Sūrah Nisā’ (36-57)

Sūrah Nisā’ (36-57)


Qur'ānic Exegesis

(Translated by Dr Shehzad Saleem)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

وَاعْبُدُواْ اللّهَ وَلاَ تُشْرِكُواْ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَبِذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْجَارِ ذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْجَارِ الْجُنُبِ وَالصَّاحِبِ بِالجَنبِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ

And all of you worship God and associate none with Him.[1] Show kindness to parents,[2] and also be kind to relatives[3] and to

وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ مُخْتَالاً فَخُورًا الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ

orphans and to the destitute,[4] to neighbours who are your relatives and those you do not know and to those that keep company with you. And [similarly] to the traveler and to slave men and

women in your possession.[5] God does not like the arrogant and the

وَيَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبُخْلِ وَيَكْتُمُونَ مَا آتَاهُمُ اللّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا

conceited, [6]who are themselves miserly and urge others to miserliness as well and who conceal what God of His bounty has bestowed upon them.[7] For such ungrateful people, We have

مُّهِينًا وَالَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ رِئَـاء النَّاسِ وَلاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَلاَ بِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَمَن يَكُنِ الشَّيْطَانُ لَهُ قَرِينًا فَسَاء قِرِينًا وَمَاذَا عَلَيْهِمْ لَوْ آمَنُواْ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَأَنفَقُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقَهُمُ اللّهُ وَكَانَ اللّهُ بِهِم عَلِيمًا إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَظْلِمُ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ وَإِن تَكُ حَسَنَةً يُضَاعِفْهَا وَيُؤْتِ مِن لَّدُنْهُ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا (36-40)

prepared a disgraceful punishment – who spend their wealth for the sake of showing off, believing neither in God nor in the Last Day. [Satan is their companion], and in reality a person with whom Satan becomes a friend, then a very evil friend is he. What harm could befall them if they had professed faith in God and the Last Day and spent from what God bestowed on them, and [in reality] God is fully aware of them.[8] God will not wrong anyone by the slightest bit, and will repay a good deed manifold, and [besides this] of His own bounty, He will bless them with a great reward. (36-40)

فَكَيْفَ إِذَا جِئْنَا مِن كُلِّ أمَّةٍ بِشَهِيدٍ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ عَلَى هَـؤُلاء شَهِيدًا يَوْمَئِذٍ يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَعَصَوُاْ الرَّسُولَ لَوْ تُسَوَّى بِهِمُ الأَرْضُ وَلاَ يَكْتُمُونَ اللّهَ حَدِيثًا (41-42)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَى حَتَّىَ تَعْلَمُواْ مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلاَ جُنُبًا إِلاَّ عَابِرِي سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىَ تَغْتَسِلُواْ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاء أَحَدٌ

What will they do on the day when We will bring forth a witness from each community and call upon you [O Prophet!] as a witness over these people? On that day those who disbelieved [in spite of the fact that the truth had been conclusively conveyed to them] and those who disobeyed the Messenger will yearn that they were leveled with the dust and there they shall not be able to hide anything of theirs from God.[9] (41-42)

Believers! [Prayer is the greatest manifestation of the directive of worshipping God given earlier; so] do not approach your prayers when you are drunk,[10] till you know what you say nor

مِّنكُم مِّن الْغَآئِطِ أَوْ لاَمَسْتُمُ النِّسَاء فَلَمْ تَجِدُواْ مَاء فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُواْ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا (43)

when you are [ceremonially] unclean until you have bathed yourselves except if the intention is to pass through. And if you are sick or on a journey, or when you have relieved yourselves[11]or had intercourse with women and you find no water, find some clean surface of the earth and wipe your faces and your hands with it. [God has given you this concession] because He is Gracious and Forgiving.[12](43)

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ نَصِيبًا مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ يَشْتَرُونَ الضَّلاَلَةَ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن تَضِلُّواْ

Have you not seen[13] those who were given the Book of God?[14] [When before them the sharī'ah of that God is presented, then in place of it] they give preference to error and wish to see you go

السَّبِيلَ وَاللّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِأَعْدَائِكُمْ وَكَفَى بِاللّهِ وَلِيًّا وَكَفَى بِاللّهِ نَصِيرًا (44-45)

مِّنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُواْ يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ عَن مَّوَاضِعِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَاسْمَعْ غَيْرَ مُسْمَعٍ وَرَاعِنَا لَيًّا بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ وَطَعْنًا فِي الدِّينِ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ قَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا وَاسْمَعْ

astray as well. God full knows these enemies of yours. [Do not pay attention to them] and [rest assured] sufficient is God to support and help you. (44-45)

[Then from among them] a group from among the [Jews in particular] twisting their tongues and mocking religion[15] strip the words of their context and say: "سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا,اِسْمَعْ غَيْرَ مُسْمَعٍandرَاعِنَا"[16] However, if they had said: سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَاand اسْمَعْand انظُرْنَا, it would have been better for them and more proper as regards the situation.[17]But because of their disbelief God has cursed them.

وَانظُرْنَا لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ وَأَقْوَمَ وَلَكِن لَّعَنَهُمُ اللّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً (46)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ آمِنُواْ بِمَا نَزَّلْنَا مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّطْمِسَ

So seldom will they embrace faith.[18] (46)

O People to whom the Book was given! Believe in that which We have revealed[19] in confirmation of what you have with you. [Accept it] before We distort your faces[20] and turning them

وُجُوهًا فَنَرُدَّهَا عَلَى أَدْبَارِهَا أَوْ نَلْعَنَهُمْ كَمَا لَعَنَّا أَصْحَابَ السَّبْتِ وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللّهِ مَفْعُولاً (47)

إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاء وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللّهِ فَقَدِ

backward make them level[21] or also curse those [who have these faces] the way We cursed the people of Sabbath,[22] and [remember] what God ordains is always accomplished. (47)

[They think that whatever their beliefs and deeds, they shall necessarily go to Paradise; they should know that] God will not forgive those who [deliberately] sets up His partners;[23] however, He will forgive [according to His law] lesser sins for whom He wants,[24] and [there is no doubt that] he who sets up partners of افْتَرَى إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنفُسَهُمْ بَلِ اللّهُ يُزَكِّي مَن يَشَاء وَلاَ يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلاً انظُرْ كَيفَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللّهِ الكَذِبَ وَكَفَى بِهِ إِثْمًا مُّبِينًا (48-50)

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ نَصِيبًا مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّاغُوتِ وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ هَؤُلاء أَهْدَى مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ سَبِيلاً أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللّهُ وَمَن

God is guilty of inventing a great sin. Have you not seen those who [commit as grave a sin as polytheism and in spite of it] regard themselves to be pure?[25] [Certainly not!] It is in fact only God Who [according to His law] grants purity.[26] [They shall definitely suffer the punishment of their deeds] and shall not be wronged the slightest. Look at them [how through these claims of theirs] they invent falsehoods and [in reality] this in itself is enough to be a blatant sin. (48-50)

Have you not seen the people who were given God's Book? They believe in jibt and tāghūt[27] and say of the disbelievers: "They are better guided than the believers."[28] It is these on whom God has laid His curse and they who are cursed by God, you will find have none to help them. Do they have a share in

يَلْعَنِ اللّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ نَصِيرًا أَمْ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّنَ الْمُلْكِ فَإِذًا لاَّ يُؤْتُونَ النَّاسَ نَقِيرًا أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلَى مَا آتَاهُمُ اللّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ فَقَدْ آتَيْنَآ آلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَآتَيْنَاهُم مُّلْكًا عَظِيمًا (51-54)

فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ آمَنَ بِهِ وَمِنْهُم مَّن صَدَّ عَنْهُ وَكَفَى بِجَهَنَّمَ سَعِيرًا إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِآيَاتِنَا سَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِمْ نَارًا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُمْ بَدَّلْنَاهُمْ جُلُودًا غَيْرَهَا لِيَذُوقُواْ الْعَذَابَ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّالِحَاتِ سَنُدْخِلُهُمْ

God'skingdom?[29] If this was so, they would not have been ready to give even a penny to the people. Are they envying others on what God has blessed them with?[30] [If this is the case, then they should listen that] We gave [this branch of] Abraham's descendants our sharī'ah and hikmah, and an illustrious kingdom.[31] (51-54)

[It is true that till yet they have yet to duly honour and value it. So some among them have professed faith in [this sharī'ah and hikmah] and others who have turned away. Sufficient is the furious fire of Hell for such people. Those who have denied Our revelations, We will soon cast them into a great fire. No sooner will their skins be consumed than We shall give them other skins so that they may truly taste the torment. Indeed, God is Mighty and Wise.[32] And those who professed faith [in our revelations]

جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا لَّهُمْ فِيهَا أَزْوَاجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ وَنُدْخِلُهُمْ ظِـلاًّ ظَلِيلاً (55-57)

and did good deeds, We shall admit them to gardens below which streams flow. They will abide there forever. There they will have for them chaste wives and We shall keep them in a thick shade. (55-57)




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