Surahs Mulk - Qalam

Surahs Mulk - Qalam

Qur'ānic Exegesis

The theme of the first sūrahis to explain to the Quraysh that the way this world hascome into existence and for the purpose it has come into existence show that it will necessarily culminate on the Day of Judgement. Therefore, by disregarding this Day they should not take themselves to the point when they will have no option but to confess their crimes and to face the consequences of this confession. They should be fearful of the Almighty Who can seize them even now in any way and at any time.

The arguments in this sūrah have been mainly drawn from the manifestations and signs of the Almighty's mercy, power and providence which every person can behold around him.

The theme of second sūrah is to warn the leaders of the Quraysh to not adopt a rebellious and arrogant attitude adopted by them against the Book and Prophet of Allah. This warning is sounded by comparing the Book presented by the Prophet (sws) and his character with the character of the Quraysh leaders and their presumptive notions. They are told that all their treasured possessions and estates are vulnerable to punishment. They should be sensible for they have nothing to say. They are only indulging in idle talk because they are being given respite by the Almighty: it shall not be long before His decree arrives.

At the end of the sūrah, the Prophet (sws) is directed to patiently wait for this decree.

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ الْمُلْكُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (1) الَّذِي خَلَقَ الْمَوْتَ وَالْحَيَاةَ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ أَيُّكُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلًا وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْغَفُورُ (2)

الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا مَّا تَرَى فِي خَلْقِ الرَّحْمَنِ مِن تَفَاوُتٍ فَارْجِعِ

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.

Very exalted and very Benevolent is the Lord in whose hands is the dominion [of the worlds], and He has power over all things.[1] [He] Who created death and life that He might test you as to which of you does good deeds.[2] And He is also Mighty and Forgiving.[3](1-3)

الْبَصَرَ هَلْ تَرَى مِن فُطُورٍ (3) ثُمَّ ارْجِعِ الْبَصَرَ كَرَّتَيْنِ يَنقَلِبْ إِلَيْكَ الْبَصَرُ خَاسِأً وَهُوَ حَسِيرٌ (4)

وَلَقَدْ زَيَّنَّا السَّمَاء الدُّنْيَا بِمَصَابِيحَ وَجَعَلْنَاهَا رُجُومًا لِّلشَّيَاطِينِ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لَهُمْ عَذَابَ السَّعِيرِ (5) وَلِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ عَذَابُ جَهَنَّمَ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ (6)

[He] Who created seven heavens one above the other. You will not find any fault with what has been created by the Most Gracious. Then look again: can you see any flaw? Then look again and again. Your look will come back to you worn out and overcome.[4] (3-4)

[Do you not see that] We have adorned the lowest heaven with lamps[5] and We have made them [these lamps] a means of bombardment on the devils. And We have also prepared for them the torment of the Blazing Fire.[6] Those who have denied their Lord[7] there is [similarly] the punishment of Hell and what

إِذَا أُلْقُوا فِيهَا سَمِعُوا لَهَا شَهِيقًا وَهِيَ تَفُورُ (7) تَكَادُ تَمَيَّزُ مِنَ الْغَيْظِ كُلَّمَا أُلْقِيَ فِيهَا فَوْجٌ سَأَلَهُمْ خَزَنَتُهَا أَلَمْ يَأْتِكُمْ نَذِيرٌ (8) قَالُوا بَلَى قَدْ جَاءنَا نَذِيرٌ فَكَذَّبْنَا وَقُلْنَا مَا نَزَّلَ اللهُ مِن شَيْءٍ إِنْ أَنتُمْ إِلَّا فِي ضَلَالٍ كَبِيرٍ (9) وَقَالُوا لَوْ كُنَّا نَسْمَعُ أَوْ نَعْقِلُ مَا كُنَّا فِي أَصْحَابِ السَّعِيرِ (10) فَاعْتَرَفُوا بِذَنبِهِمْ فَسُحْقًا لِّأَصْحَابِ السَّعِيرِ (11)

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُم بِالْغَيْبِ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ كَبِيرٌ (12) وَأَسِرُّوا قَوْلَكُمْ أَوِ

an evil abode it is![8] (5-6)

When will be cast into it, they shall hear it roaring and it shall be seething. It will seem that it is bursting with rage. Every time a multitude is cast into it, its keepers will ask: "Did no warner come to you?" "Yes indeed a warner did come," they will reply "but we rejected him and said: 'God has not sent down anything;' [we said:] 'You are only in grave error.'"[9] And they will say: "If only we had listened or used our intellect, we would not have been among these dwellers of Hell [today]." In this way, they will confess their sin; so [now] cursed be these companions of Hell. (7-11)

[On the other hand], for those who feared the Lord even though they did not see Him,[10] there is indeed forgiveness and a

اجْهَرُوا بِهِ إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ (13) أَلَا يَعْلَمُ مَنْ خَلَقَ وَهُوَ اللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِيرُ (14)

هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ ذَلُولًا فَامْشُوا فِي مَنَاكِبِهَا وَكُلُوا مِن رِّزْقِهِ وَإِلَيْهِ النُّشُورُ (15)

أَأَمِنتُم مَّن فِي السَّمَاء أَن يَخْسِفَ بِكُمُ الأَرْضَ فَإِذَا هِيَ تَمُورُ (16) أَمْ أَمِنتُم مَّن

great reward. [O People!] Whether you speak secretly or openly, He has knowledge of even all that is in the hearts.[11] Would He not know Who has created? He is Very Discerning and Well-Acquainted. (12-14)

He Who made the earth[12] an obedient camel;[13] so walk about in its shoulders and eat from His subsistence and [remember that one day] You shall rise up before Him.[14] (15)

Are you not afraid of Him Who is in the heavens that He may thrust you in the earth? Then you would suddenly see it running very swiftly.[15] Are you not afraid of Him Who is in the heavens

فِي السَّمَاء أَن يُرْسِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ حَاصِبًا فَسَتَعْلَمُونَ كَيْفَ نَذِيرِ (17) وَلَقَدْ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ نَكِيرِ (18)

أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا إِلَى الطَّيْرِ فَوْقَهُمْ صَافَّاتٍ وَيَقْبِضْنَ مَا يُمْسِكُهُنَّ إِلَّا الرَّحْمَنُ إِنَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ بَصِيرٌ (19)

أَمَّنْ هَذَا الَّذِي هُوَ جُندٌ لَّكُمْ يَنصُرُكُم مِّن دُونِ الرَّحْمَنِ إِنِ الْكَافِرُونَ إِلَّا فِي غُرُورٍ (20) أَمَّنْ هَذَا الَّذِي يَرْزُقُكُمْ إِنْ أَمْسَكَ رِزْقَهُ بَل لَّجُّوا فِي عُتُوٍّ وَنُفُورٍ (21)

that He may send upon you a stone hurling wind? So now you shall know how My warning is.[16] Those also who were before them [similarly] denied; so [you saw] how terrible was my curse.[17] (16-18)

[They do not think.] Have these people not seen the birds [flying] above them with wings outstretched and they [in a similar manner] also draw them in? None except the Most Gracious is holding them. Indeed, He keeps a watch on all things.[18] (19)

[You demand to see the torment; so speak up:] "What army do you have who will help you against the Most Gracious?" In reality, these disbelievers are in mere deception. Speak up: "Who will give you sustenance[19]if He withholds His sustenance?"

أَفَمَن يَمْشِي مُكِبًّا عَلَى وَجْهِهِ أَهْدَى أَمَّن يَمْشِي سَوِيًّا عَلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ (22) قُلْ هُوَ الَّذِي أَنشَأَكُمْ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ قَلِيلًا مَّا تَشْكُرُونَ (23) قُلْ هُوَ الَّذِي ذَرَأَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَإِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ (24)

وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَى هَذَا الْوَعْدُ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ (25) قُلْ إِنَّمَا الْعِلْمُ عِندَ اللهِ وَإِنَّمَا أَنَا نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ (26) فَلَمَّا رَأَوْهُ زُلْفَةً سِيئَتْ وُجُوهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَقِيلَ هَذَا الَّذِي كُنتُم بِهِ تَدَّعُونَ (27)

[They are aware that there is no one]. Yet they persist in rebellion and in denying the truth. (20-21)

So is he who walks with his face bent down[20] rightly guided or he who walks upright on a straight path? [Alas!] Tell them: "It is He Who has raised you up [as human beings] and made for you ears, eyes and hearts [so that you may understand the truth.] Yet seldom are you grateful." Tell them: "It is He who has sown you in the earth. [He will surely reap what He has sown,] and [for this] towards Him you shall [certainly] be gathered." (22-24)

They ask: "When will this promise be fulfilled if you are truthful?" Tell them: "Its knowledge is only with Allah; I am only an open warner."[21] [This is what they say now], but when they see it drawing near, the faces of these disbelievers will turn

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ أَهْلَكَنِيَ اللهُ وَمَن مَّعِيَ أَوْ رَحِمَنَا فَمَن يُجِيرُ الْكَافِرِينَ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ (28)

قُلْ هُوَ الرَّحْمَنُ آمَنَّا بِهِ وَعَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا فَسَتَعْلَمُونَ مَنْ هُوَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ (29) قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ أَصْبَحَ مَاؤُكُمْ غَوْرًا فَمَن يَأْتِيكُم بِمَاء مَّعِينٍ (30)

gloomy and it shall be said to them: "This is what you had been asking for." (25-27)

[O Prophet! They await the turn of fortunes for you]. Ask them: "Have you ever thought that if God destroys me and my companions or has mercy on us [what will you gain? Tell us:] "Who shall save the disbelievers from an afflictive doom?" (28)

Tell them: "[We are making no claims for ourselves. Yes! definitely] He is the Most Gracious. We have believed in Him and in Him we have put our trust. So, soon you will know who is in manifest error." Tell them: "Have you ever thought that if this water of yours sinks down into the earth,[22] who will then bring out for you unsullied springs of water?" (29-30)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

ن وَالْقَلَمِ وَمَا يَسْطُرُونَ (1) مَا أَنتَ بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ بِمَجْنُونٍ (2) وَإِنَّ لَكَ لَأَجْرًا

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.

This is Sūrah Nūn.[23] The pen bears witness and what [the scribes] write[24] [from it] that you are not, by the grace of your Lord, mad, and that indeed for you is a reward unending, and

غَيْرَ مَمْنُونٍ (3) وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلى خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ (4) فَسَتُبْصِرُ وَيُبْصِرُونَ (5) بِأَييِّكُمُ الْمَفْتُونُ (6) إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ (7)

فَلَا تُطِعِ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ (8) وَدُّوا لَوْ تُدْهِنُ فَيُدْهِنُونَ (9) وَلَا تُطِعْ كُلَّ حَلَّافٍ مَّهِينٍ (10) هَمَّازٍ مَّشَّاء بِنَمِيمٍ (11) مَنَّاعٍ لِّلْخَيْرِ مُعْتَدٍ أَثِيمٍ (12) عُتُلٍّ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ

you are of a lofty character.[25] So it shall not be long before you shall see and they shall also see which of you has been led astray.[26] Your Lord only best knows those who have strayed from His path and those who are rightly guided.[27] (1-7)

For this reason, give no heed to any thing these disbelievers say.[28] They desire that you be a little flexible; then they will also become flexible.[29] Heed not any person[30] who swears a lot,[31]

زَنِيمٍ (13) أَن كَانَ ذَا مَالٍ وَبَنِينَ (14) إِذَا تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِ آيَاتُنَا قَالَ أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ

despicable, maker of evil gestures,[32] who goes about sowing seeds of dissension, forbidder of good,[33] transgressor, usurper of rights, cruel and moreover does not belong to the lineage he poses[34] – because he has a lot of wealth and children.[35] When

(15) سَنَسِمُهُ عَلَى الْخُرْطُومِ (16)

إِنَّا بَلَوْنَاهُمْ كَمَا بَلَوْنَا أَصْحَابَ الْجَنَّةِ إِذْ أَقْسَمُوا لَيَصْرِمُنَّهَا مُصْبِحِينَ (17) وَلَا يَسْتَثْنُونَ (18) فَطَافَ عَلَيْهَا طَائِفٌ مِّن رَّبِّكَ وَهُمْ نَائِمُونَ (19) فَأَصْبَحَتْ

Our revelations are recited to him he cries out: "These are but tales of the ancients." [He thinks that he has a big nose. Listen! you shall see that] on this snout will We brand him.[36] (8-16)

We have tried them[37] just as We tried the owners of the orchard[38] when they vowed that they would surely pluck the fruit of their orchard in the morning and would not leave anything [for the poor and the needy].[39] Then whilst they were asleep amover from your Lord moved through it[40] and that [blossoming

كَالصَّرِيمِ (20) فَتَنَادَوا مُصْبِحِينَ (21) أَنِ اغْدُوا عَلَى حَرْثِكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَارِمِينَ (22) فَانطَلَقُوا وَهُمْ يَتَخَافَتُونَ (23) أَن لَّا يَدْخُلَنَّهَا الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكُم مِّسْكِينٌ (24) وَغَدَوْا عَلَى حَرْدٍ قَادِرِينَ (25) فَلَمَّا رَأَوْهَا قَالُوا إِنَّا لَضَالُّونَ (26) بَلْ نَحْنُ مَحْرُومُونَ (27) قَالَ أَوْسَطُهُمْ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ لَوْلَا تُسَبِّحُونَ (28) قَالُوا سُبْحَانَ رَبِّنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا ظَالِمِينَ (29) فَأَقْبَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ يَتَلَاوَمُونَ (30) قَالُوا يَا وَيْلَنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا طَاغِينَ (31) عَسَى رَبُّنَا أَن يُبْدِلَنَا خَيْرًا مِّنْهَا إِنَّا إِلَى رَبِّنَا رَاغِبُونَ (32) كَذَلِكَ الْعَذَابُ وَلَعَذَابُ الْآخِرَةِ أَكْبَرُ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ (33)

orchard of theirs] became like a crop harvested. So, at daybreak, they called out to one another: "Go early in the morning to your plantation if you are to pick its fruit."[41] Then off they went whispering to one another: "No needy person should set foot in this [orchard] today." They proceeded very excitedly thinking that everything was under their control. But when they saw the orchard, they cried out: "We have lost our way; in fact, we have been ruined." Said the most upright among them: "Did I not tell you: 'Why do you not glorify the Lord?'" They then cried out: "Glory be to our Lord; indeed, it is we who were the wrong-doers." Then they started blaming one another. They cried: "Woe to us! We have been great transgressors! Perhaps our Lord will give us in its place something better than it. To our Lord, do we now turn to."[42] [O people!] In such a way shall the punishment come,[43] and the punishment of the Hereafter shall be much

إِنَّ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيمِ (34) أَفَنَجْعَلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ كَالْمُجْرِمِينَ (35) مَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ (36) أَمْ لَكُمْ كِتَابٌ فِيهِ تَدْرُسُونَ (37) إِنَّ لَكُمْ فِيهِ لَمَا يَتَخَيَّرُونَ (38) أَمْ لَكُمْ أَيْمَانٌ عَلَيْنَا بَالِغَةٌ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّ لَكُمْ لَمَا تَحْكُمُونَ (39) سَلْهُم أَيُّهُم بِذَلِكَ زَعِيمٌ (40) أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاء فَلْيَأْتُوا بِشُرَكَائِهِمْ إِن كَانُوا صَادِقِينَ (41)

يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ وَيُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى السُّجُودِ فَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ (42) خَاشِعَةً أَبْصَارُهُمْ تَرْهَقُهُمْ ذِلَّةٌ وَقَدْ كَانُوا يُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى السُّجُودِ وَهُمْ سَالِمُونَ (43)

greater than this. Alas! If these people only knew.(17-33)

For those, however, who fear [this punishment] there are gardens of bliss with their Lord.[44] [You reckon that this would never be.] So are We to deal with those who submit to Us as We deal with those who transgress? What is the matter with you? What is this judgement you make? Have you a scripture in which you read that you will have there whatever you desire?[45] Have you oaths with Us binding till the Day of Judgement that you will have what you yourselves ordain? Ask them if any of them will take responsibility of this? Do they have some associates [who will take this responsibility]? Let them produce these associates if what they say be true. (34-41)

They must remember the day when a great tumult will take place[46] and they will be called to bow in adoration and they will not be able to do so.[47] Downcast shall be their looks; ignominy

فَذَرْنِي وَمَن يُكَذِّبُ بِهَذَا الْحَدِيثِ سَنَسْتَدْرِجُهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ (44) وَأُمْلِي لَهُمْ إِنَّ كَيْدِي مَتِينٌ (45)

أَمْ تَسْأَلُهُمْ أَجْرًا فَهُم مِّن مَّغْرَمٍ مُّثْقَلُونَ (46) أَمْ عِندَهُمُ الْغَيْبُ فَهُمْ يَكْتُبُونَ (46) فَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ وَلَا تَكُن كَصَاحِبِ الْحُوتِ إِذْ نَادَى وَهُوَ مَكْظُومٌ (48) لَوْلَا أَن تَدَارَكَهُ نِعْمَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ لَنُبِذَ بِالْعَرَاء وَهُوَ مَذْمُومٌ (49) فَاجْتَبَاهُ رَبُّهُ

shall cover them. [These wrongdoers! their backs have now become stiff whilst] they also used to be called to bow in adoration when they were capable. (42-43)

For this reason [now] leave Me with those who are denying this discourse.[48] We are leading them step by step [to their ruin] from a place they know not. And I am giving them respite [so that they can do all what they can]. Truly powerful is My scheme. (44-45)

[Why don't they listen]? Are you demanding some payment from them so that they are burdened with its cost? Or is it that they have knowledge of the Unseen [that they only will be successful in the Hereafter[49] and] that they are writing it down? [No, nothing of this sort], so [O Prophet!] with perseverance wait for the judgement of your Lord[50] and [with regard to your nation] be not like the companion of the fish [Jonah][51] when he called in anguish [from the belly of the fish]. If [at that time] had not the favour of His Lord found him, he [as a result of his hastiness] would have been cast in disgrace in the [very] wilderness in

فَجَعَلَهُ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ (50)

وَإِن يَكَادُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَيُزْلِقُونَكَ بِأَبْصَارِهِمْ لَمَّا سَمِعُوا الذِّكْرَ وَيَقُولُونَ إِنَّهُ لَمَجْنُونٌ (51) وَمَا هُوَ إِلَّا ذِكْرٌ لِّلْعَالَمِينَ (52)

which [the fish had ejaculated him. [Then he repented;] so His Lord chose him [once again] and placed him among [His] righteous [servants]. (46-50)

[So persevere, O Prophet!] When these disbelievers hear this reminder [from you], it seems that they will almost stumble you with their eyes and say: "He is surely a mad person." Yet it is only a reminder to all mankind. (51-52)

(Translated from Al-Buyān by Dr Shehzad Saleem)


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