Sūrah Nisā’ (153-176)

Sūrah Nisā’ (153-176)


Qur'ānic Exegesis

(Translated from Al-Bayān by Dr Shehzad Saleem)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

يَسْأَلُكَ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ أَن تُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ كِتَابًا مِّنَ السَّمَاء فَقَدْ سَأَلُواْ مُوسَى أَكْبَرَ مِن ذَلِكَ فَقَالُواْ أَرِنَا اللّهِ جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ بِظُلْمِهِمْ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذُواْ الْعِجْلَ مِن

3. These[1] People of the Book ask you to bring down directly to them a book from the heavens [instead of this Qur'ān]. [This is no matter of wonder]. Of Moses they made an even greater demand. They said to him: "Show us God distinctly." So for this rebelliousness a thunderbolt struck them.[2] Then they worshipped

بَعْدِ مَا جَاءتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ فَعَفَوْنَا عَن ذَلِكَ وَآتَيْنَا مُوسَى سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَهُمُ الطُّورَ بِمِيثَاقِهِمْ وَقُلْنَا لَهُمُ ادْخُلُواْ الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ لاَ تَعْدُواْ فِي

the calf after obvious signs had come to them; yet We still forgave them and gave Moses clear dominance [on them].[3] And We raised Ṭur over them with a covenant with them[4] and directed them: "Enter the gates [of the city] bowing your

السَّبْتِ وَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُم مِّيثَاقًا غَلِيظًا (153-154)

فَبِمَا نَقْضِهِم مِّيثَاقَهُمْ وَكُفْرِهِم بَآيَاتِ اللّهِ وَقَتْلِهِمُ الأَنْبِيَاء بِغَيْرِ حَقًّ وَقَوْلِهِمْ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ بَلْ طَبَعَ اللّهُ عَلَيْهَا بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً وَبِكُفْرِهِمْ وَقَوْلِهِمْ عَلَى مَرْيَمَ بُهْتَانًا عَظِيمًا وَقَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا الْمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولَ اللّهِ وَمَا

heads,"[5] and told them: "Do not be disobedient in the matter of the Sabbath,[6] and [on all these things] We took from them a firm covenant. (153-154)

Then because they broke their covenant [We laid a curse on them] and because they denied the revelations of God and because they killed the prophets unjustly and because they said: "Our hearts have a covering on them." – [no], in fact, it is God who has sealed their hearts because of their disbelief, so [now] they will seldom embrace faith – and because of their disbelief[7] and vicious accusation against Mary[8] and because of their claim: "We have killed the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, the Messenger of God."[9] – even though neither did they kill him nor did they crucify him;[10] in fact, the matter was muddled up to them.[11]

قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَـكِن شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ لَفِي شَكٍّ مِّنْهُ مَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلاَّ اتِّبَاعَ الظَّنِّ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينًا بَل رَّفَعَهُ اللّهُ إِلَيْهِ وَكَانَ اللّهُ عَزِيزًا

Those who are disagreeing in this matter[12] are inflicted with doubt about it; they do have no knowledge about it; they are only following conjectures. They certainly did not slay him; in fact,

حَكِيمًا (155-158)

وَإِن مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ إِلاَّ لَيُؤْمِنَنَّ بِهِ قَبْلَ مَوْتِهِ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ شَهِيدًا (159)

God lifted him up to him,[13] and God is Mighty and Wise. (155-158)

[This is a list of their crimes; so if they are now demanding that a book other than the Qur'ān be directly revealed to them, just ignore them. O Prophet!] There is none among these People of the Book but will believe in [this Qur'ān] before his death;[14] and on

فَبِظُلْمٍ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُواْ حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ طَيِّبَاتٍ أُحِلَّتْ لَهُمْ وَبِصَدِّهِمْ عَن سَبِيلِ اللّهِ كَثِيرًا وَأَخْذِهِمُ الرِّبَا وَقَدْ نُهُواْ عَنْهُ وَأَكْلِهِمْ أَمْوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا لَّـكِنِ الرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ مِنْهُمْ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ يُؤْمِنُونَ

the Day of Judgement it will bear witness against them.[15] (159)

Then only because of the iniquity of the Jews, We forbade them wholesome things which had been allowed to them[16] and because they have been stopping others a lot from the path of God and because they have been taking interest even though they had been stopped from it[17] and because they have been unjustly devouring the wealth of others,[18] and it is for their disbelievers that We have prepared a woeful punishment.[19] However, those of

بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَالْمُقِيمِينَ الصَّلاَةَ وَالْمُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ أُوْلَـئِكَ سَنُؤْتِيهِمْ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا (160-162)

deep learning among them[20] and those who have faith[21]believe in what has been revealed to you and what was revealed before you and are especially diligent in the prayer[22] and pay the zakāh and

إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَى نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإْسْحَقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالأَسْبَاطِ وَعِيسَى وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُونُسَ وَهَارُونَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا وَرُسُلاً قَدْ قَصَصْنَاهُمْ عَلَيْكَ مِن قَبْلُ وَرُسُلاً لَّمْ

believe in God and the Last Day. It is these whom We shall soon richly reward. (160-162)

[Do not pay heed to them O Prophet!] We have sent revelations to you as We sent revelations to Noah and to the prophets who came after him, and as We sent revelations to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and his progeny and to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, Solomon, and We gave the Psalms to David.[23] We have sent revelations to messengers whom We have mentioned to you earlier and to some messengers whom We have not mentioned to you[24]and with Moses God had spoken,

نَقْصُصْهُمْ عَلَيْكَ وَكَلَّمَ اللّهُ مُوسَى تَكْلِيمًا رُّسُلاً مُّبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ لِئَلاَّ يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ وَكَانَ اللّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا (163-165)

لَّـكِنِ اللّهُ يَشْهَدُ بِمَا أَنزَلَ إِلَيْكَ أَنزَلَهُ بِعِلْمِهِ وَالْمَلآئِكَةُ يَ+شْهَدُونَ وَكَفَى بِاللّهِ شَهِيدًا إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ اللّهِ قَدْ ضَلُّواْ ضَلاَلاً بَعِيدًا إِنَّ

the way speech is made:[25]these messengers who were sent as bearers of glad tidings and of warning so that after them people are left with no excuse which they can present before God,[26]and God is Mighty and Wise. (163-165)

[Let them deny if they want to] but God bears witness to what He has revealed to you.[27] – He revealed it with His knowledge – and His angels also bear witness and sufficient is God alone as witness.[28] Those who disbelieve and debar others from the path

الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَظَلَمُواْ لَمْ يَكُنِ اللّهُ لِيَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ وَلاَ لِيَهْدِيَهُمْ طَرِيقاً إِلاَّ طَرِيقَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللّهِ يَسِيرًا (166-169)

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءكُمُ الرَّسُولُ بِالْحَقِّ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ فَآمِنُواْ خَيْرًا لَّكُمْ وَإِن تَكْفُرُواْ

of God have strayed far into error. Those who disbelieved and [in this manner] wronged [their souls], God will not forgive them nor will He guide them to any path other than the path of Hell. The shall abide therein forever and this is easy enough for God. (166-169)

You people! This Messenger has come to you with the truth from your Lord.[29] So profess faith [in him]. Your own benefit

فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَكَانَ اللّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لاَ تَغْلُواْ فِي دِينِكُمْ وَلاَ تَقُولُواْ عَلَى اللّهِ إِلاَّ الْحَقِّ إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ اللّهِ وَكَلِمَتُهُ أَلْقَاهَا إِلَى مَرْيَمَ وَرُوحٌ مِّنْهُ فَآمِنُواْ بِاللّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَلاَ تَقُولُواْ ثَلاَثَةٌ انتَهُواْ خَيْرًا لَّكُمْ إِنَّمَا اللّهُ إِلَـهٌ وَاحِدٌ سُبْحَانَهُ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَات وَمَا

lies in this, and if you become adamant on disbelief [then remember that you would not be able to harm God in any way because] whatever is in the heavens and the earth belongs to God. [He will reward each person for his deeds because] God is all-knowing and wise. O People of the Book! Do not transgress the bounds of your religion[30] and speak nothing but the truth about God.[31] The fact is that Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, was no more than God's Messenger and His Word which He cast into Mary, and a spirit from Him [which He blew into Mary].[32] So

فِي الأَرْضِ وَكَفَى بِاللّهِ وَكِيلاً لَّن يَسْتَنكِفَ الْمَسِيحُ أَن يَكُونَ عَبْداً لِّلّهِ وَلاَ الْمَلآئِكَةُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ وَمَن يَسْتَنكِفْ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَيَسْتَكْبِرْ فَسَيَحْشُرُهُمْ إِلَيهِ جَمِيعًا فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّالِحَاتِ فَيُوَفِّيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ وَيَزيدُهُم مِّن فَضْلِهِ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ اسْتَنكَفُواْ وَاسْتَكْبَرُواْ فَيُعَذِّبُهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلُيمًا وَلاَ يَجِدُونَ لَهُم مِّن دُونِ اللّهِ وَلِيًّا وَلاَ نَصِيرًا (170-173)

profess faith in God and His messengers and do not make [God] three.[33] Abstain [from this]; this shall be better for you. God is but one God. He is above and beyond having offspring. All that is in the heavens and the earth belongs to Him and He alone is sufficient to oversee their affairs.[34] The Messiah shall never feel ashamed to be a servant of God, nor shall the angels who are close to Him.

And if anyone feels ashamed to serve God and is arrogant, then soon He shall gather all before Him. Then those who have professed faith and have done righteous deeds, He shall fully recompense them and also give them more out of His grace. And those who felt ashamed of this servitude and showed arrogance, He will inflict on them a painful punishment and they will find none besides God to protect or help them.[35] (170-173)

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءكُم بُرْهَانٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ نُورًا مُّبِينًا فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ بِاللّهِ وَاعْتَصَمُواْ بِهِ فَسَيُدْخِلُهُمْ فِي رَحْمَةٍ مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلٍ وَيَهْدِيهِمْ إِلَيْهِ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا (174-175)

People! A clear evidence has come to you from your Lord and We have sent down to you a light which clearly explains [every thing].[36] Therefore, those who profess faith in God and hold fast to Him, He will admit them into [the shades of] His mercy and His grace and will guide them to a straight path that leads to Him.[37] (174-175)

يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِي الْكَلاَلَةِ إِنِ امْرُؤٌ هَلَكَ لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَهُ أُخْتٌ

4. People ask your verdict. Tell [them]: "God gives His verdict to you about your kalālah heirs:[38] "If a person dies childless[39]

فَلَهَا نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ وَهُوَ يَرِثُهَآ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهَا وَلَدٌ فَإِن كَانَتَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُمَا الثُّلُثَانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَ وَإِن كَانُواْ إِخْوَةً رِّجَالاً وَنِسَاء فَلِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأُنثَيَيْنِ يُبَيِّنُ اللّهُ لَكُمْ أَن تَضِلُّواْ وَاللّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ (176)

and he has only a sister, then she shall inherit half of what he leaves and if a sister dies childless, then her brother shall be her heir; and if there are two sisters, then they shall inherit two- thirds of what he [or she] leaves. And if there are many brothers and sisters, then the share of each male shall be that of two females."[40] God explain to you so that you err not and God has knowledge of all things. (176)




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