noble Wives of the Prophet (sws)

Surah An‘am (1-24)

Islamic Punishments

Surahs Falaq-Nas

Surahs Lahab-Ikhlas

Surahs Kafirun-Nasr

Surahs Ma‘un-Kawthar

Surah Fil – Surah Quraysh

Surah ‘Asr – Surah Humazah

Surah Qari‘ah – Surah Takathur

Surah Zilzal – Surah ‘Aadiyat

Khilafah

Surahs Qadr-Bayyinah

Surahs Tin – ‘Alaq

State and Government

Surahs Duha-Alam Nashrah

Surahs Shams-Layl

Islam and the State: A Counter Narrative

Surahs Fajr-Balad

The Basis of Legislation

The Shari‘ah of Preaching

Surahs A‘la - Ghashiyah

Variant Readings

Surahs Mutaffifin - Inshiqaq

Surahs Buruj – Tariq

Itmam al-Hujjah [1] of God’s Messengers

Theory of Evolution (2)

Surahs ‘Asr-Humazah

Theory of Evolution (2)

Surahs Nazi‘at-‘Abas

Surahs Mursalat-Naba

Dealings and Practices of God

Is Democracy Compatible with Islam?

Wudū and Nail Polish

Surahs Qiyamah-Dahr

Surahs Takwir - Infitar

Sūrahs Muzzammil and Muddaththir

Downfall of the Muslims

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi on Hadith

Your Questions Answered

Surahs Nuh and Jinn

Birth Control

An Interview with the Indian Media

Surahs Haqqah and Ma‘arij

Roles and Responsibilities of Muslims in the West

Surahs Mulk - Qalam

The Punishment of Intentional Murder

Hajj and ‘Umrah

Sūrahs Hashr – Mumtahinah

Religious Extremism

Sūrahs Hadīd – Mujādalah

The Right to make a Will

Talks of the Prophet Muhammad (sws)

Surah Waqi‘ah

The General and the Specific

Sūrah Qamar and Sūrah Rahmān

Surah Tur and Surah Najm

Inheritance of an Orphaned Grandchild

The Sharī‘ah of Preaching

The Source of Religion

Sūrah Mā’idah (90-120)

The Prayer

Sūrahs Qāf and Dhāriyāt (Part 2/2)

Sūrahs Qāf and Dhāriyāt (Part 1/2)

Sūrah Mā’idah (32-63) part (1/2)

Sūrah Mā’idah (32-63) part (2/2)

Dealings and Practices of God

Age of ‘Ā’ishah (rta) at her Marriage

Sūrah Mā’idah (1-31) part (1/2)

Sūrah Mā’idah (1-31) part (2/2)

Sūrah Nisā’ (153-176)

Belief in the Prophets

Sūrah Nisā’ (101-152)

Belief in the Hereafter

Sūrah Nisā’ (58-100)

The Consensus of Muslims

Sūrah Nisā’ (36-57)

Islam and the State

Our Call to Humanity

Sūrah Nisā’ (15-34)

The Rule of an Islamic Government

Sūrah Nisā’ (1-14)

Ijtihād

Verdicts of God

The Right to Punish a Wife

The Right to Divorce

Punishment for Blasphemy against the Prophet (sws[1])

Distribution of Inheritance

Abortion

Sūrah Āl-i ‘Imrān (144-200)

Insurance

Hifz al-Furūj (Guarding the Private Parts)

Organ Transplantation

The Fast

Fundamentals of Understanding Islam

Are Muslims a Single Nation?

Subject Matter of the Holy Qur’ān

Etiquette of Sexual Intimacy

Mosques

The Lawful and the Unlawful

Jihād and War in Islam

Head Covering for Women

Forbidding Wrong

The Question of Interest

Implementation of the Sharī‘ah (Divine Law)

Women Travelling with a Mahram

Islam and the Taliban [1]

Our Education System

Sūrah Āl-i ‘Imrān (118-143)

Sighting the Moon

Sūrah Al-i ‘Imrān (100-117)

Sūrah Al-i ‘Imrān (81-99)

Characteristic Values of Muslim Culture

Sūrah Al-i ‘Imrān (64-80)

Sūrah Āl-i ‘Imrān (42-63)

Sūrah Ali-Imran (21-41)

Sūrah Al-i ‘Imran (1-20)

Belief in Divine Books

Oaths and their Atonement

Islamic Customs and Etiquette

The Dietary Shari‘ah

The Penal Shari‘ah

The Shari‘ah of Jihad

The Shari‘ah of Preaching

The Economic Shari‘ah

The Political Shari‘ah

The Social Shari‘ah

The Shari‘ah of Worship Rituals