Sūrahs Muzzammil and Muddaththir

Sūrahs Muzzammil and Muddaththir


Qur'ānic Exegesis

Sūrah Muzzammil and Sūrah Muddaththir form a pair with regard to the subject discussed in them. Sūrah Muzzammil directs the Prophet (sws) to prepare himself for bearing the burden of a heavy responsibility, while Sūrah Muddaththir explains this very responsibility: the Prophet (sws) after indhār(warning), the first phase of his mission, should launch the second phase: indhār-i 'ām(open warning).

Both sūrahsare addressed to the Prophet (sws) and also to his addressees: the leadership of the Quraysh.

It is evident from the subject of these sūrahsthat with their revelation in Makkah began the phase of indhār-i 'āmof the Prophet Muhammad's preaching mission (sws).

The central theme of the first sūrah –Muzzammil is to direct the Prophet (sws) to abandon his state of sorrow resulting from the reaction of his people and prepare to bear the burden of a heavy responsibility and to admonish the leadership of the Quraysh that they have very little time left; if they do not mend their ways, they should get ready to face the consequences.

The central theme of the second sūrah – Muddaththtir is to explain the responsibility of indhār-i 'āmto the Prophet (sws) and to disclose to him its requirements and its limits and to threaten and rebuke his addressees that the Day of Judgement about which the Prophet (sws) has now been directed to openly warn them of, must not be regarded by them as something trivial. It is a day which will not be easy upon those who reject it and it is a reality which cannot be denied; no intercession will be of any use to save one's self from its torment.

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُزَّمِّلُ (1) قُمِ اللَّيْلَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا (2) نِصْفَهُ أَوِ انقُصْ مِنْهُ قَلِيلًا (3) أَوْ زِدْ عَلَيْهِ وَرَتِّلِ الْقُرْآنَ تَرْتِيلًا (4) إِنَّا سَنُلْقِي عَلَيْكَ قَوْلًا ثَقِيلًا (5) إِنَّ نَاشِئَةَ اللَّيْلِ هِيَ

O ye sitting while being enfolded in your shawl[1] stand by night,[2] but a little. Half the night or even less or a little more and [in this prayer of yours] recite the Qur'ān in a measured tone.[3]

أَشَدُّ وَطْءًا وَأَقْوَمُ قِيلًا (6) إِنَّ لَكَ فِي اَلنَّهَارِ سَبْحًا طَوِيلًا (7) وَاذْكُرِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ

Because soon We shall lay on you the burden of a heavy word.[4] Indeed, this rising by night is very suitable for the heart's resolve[5] and for the speech's correctness.[6] The reason is that during the daytime you will be hard-pressed with [this task; so pray at this

وَتَبَتَّلْ إِلَيْهِ تَبْتِيلًا (8) رَبُّ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَاتَّخِذْهُ وَكِيلًا (9) وَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَا يَقُولُونَ وَاهْجُرْهُمْ هَجْرًا جَمِيلًا (10) وَذَرْنِي وَالْمُكَذِّبِينَ أُولِي النَّعْمَةِ وَمَهِّلْهُمْ قَلِيلًا (11) إِنَّ لَدَيْنَا أَنكَالًا وَجَحِيمًا (12) وَطَعَامًا ذَا غُصَّةٍ وَعَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

time] and remember the name of your Lord[7] and [in this seclusion of the night] devote yourself entirely to Him.[8] He is the Lord of the East and the West. There is no god but He. Therefore, take Him alone as your Guardian, and bear with patience what they say and with dignity ignore them.[9] And leave their matter, the matter of these who deny, who enjoy the comforts of life[10] to Me and give them a little respite.[11] We have

(13) يَوْمَ تَرْجُفُ الْأَرْضُ وَالْجِبَالُ وَكَانَتِ الْجِبَالُ كَثِيبًا مَّهِيلًا (14)

إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ رَسُولًا شَاهِدًا عَلَيْكُمْ كَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ رَسُولًا (15) فَعَصَى فِرْعَوْنُ الرَّسُولَ فَأَخَذْنَاهُ أَخْذًا وَبِيلًا (16) فَكَيْفَ تَتَّقُونَ إِن كَفَرْتُمْ يَوْمًا يَجْعَلُ الْوِلْدَانَ شِيبًا (17) السَّمَاء مُنفَطِرٌ بِهِ كَانَ وَعْدُهُ مَفْعُولًا (18) إِنَّ هَذِهِ

in store [for them] heavy fetters and a blazing fire, and choking food and a painful torment also. On the Day when the earth and the mountains shall tremble violently and the mountains shall be as if they are disbanding heaps of sand. (1-14)

To you [O Quraysh of Makkah!] We have sent forth a Messenger as a witness to you just as we had sent a Messenger to the Pharaoh.[12] Then the Pharaoh disobeyed that Messenger; so We seized him with a dreadful punishment. So if you also deny, then how will you save yourself from the Day which shall make the children old.[13] The heavens are ripping apart with its burden[14] and the promise of God is certain to be fulfilled. Indeed, [before

تَذْكِرَةٌ فَمَن شَاء اتَّخَذَ إِلَى رَبِّهِ سَبِيلًا (19)

إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ تَقُومُ أَدْنَى مِن ثُلُثَيِ اللَّيْلِ وَنِصْفَهُ وَثُلُثَهُ وَطَائِفَةٌ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ مَعَكَ وَاللَّهُ يُقَدِّرُ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ عَلِمَ أَن لَّن تُحْصُوهُ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ فَاقْرَؤُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ عَلِمَ أَن سَيَكُونُ مِنكُم مَّرْضَى وَآخَرُونَ يَضْرِبُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ يَبْتَغُونَ مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَآخَرُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَاقْرَؤُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنْهُ وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ

this happens] this is a reminder. So whoever wants, he can take the path which leads to His Lord. (15-19)

[O Prophet! We had enjoined upon you to stand by night.[15]] Your Lord well knows that sometimes you stand almost two thirds of the night [before him], sometimes half and sometimes one third of it, and so does a group among your companions. And God alone [keeping in regard the need of people] appoints the day and night in due measure.[16] He knew that you would not be able to follow this [routine]. So He turned towards you mercifully.[17] Recite then from this Qur'ān[in this prayer] as much as you are able to.[18] He knows that there will be those among you who will be sick and others who be travelling to seek the bounty of God and others who will be fighting for the cause of God; so recite then from this as much as is possible for you, and [in the daytime and at night] adhere diligently to the prayers

وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَقْرِضُوا اللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا وَمَا تُقَدِّمُوا لِأَنفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللَّهِ هُوَ خَيْرًا وَأَعْظَمَ أَجْرًا وَاسْتَغْفِرُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ (20)

and pay zakāh and [for the cause of your religion and state] lend to God a befitting loan, and [remember that] whatever good you send forth for yourselves you shall find it with God better than before and greater in reward. Seek God's forgiveness. Indeed, He is Most Forgiving, Ever Merciful. (20)

________

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ (1) قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ (2) وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ (3) وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ (4)

O ye enfolded in your shawl![19] Arise and give open warning[20] and proclaim the greatness of your Lord only,[21] and cleanse[22] the apparel of your soul[23] and keep away from the dirt [of polytheism]

وَالرُّجْزَ فَاهْجُرْ (5) وَلَا تَمْنُن تَسْتَكْثِرُ (6) وَلِرَبِّكَ فَاصْبِرْ (7)

and [listen!] do not discontinue your endeavour regarding it to be enough,[24] and with perseverance wait for the decision of your Lord.[25] (1-7)

فَإِذَا نُقِرَ فِي النَّاقُورِ (8) فَذَلِكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَوْمٌ عَسِيرٌ (9) عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ غَيْرُ يَسِيرٍ (10) ذَرْنِي وَمَنْ خَلَقْتُ وَحِيدًا (11) وَجَعَلْتُ لَهُ مَالًا مَّمْدُودًا (12) وَبَنِينَ شُهُودًا (13) وَمَهَّدتُّ لَهُ تَمْهِيدًا (14) ثُمَّ يَطْمَعُ أَنْ أَزِيدَ (15) كَلَّا إِنَّهُ كَانَ

Because when the trumpet is sounded, that Day will be very severe. It will not be easy for these disbelievers.[26] Leave to Me whom I have created alone[27] and bestowed abundant wealth spread about[28] and sons abiding in his presence[29] and well smoothed out for him [the path of success and achievement in this world]. Still he expects that [when he has received so much

لِآيَاتِنَا عَنِيدًا (16) سَأُرْهِقُهُ صَعُودًا (17)

إِنَّهُ فَكَّرَ وَقَدَّرَ (18) فَقُتِلَ كَيْفَ قَدَّرَ (19) ثُمَّ قُتِلَ كَيْفَ قَدَّرَ (20) ثُمَّ نَظَرَ (21) ثُمَّ عَبَسَ وَبَسَرَ (22) ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ (23) فَقَالَ إِنْ هَذَا إِلَّا سِحْرٌ يُؤْثَرُ (24) إِنْ هَذَا إِلَّا قَوْلُ الْبَشَرِ (25)

سَأُصْلِيهِ سَقَرَ (26) وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا سَقَرُ (27) لَا تُبْقِي وَلَا تَذَرُ (28) لَوَّاحَةٌ لِّلْبَشَرِ (29) عَلَيْهَا تِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ (30)

وَمَا جَعَلْنَا أَصْحَابَ النَّارِ إِلَّا مَلَائِكَةً وَمَا جَعَلْنَا عِدَّتَهُمْ إِلَّا فِتْنَةً لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا

in this world] I shall give him more [in the next]. Certainly not! He has turned out to be an enemy of Our revelations. [Therefore], soon I will make him climb a mounting slope.[30] (8-17)

[This wrongdoer,][31] he pondered and schemed. Cursed be he; what he schemed! Then cursed be he, what he schemed. Then he looked [around him]. Then he frowned and scowled. Then he turned away in scornful pride. Then said: "This is nothing but a magic [of eloquent words; the same] which is being handed down from the past. [This is no divine inspiration]; it is but the word of man."[32] (18-25)

[This wrongdoer], I will soon cast him into Hell. And what do you know what Hell is? It will not show mercy[33] nor spare anyone. It scorches the skin. Over it are nineteen.[34] (26-30)

[35]We have appointed none but angels as the keepers of Hell

لِيَسْتَيْقِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ وَيَزْدَادَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِيمَانًا وَلَا يَرْتَابَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَلِيَقُولَ الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْكَافِرُونَ مَاذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِهَذَا مَثَلًا كَذَلِكَ يُضِلُّ اللَّهُ مَن يَشَاء وَيَهْدِي مَن يَشَاء وَمَا يَعْلَمُ جُنُودَ رَبِّكَ إِلَّا

and have mentioned their number only to make it a test[36] for those who do not believe. So that the People of the Book receive assurance from this, the believers may increase in their faith and that the People of the Book and the believers have no doubt about it and those among the [People of the Book] who have the ailment [of jealousy] in their hearts and the disbelievers [make fun of this and] say: "What does God mean by this mention?"[37] In this way, God [according to His law] leads astray whom He pleases and guides whom He pleases.[38] [They should never have any misconception about their knowledge; the fact is that] no one knows the armies of your Lord except He.[39] And this

هُوَ وَمَا هِيَ إِلَّا ذِكْرَى لِلْبَشَرِ (31)

كَلَّا وَالْقَمَرِ (32) وَاللَّيْلِ إِذْ أَدْبَرَ (33) وَالصُّبْحِ إِذَا أَسْفَرَ (34) إِنَّهَا لَإِحْدَى الْكُبَرِ (35) نَذِيرًا لِّلْبَشَرِ (36) لِمَن شَاء مِنكُمْ أَن يَتَقَدَّمَ أَوْ يَتَأَخَّرَ (27) كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ رَهِينَةٌ (38) إِلَّا أَصْحَابَ الْيَمِينِ (39) فِي جَنَّاتٍ يَتَسَاءلُونَ(40) عَنِ الْمُجْرِمِينَ (41) مَا سَلَكَكُمْ فِي سَقَرَ (42) قَالُوا لَمْ نَكُ مِنَ الْمُصَلِّينَ (43)

[narrative[40]] is just a reminder for man. (31)

[This not a matter of making fun of or asking to hasten it.] Certainly not! The moon bears witness and the night also when it turned its back and the morning when it shines forth that this matter [of the Day of Judgement] is from among the great matters narrated to warn man[41] for every person who wants to advance forward [to accept it] or wants to turn away [from it after denying it]. Every soul [on that Day] shall be held in pledge for its deeds[42] except the people of the right hand.[43] They will be in gardens. They will be inquiring after these wrongdoers:

وَلَمْ نَكُ نُطْعِمُ الْمِسْكِينَ (44) وَكُنَّا نَخُوضُ مَعَ الْخَائِضِينَ (45) وَكُنَّا نُكَذِّبُ بِيَوْمِ الدِّينِ (46) حَتَّى أَتَانَا الْيَقِينُ (47)

فَمَا تَنفَعُهُمْ شَفَاعَةُ الشَّافِعِينَ (48) فَمَا لَهُمْ عَنِ التَّذْكِرَةِ مُعْرِضِينَ (49) كَأَنَّهُمْ حُمُرٌ مُّسْتَنفِرَةٌ (50) فَرَّتْ مِن قَسْوَرَةٍ (51) بَلْ يُرِيدُ كُلُّ امْرِئٍ مِّنْهُمْ أَن يُؤْتَى صُحُفًا مُّنَشَّرَةً (52) كَلَّا بَل لَا يَخَافُونَ الْآخِرَةَ (53) كَلَّا إِنَّهُ تَذْكِرَةٌ (54)

"What has brought you intoHell?" They will reply: "[It was our misfortune that] we were not among those who prayed nor did we feed the poor; we used to quibble with these quibblers and used to deny the Day of Reckoning[44] till there came the moment of certainty. (32-47)

At that time, no intercession of [their] intercessors will be of any use to them.[45] What then is the matter with them that they are turning away from this reminder,[46] as though they are frightened asses fleeing from a lion? Each one of them, in fact, desires that [instead of a prophet sent forth], he be handed open scrolls.[47] Certainly not! [This never happened in the past nor will it ever happen in the future]; in fact [the truth is that] they have no fear of the Day of Judgement. [Do not go after them], never! This is only a reminder. So let him, who wants, take heed – and

فَمَن شَاء ذَكَرَهُ (55) وَمَا يَذْكُرُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاء اللَّهُ هُوَ أَهْلُ التَّقْوَى وَأَهْلُ الْمَغْفِرَةِ (56)

they will not take heed unless God [according to His law] so wants[48] – [so let him, who wants, take heed]. He alone is pious and worthy of being forgiven by his Lord. (48-56)

Kuala Lumpur

12th February 2010

(Translated by Dr Shehzad Saleem)

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Sūrah Al-i ‘Imrān (81-99)

Characteristic Values of Muslim Culture

Sūrah Al-i ‘Imrān (64-80)

Sūrah Āl-i ‘Imrān (42-63)

Sūrah Ali-Imran (21-41)

Sūrah Al-i ‘Imran (1-20)

Belief in Divine Books

Oaths and their Atonement

Islamic Customs and Etiquette

The Dietary Shari‘ah

The Penal Shari‘ah

The Shari‘ah of Jihad

The Shari‘ah of Preaching

The Economic Shari‘ah

The Political Shari‘ah

The Social Shari‘ah

The Shari‘ah of Worship Rituals

The Phases and Abodes of the Day of Judgement

The Signs and Events of the Day of Judgement

Belief in the Hereafter

Some Issues pertaining to Prophethood

Some Traits of the Prophets