Surahs Qiyamah-Dahr

Surahs Qiyamah-Dahr


Qur'ānic Exegesis

Introduction

Both these sūrahs form a pair with regard to the subject discussed in them. The first sūrah substantiates the Day of Judgement by the testimony of the reproaching soul, while the second sūrah substantiates this claim by the divine inspiration of good and evil in a person's soul. However, by contrast, an element of glad tidings of the future is very prominent in the second sūrah.

The sūrahs basically address the leadership of the Quraysh and it is evident from their contents that like the previous sūrahsthey were revealed in Makkah in the phase of indhār-i 'ām of the Prophet's mission (sws).

The central theme of both the sūrahs is to substantiate the Day of Judgement and to warn the Quraysh with its reference.

_______________

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

لَا أُقْسِمُ بِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ أَيَحْسَبُ الْإِنسَانُ أَلَّن نَجْمَعَ

In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.

[They deny the Day of Judgement?] By no means![1]I present as evidence the Day of Judgement.[2] And by no means![3] I present as evidence this reproaching soul [within you].[4] Does

عِظَامَهُ بَلَى قَادِرِينَ عَلَى أَن نُّسَوِّيَ بَنَانَهُ بَلْ يُرِيدُ الْإِنسَانُ لِيَفْجُرَ أَمَامَهُ يَسْأَلُ أَيَّانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَامَةِ (1-6)

فَإِذَا بَرِقَ الْبَصَرُ وَخَسَفَ الْقَمَرُ وَجُمِعَ الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ يَقُولُ الْإِنسَانُ يَوْمَئِذٍ أَيْنَ الْمَفَرُّ كَلَّا لَا وَزَرَ إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمُسْتَقَرُّ يُنَبَّأُ الْإِنسَانُ يَوْمَئِذٍ بِمَا قَدَّمَ

man[5] think that We will not be able to bring together his bones? Why not? We will put him together such that We will set right even the sections of his fingers.[6][No this is not so[7]]; in fact, [the truth is that] man wants to be mischievous before his [conscience].[8] He asks: "When will the Day of Judgement come?" (1-6)

But on the day when the sight is dazed and the moon eclipsed and the sun and the moon brought together, this very man will say: "Whither to flee?" – By no means! there is no refuge now! Towards your Lord that Day is the resting place. On that Day will man be informed what he sent forth and what he left behind.

وَأَخَّرَ بَلِ الْإِنسَانُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ بَصِيرَةٌ وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ (7-15)

لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَهُ فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَاهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْآنَهُ

[No he cannot deny it;] in fact, [the truth is that] he himself is a witness upon his own self however much he may put up excuses.[9] (7-15)

[In the hurry of[10] conclusively communicating the truth to

ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ (16-19)

them, O Prophet!] to swiftly acquire this [Qur'ān] do not move your tongue over it; [it will continue to be revealed like this;[11]rest assured that] upon Us is its collection and recital.[12] So when [at that time] We recite it follow that recital.[13] Then upon Us is to explain it [to you wherever need be].[14] (16-19)

كَلَّا بَلْ تُحِبُّونَ الْعَاجِلَةَ وَتَذَرُونَ الْآخِرَةَ وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاضِرَةٌ إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ بَاسِرَةٌ تَظُنُّ أَن يُفْعَلَ بِهَا فَاقِرَةٌ (20-25)

كَلَّا إِذَا بَلَغَتْ التَّرَاقِيَ وَقِيلَ مَنْ رَاقٍ وَظَنَّ أَنَّهُ الْفِرَاقُ وَالْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ

[O People![15] You cannot deny it;] certainly not! In fact [the truth is that] you only love this world and remainheedless of the world to come. [But it will turn up and turn up in a manner that] many faces will be joyous on that Day awaiting[16] the [graciousness of] their Lord and many faces will be gloomy on that Day thinking that there is going to strike them that which breaks their backs.[17] (20-25)

[No you cannot deny it]; certainly not! On the Day when the soul reaches the collar-bone[18] and it is said: "Who is the enchanter now?"[19] The person will think that it is parting time

إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمَسَاقُ (26-30)

فَلَا صَدَّقَ وَلَا صَلَّى وَلَكِن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ يَتَمَطَّى أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى ثُمَّ أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى (31-35)

أَيَحْسَبُ الْإِنسَانُ أَن يُتْرَكَ سُدًى أَلَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِّن مَّنِيٍّ يُمْنَى ثُمَّ كَانَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقَ فَسَوَّى فَجَعَلَ مِنْهُ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالْأُنثَى أَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِقَادِرٍ عَلَى أَن يُحْيِيَ الْمَوْتَى (36-40)

and the shank will embrace the shank.[20] On that Day, towards your Lord is the departure. (26-30)

But [look at this man]! He neither believed in [the good fate of the Hereafter]nor offered the prayer; on the contrary, he denied and turned away.[21] Then he went to his family conceitedly. Woe be to you, then woe be to you! And again woe be to you, then woe be to you![22] (31-35)

Does[23] man think that he will be left to go unrestrained? Was he not a drop of a fluid poured forth?[24] Then he became a clot [from this fluid]. Then God created [him]; then fashioned him in due proportion; then made pairs of him: male and female. Is He [now] not able toraise the dead to life?(36-40)

________

Sūrah Dahr

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

هَلْ أَتَى عَلَى الْإِنسَانِ حِينٌ مِّنَ الدَّهْرِ لَمْ يَكُن شَيْئًا مَّذْكُورًا إِنَّا خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ أَمْشَاجٍ نَّبْتَلِيهِ فَجَعَلْنَاهُ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا إِنَّا هَدَيْنَاهُ السَّبِيلَ إِمَّا شَاكِرًا وَإِمَّا

In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.

Has there also passed over man a period of time when he was a thing not worthy of mention?[25] Indeed, We have created man from a drop of mingled water.[26] We continued to turn him

كَفُورًا (1-3)

إِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ سَلَاسِلَا وَأَغْلَالًا وَسَعِيرًا إِنَّ الْأَبْرَارَ يَشْرَبُونَ مِن كَأْسٍ كَانَ مِزَاجُهَا كَافُورًا عَيْنًا يَشْرَبُ بِهَا عِبَادُ اللَّهِ يُفَجِّرُونَهَا تَفْجِيرًا يُوفُونَ بِالنَّذْرِ

about[27] until We made him capable of hearing and seeing.[28] We showed him the good and evil path.[29] It is now up to him to be grateful or profess disbelief.[30] (1-3)

[The consequence of this is that] We have prepared for the disbelievers chains and yokes and a Blazing Fire.[31] [On the other hand, Our] loyal people will drink cups of wine[32] flavoured with camphor. This is a spring[33] [sitting by][34]which these servants of

وَيَخَافُونَ يَوْمًا كَانَ شَرُّهُ مُسْتَطِيرًا وَيُطْعِمُونَ الطَّعَامَ عَلَى حُبِّهِ مِسْكِينًا وَيَتِيمًا وَأَسِيرًا إِنَّمَا نُطْعِمُكُمْ لِوَجْهِ اللَّهِ لَا نُرِيدُ مِنكُمْ جَزَاء وَلَا شُكُورًا إِنَّا نَخَافُ مِن رَّبِّنَا يَوْمًا عَبُوسًا قَمْطَرِيرًا فَوَقَاهُمُ اللَّهُ شَرَّ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ وَلَقَّاهُمْ نَضْرَةً وَسُرُورًا وَجَزَاهُم بِمَا صَبَرُوا جَنَّةً وَحَرِيرًا مُتَّكِئِينَ فِيهَا عَلَى الْأَرَائِكِ لَا يَرَوْنَ فِيهَا شَمْسًا

God will drink and will be able to take out its channels wherever they want with great ease.[35] They used to keep their vows[36] and remained fearful of the Day whose horror will spread far and wide; they used to give food to the poor, the orphan and the captive[37] in spite of being needy of it; [their driving force being:] we are feeding you for the sake of God only. No reward do we desire from you nor gratitude. We dread from our Lord a Day, grim and distressful. So God saved them from the affliction of that Day and bestowed them with freshness and joy, and as reward

وَلَا زَمْهَرِيرًا وَدَانِيَةً عَلَيْهِمْ ظِلَالُهَا وَذُلِّلَتْ قُطُوفُهَا تَذْلِيلًا وَيُطَافُ عَلَيْهِم بِآنِيَةٍ مِّن فِضَّةٍ وَأَكْوَابٍ كَانَتْ قَوَارِيرَا قَوَارِيرَ مِن فِضَّةٍ قَدَّرُوهَا تَقْدِيرًا (4-16)

وَيُسْقَوْنَ فِيهَا كَأْسًا كَانَ مِزَاجُهَا زَنجَبِيلًا عَيْنًا فِيهَا تُسَمَّى سَلْسَبِيلًا وَيَطُوفُ عَلَيْهِمْ وِلْدَانٌ مُّخَلَّدُونَ إِذَا رَأَيْتَهُمْ حَسِبْتَهُمْ لُؤْلُؤًا مَّنثُورًا وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَ ثَمَّ رَأَيْتَ نَعِيمًا

for being patient[38][in this world] gave them Paradise [to live in] and robes of silk [to wear]. They will be reclining in it on thrones and will feel neither the heat of the sun nor the cold of the winters. The shades of its trees will bow down over them and the clusters of their fruits will be within their easy reach. Dishes of silver [to eat from] and goblets of crystal [to drink from] will be passed around them. But the crystal will be of silver[39] which their attendants will have aptly arranged [for every service].[40] (4-16)

[Besides this], they will be given to drink a wine flavoured with Zanjabīl. This is also a spring therein called Salsabīl.[41] They will be actively attended by boys graced with eternal youth.[42] When you see them you will think that they are pearls scattered about.[43] And wherever you look you will see great bliss and a kingdom glorious such that even their over-garments will be of green silk and brocade and satin.[44] They were adorned with

وَمُلْكًا كَبِيرًا عَالِيَهُمْ ثِيَابُ سُندُسٍ خُضْرٌ وَإِسْتَبْرَقٌ وَحُلُّوا أَسَاوِرَ مِن فِضَّةٍ وَسَقَاهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ شَرَابًا طَهُورًا إِنَّ هَذَا كَانَ لَكُمْ جَزَاء وَكَانَ سَعْيُكُم مَّشْكُورًا (17-22)

إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ تَنزِيلًا فَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ وَلَا تُطِعْ مِنْهُمْ آثِمًا أَوْ كَفُورًا وَاذْكُرِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا وَمِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَاسْجُدْ لَهُ وَسَبِّحْهُ لَيْلًا طَوِيلًا (23-26)

bracelets of silver[45] and their Lord gave them pure wine[46] to drink [in His presence]. Indeed, this is a reward of your deeds and [congratulations to you that] your endeavours have been acknowledged. (17-22)

[Just do not care about what they say O Prophet!][47] We alone have revealed this Qur'ān to you and revealed it in a profound manner.[48] So with perseverance[49] wait for the judgement of

your Lord and pay no heed to any sinner or ingrate among

إِنَّ هَؤُلَاء يُحِبُّونَ الْعَاجِلَةَ وَيَذَرُونَ وَرَاءهُمْ يَوْمًا ثَقِيلًا (27) نَحْنُ خَلَقْنَاهُمْ وَشَدَدْنَا أَسْرَهُمْ وَإِذَا شِئْنَا بَدَّلْنَا أَمْثَالَهُمْ تَبْدِيلًا (28) إِنَّ هَذِهِ تَذْكِرَةٌ فَمَن شَاء اتَّخَذَ إِلَى رَبِّهِ سَبِيلًا (29) وَمَا تَشَاؤُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاء اللَّهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا (30) يُدْخِلُ مَن يَشَاء فِي رَحْمَتِهِ وَالظَّالِمِينَ أَعَدَّ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا (31)

them.[50] [We shall take care of them] and remember the name of your Lord from dawn to dusk and prostrate yourselves before Him in the night also and glorify Him till late at night.[51](23-26)

[They are not submitting O Prophet! because] they only love this worldly life and are ignoring a heavy Day ahead. [Truly], We alone created them and strengthened their joints [and undoubtedly] whenever We intend We can replace them in exactly the same form they are in.[52] [Leave them alone if they do not submit]. These [verses] are only a reminder. So whoever intends, he should take the path of his God. And you do not intend [O People!] until Allah so intends [according to His law.][53] Indeed, God is All-Knowing, Wise. He admits into His mercy whomever He wishes [on the basis of this knowledge and wisdom]. And for the wrongdoers, He has prepared a grievous punishment. (27-31)

Karachi

18th February 2010

_______________

[1]. When we intend to negate something in our language we say: "No, by God! This is what the truth is." The style adopted in the verse is precisely the same. Thus the words "By no means" are not meant to negate the testimony; on the contrary, it is a negation of a notion of the addressee that is intended to be refuted through this testimony.

[2]. This signifies an oath whose complement is suppressed here. The reason is that the oath itself is so blatantly pointing towards it that it is not necessary to express it in words. This style of presenting oaths is adopted when it is intended to be conveyed to the addressees that what they are denying is such clear evidence on itself that no sane person can deny it. In other words, what has been sworn by itself has assumed the status of a claim and its substantiation and the oath and its complement.

[3]. This is connected to the "By no means" stated earlier.

[4]. This is the second oath. Its complement is also suppressed. The implication is that man's conscience that rebukes him on his sins bears witness by its very existence that the Day of Judgement is certain to come. The reason is that within man his reproaching soul is always present to rebuke him on any evil he does; this internal court of justice delivers its verdict at every instance; this only means that man will not be left unaccountable for his deeds. Thus he shall definitely be called to account. It is for this accountability that the Almighty has appointed the Day of Judgement. His messengers have always informed man of this Day. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… If a person will not be held accountable for his deeds, then where has this chiding conscience come into him from? If his Creator is unconcerned about the good and evil which emanate from him, then why and from where has He given him the feeling of being elated at a good deed and being pricked by his conscience at a bad one? Then from here another question arises: If God has set up a miniature court of justice in every person, then why will He not set up a greater court of justice which will hold the whole world accountable for good and evil which emanate from it and not reward and punish people accordingly? Any person who deliberates on these questions while disregarding his desires will reach the conclusion that the very being of a person bears witness that he has innate knowledge of good and evil; he will not be left unaccountable; there definitely shall come one day when he will be punished for any misdeeds he may have done and be rewarded for his good deeds. To remind a person of this Day, the Almighty has placed a miniature court of justice within a person's soul so that man does not remain indifferent to it, and if ever he becomes indifferent he can catch a glimpse of it by merely reflecting on his inner-self. It is this reality which sages have taught us by saying that man is a miniature world and within this miniature world there is a reflection of the greater world. If a person has a true comprehension of his own self, he is able to comprehend both God and the Hereafter.(Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur'ān, vol. 9, 80)

[5]. The address is directed at the Quraysh; however, to show disgust at their attitude a general word "man" is used.

[6]. The actual words are: بَلَى قَادِرِينَ. The word قَادِرِينَ is an accusative of state from the plural pronoun in نَجْمَعَ.

[7]. Ie., this is not so that gathering of bones seems improbable to them; this is a lame excuse being offered to escape the reality.

[8]. Ie., in spite of rebuking calls from his conscience, he wants to be mischievous. It is evident from this that a person who denies the Day of Judgement in fact denies himself because the greatest testimony of the Day of Judgement is found in his own soul.

[9]. The actual words are: وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ. The word مَعَاذِيْرٌ is a plural of مَعَذِرةٌ. It is actually مَعَاذِرٌ. Aيhas been added in it just as it has been added in مَنَاكِيْر.

[10]. Verses sixteen to nineteen form a parenthetical sentence that has come between the discourse. It is addressed to the Prophet Muhammad (sws). It directs him to wait and to be patient in his passion, anxiety and hastiness to acquire the whole Qur'ān. It was his responsibility as a messenger of God to conclusively communicate the truth to his people. It was but natural for him to wish that such a responsibility is fulfilled as soon as possible. At the same time, the Quraysh too would persistently ask that if the Qur'ān was being revealed by God, why is it not revealed in one go. It should not be a matter of wonder if a person desires that a book as sublime and unique as the Qur'ān is being revealed by the king and master of universe should be given to him very soon. It was the Qur'ān which strengthened the Prophet's heart, enlivened his soul, guided his intellect and bolstered his intentions. This aspect too was a cause of his fondness to receive the Qur'ān as soon as possible. In these verses, the Prophet (sws) has been asked to show restraint on this impatience and hastiness that must have manifested themselves at instances in which a lot of time period elapsed between two revelations. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… Although the subject of keenness and hastiness is very commonly found in the literature of most languages, it is almost impossible to express in words the hastiness and impatience with which the Prophet (sws) would be overcome when he would receive a revelation after a long gap and in the face of his opponents idle talk. When a child is hungry and his mother presses him to her bosom, he wants to drink all the milk in a single breath; when a traveller exhausted from traversing a desert sees a bucket full of water after a long wait, he wants to gulp all of it in one sip; similarly, if a person, suffering from the pangs of being away from his beloved, receives a letter from her, he would want to read each and every word of it in a single glance. Although these examples are deficient, yet as indicated earlier, they can give us some idea of the hastiness and anxiety so spontaneously expressed by the Prophet (sws) whenever he would be blessed with divine revelation.(Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur'ān, vol. 9, 85)

[11]. Ie., it will be revealed in this gradual manner in instalments the way it is now being revealed. This is entailed by the wisdom needed for preaching. The Qur'ān has not expressed these words because they are self-evident. The succeeding verses, however, assure the Prophet (sws) that he need not worry about any matter related to the Qur'ān. Its protection, collection and arrangement, recital and explanation of its verses that need explanation – all rest with the Almighty; he should not worry about them. All these tasks will be accomplished by Him at their proper time. The style adopted here by the Qur'ān – in which certain related features of what is mentioned are stated once this mention was made – at other places – can be seen at other instances as well.

[12]. Ie., recital to Muhammad (sws) after its collection and arrangement. In Sūrah A'lā, this purport is stated thus: سَنُقْرِئُكَ فَلَا تَنسَى(87: 6). Technically this is known as the recital of the al-ardah al-akhīrah. It is evident from various narratives that in the last Ramadān of the Prophet's life, Gabriel reviewed the Qur'ān twice with him. (see, for example: Bukhārī, no. 4998). The review was according to this very recital. Our early scholars generally call it the al-qira'āt al-'āmmah, (see, for example: al-Zarkashī, Al-Burhān, vol. 1, 237). It is evident from these verses that the Qur'ān was arranged in a particular sequence and recited out to the Prophet (sws) in his own lifetime.

[13]. Ie., the Prophet (sws) should follow the recital of the Almighty done after the Qur'ān is arranged in the form of a Book. If a verse was read previously in a different manner, it will have no status. The Qur'ān is in our hands in this very sequence and recital. Except for a few areas, a vast majority of the ummah is reading the Qur'ān according to it. Beside it neither is any other recital the Qur'ān nor can it be called the Qur'ān. The Almighty has directed us to follow this very recital after the al-ardah al-akhīrah.

[14]. This is a reference to verses that were revealed for the explanation of a directive. They are found in the Qur'ān generally by the words كَذَالِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللهُ or those of similar meaning. These verses are actually a fulfillment of the promise stated in the verse under discussion.

[15]. After urging the Prophet (sws) to be patient, the verses revert to its actual addressees.

[16]. The actual words are: إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ. Just as when the word نَاظِرَةٌ is used with the preposition إِلَى it means "to look at someone," it also means "to wait and hope for the blessings and attention of someone." In other words, those who would go to Hell would apprehend that a back-breaking calamity is going to strike them. In contrast, the believers will await the mercy of their Lord and will be hopeful to receive His graciousness; they will have no such apprehension.

[17]. In my opinion, the grammatical analysis of the sentence أَنْ يُفْعَلَ بِهَا فَاقِرَةٌ is the same as the same as the one presented by Zamakhsharī thus: يفعل بها فعل هو في شدته و فظاعته فاقرة (they will be meted out such punishment of which the intensity will break their backs). (See: Zamakhsharī, al-Kashshaff, vol. 5, 664)

[18]. The actual words are: بَلَغَتْ التَّرَاقِي. The pronoun found in this expression is for the soul which as per common linguistic principles of Arabic is suppressed here.

[19]. This is an expression of "no hope." The actual words are: وَقِيلَ مَنْ رَاقٍ. When the word مَنْ comes before an undefined noun, it implies great despair. The implication is that it is now the end of story; who can now cure the dying person? The passive tense قِيلَ has great eloquence in it: such will be the severity of the situation that no one will be able to pay attention to the person who will speak these words.

[20]. Such will be the state of weakness and helplessness that the shank will embrace the shank.

[21]. The actual words are: فَلَا صَدَّقَ وَلَا صَلَّى وَلَكِنْ كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى. A suppression of the word بِالْحُسْنى has occurred here after the wordsصَدَّقَ and كَذَّبَ. Similarly, the word تَوَلَّى occurs in contrast to صَلَّى just as كَذَّبَ occurs in contrast to صَدَّقَ.

[22]. The actual words are: أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى. The word أَوْلَى is from ويل which is used in classical Arabic for expressing anger, reproach, and hatred.

[23]. Here at the end, the sūrah is reverting back to the subject with which it began.

[24]. The actual word is: يُمْنَى. Its passive tense signifies the very limited role a man plays in the creation of new life. After pouring forth his fluid he does not have any further role in this creation process, and does not know what providence does in shaping a new life.

[25]. This interrogative style is adopted when the purpose is to make a person accept something which though is self-evident and is also acknowledged by him yet he is adamant on deviating from it. It expresses anger, reproach and grief over the ungrateful attitude he has adopted; it records a sort of protest and complaint on this attitude and last but not the least sounds a very effective appeal in his ears to ponder on what he is doing. All these nuances cannot be conveyed in a simple statement. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… The purpose of this question is to induce man to reflect as to why such elaborate arrangements were made by providence for him. Why was he blessed with such great abilities? Was all this done merely so that he eat, drink and then die? Are not some responsibilities imposed on him as a result of being blessed with such favours? Does man not owe some obligations to the Being Who created Him? These questions should arise in every person who reflects on his existence.

Man's own being is the closest to him and every part of him induces him to reflect and ponder. The interrogative nature of the verse is meant to stimulate him towards reflection: If God is beyond man's eyes, his own being is at hand; by deliberating on it he can witness God's power and providence, mercy and justice. Similarly, if he reflects he will come to realize that although he has not seen the Day of Judgement, yet his own intuition contains signs and testimonies of such a day. In fact, so blatant are these testimonies that he cannot deny them unless of course he is absolutely stubborn. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur'ān, vol. 9, 106)

[26]. The actual word used is: أَمْشَاجٍ. It is the plural of مَشْجٌ and مَشِيْج. The word أَمْشَاجٍ is among those words which in spite of being plural are used as an adjective for singular entities. The fact that a fertilized sperm is a blend may refer to the fact that it consists of various components and may also refer to the fact it is a blend of the sperm and ovular cells of a man and woman respectively.

[27]. The actual word is نَّبْتَلِيهِ. It is an accusative of state. The word إِبْتَلاَ according to dictionary means "to evaluate and to judge." Since to achieve this a thing is turned and rotated about from side to side hence the meaning of making it pass from one phase to another was incorporated into it. These phases of human creation and development are mentioned in detail in the Qur'ānverse 5 of Sūrah Hajj and verses 12-13 of Sūrah Mu'minūn. The implication is that many phases passed before the drop of water transformed into a human being; in each phase, the Almighty evaluated it so that the capability that should appear in a particular phase is tested and then it enters the next phase.

[28]. This is a comprehensive expression of the higher faculties of man like the faculties of sense and reason. It is this which makes him distinct among God's creations and has been given the freedom on exercising his will on this very basis.

[29]. This is the consequence of making man someone who sees and hears. In the words of Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī he has become a witness to good and evil before his own self and is left with no excuse to adopt the path of evil. (See: Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur'ān, vol. 9, 109)

[30]. This is a mention of man's freedom to exercise his will and intention.

[31]. The freedom to exercise his will endowed to man as well as the cognizance of the good and evil he possesses entail that a Day come when he be punished for his disbelief and rebelliousness.

[32]. The actual word is: كَأْس. It is used for both a cup and for its contents.

[33]. Here the Qur'ān itself has specified that camphor is the name of a spring in Paradise and is not the camphor which exists in this world. Why the spring has been named so is from among the matters of the mutashābihāt whose true form we cannot comprehend in this world.

[34]. The actual words are: يَشْرَبُ بِهَا عِبَادُ اللَّهِ. The particle ب connotes an adverb of place. Drinking wine on the banks of a spring is considered to be a cherished arrangement. It is thus said that this spring will be reserved specially for the servants of God and they will drink wine while sitting on its banks.

[35]. In other words, the dwellers of Paradise will not need to make an effort to go to this spring; any person will be able to take out its channels at whichever place he wants to and in the words of Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī he will be able to relish its delicious contents and the fulfillment it brings without the slightest of bothers. (see: (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur'ān, vol. 9, 111)

Here a special quality of the grateful is alluded to. They used to fulfill their vows, which were over and above the obligations of their religion.

[36]. The implication is that apart from the mandatory directives of the sharī'ah, even acts of virtue which they make obligatory on themselves out of their own free will are carried out by them in a very thorough manner.

[37]. A mention of the captives together with the orphans and the poor is peculiar to the early times when there was no formal system of imprisonment. The captives, during these times used to fulfill their needs by asking people.

[38]. Ie., in reward of the patience, control and courage with which they did various virtuous acts.

[39]. Ie., they will be of crystal that looks like a crystal to the eye and yet in reality their substance will be made of silver.

[40]. So that they can swiftly put them to use according to the time, circumstances and requirements.

[41]. The word زَنجَبِيل means "camphor". The word سَلْسَبِيل means "free-flowing." In what capacity do these names signify their respective objects will only be known on the Day of Judgement. The way sūrahs of the Qur'ān have been named shows that names are kept if even they have a very slight correspondence to the object they signify.

[42]. Ie., because of their youth, they will be alert, vivacious and enthusiastic and because of remaining in service to the dwellers of Paradise would be completely aware of their taste, temperament and habits.

[43]. This is a portrayal of the handsomeness, elegance and majesty of these boys as well as of being well-dressed.

[44]. The actual words are: عَالِيَهُمْ ثِيَابُ سُندُسٍ خُضْرٌ وَإِسْتَبْرَقٌ. The word عَالِيَ is an accusative of state. Sundus and istabraq are the names of Iranian cloths. In order to portray the favours of Paradise before the people of Arabia the names of things used in the Iranian and Egyptian culture have been borrowed here. This is because in those times Arabs were mostly aware of these cultures. This is also among the category of the mutashābihāt whose actual reality is known only to God. The implication is that if the over garments are so exquisite as to be made of sundus and istabraq, one should imagine how splendid their other apparel would be.

[45]. Elsewhere in the Qur'ān, gold bracelets are similarly mentioned. This means that at some instances they will be given gold bracelets to wear and at some silver bracelets.

[46]. This probably is a reference to the pure sealed wine that smells like musk which shall be given only to the muqarrabīn (the near ones). It is emphatically mentioned in verses 35-38 of Sūrah Mutaffifīn. The implication is that after drinking from the springs of Zanjabīl and Salsabīl, they will gradually reach the place where the Almighty Himself will present them with pure wine.

[47]. These verses urge Muhammad (sws) to show patience and steadfastness at the hostile response of his addressees.

[48].The actual words are: إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ تَنزِيلًا. They have a lot of emphasis, grandeur and majesty in them. The implication is that when God has revealed them, Muhammad (sws) should rest assured; God will deal with his enemies; this is not the Prophet's responsibility.

[49].The actual words are: فَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ. The presence of لin them shows that waiting is encompassed in the directive of exercising patience.

[50].The actual word is: إطاعة. It is also used to connote paying heed and paying attention. Here it is used in this very meaning. The actual words used for a sinner and an ingrate are آثِمًا and كَفُورًا. The first word refers to someone who does not fulfill the rights of his fellow human beings and the second one to someone who does not fulfill the rights of God. Though both these traits necessarily entail one another yet at times one is more dominant than the other in someone as per the inclinations found in various personalities.

[51].This is a reference to the tahajjud prayer referred to earlier in Sūrah Muzzammil.

[52].Ie., He will set their joints functional the way they now are functional in every manner.

[53].The Almighty according to His law guides only those who prove themselves to be worthy of His guidance, and misleads only those who make themselves worthy of it because of their misdeeds.

____________




Articles by this author


Islamic Punishments

Surah al-A’raf (152-162)

Surah al-A‘raf (123-153)

Surah al-A‘raf (80-122)

Surah al-A‘raf (57-79)

Surah al-A‘raf (26-56) (2/2)

Surah al-A‘raf (26-56) (1/2)

Surah al-A‘raf (1-25)

Surah An‘am (128-165) (2/2)

Surah An‘am (128-165) (1/2)

Surah An‘am (100-127)

Surah An‘am (74-99)

Surah An‘am (46-73)

Surah An‘am (25-45)

The Noble Wives of the Prophet (sws)

Surah An‘am (1-24)

Islamic Punishments

Surahs Falaq-Nas

Surahs Lahab-Ikhlas

Surahs Kafirun-Nasr

Surahs Ma‘un-Kawthar

Surah Fil – Surah Quraysh

Surah ‘Asr – Surah Humazah

Surah Qari‘ah – Surah Takathur

Surah Zilzal – Surah ‘Aadiyat

Khilafah

Surahs Qadr-Bayyinah

Surahs Tin – ‘Alaq

State and Government

Surahs Duha-Alam Nashrah

Surahs Shams-Layl

Islam and the State: A Counter Narrative

Surahs Fajr-Balad

The Basis of Legislation

The Shari‘ah of Preaching

Surahs A‘la - Ghashiyah

Variant Readings

Surahs Mutaffifin - Inshiqaq

Surahs Buruj – Tariq

Itmam al-Hujjah [1] of God’s Messengers

Theory of Evolution (2)

Surahs ‘Asr-Humazah

Theory of Evolution (2)

Surahs Nazi‘at-‘Abas

Surahs Mursalat-Naba

Dealings and Practices of God

Is Democracy Compatible with Islam?

Wudū and Nail Polish

Surahs Qiyamah-Dahr

Surahs Takwir - Infitar

Sūrahs Muzzammil and Muddaththir

Downfall of the Muslims

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi on Hadith

Your Questions Answered

Surahs Nuh and Jinn

Birth Control

An Interview with the Indian Media

Surahs Haqqah and Ma‘arij

Roles and Responsibilities of Muslims in the West

Surahs Mulk - Qalam

The Punishment of Intentional Murder

Hajj and ‘Umrah

Sūrahs Hashr – Mumtahinah

Religious Extremism

Sūrahs Hadīd – Mujādalah

The Right to make a Will

Talks of the Prophet Muhammad (sws)

Surah Waqi‘ah

The General and the Specific

Sūrah Qamar and Sūrah Rahmān

Surah Tur and Surah Najm

Inheritance of an Orphaned Grandchild

The Sharī‘ah of Preaching

The Source of Religion

Sūrah Mā’idah (90-120)

The Prayer

Sūrahs Qāf and Dhāriyāt (Part 2/2)

Sūrahs Qāf and Dhāriyāt (Part 1/2)

Sūrah Mā’idah (32-63) part (1/2)

Compulsive Knowledge

Sūrah Mā’idah (32-63) part (2/2)

Dealings and Practices of God

Age of ‘Ā’ishah (rta) at her Marriage

Sūrah Mā’idah (1-31) part (1/2)

Sūrah Mā’idah (1-31) part (2/2)

Sūrah Nisā’ (153-176)

Belief in the Prophets

Sūrah Nisā’ (101-152)

Belief in the Hereafter

Sūrah Nisā’ (58-100)

The Consensus of Muslims

Sūrah Nisā’ (36-57)

Islam and the State

Our Call to Humanity

Sūrah Nisā’ (15-34)

The Rule of an Islamic Government

Sūrah Nisā’ (1-14)

Ijtihād

Verdicts of God

The Right to Punish a Wife

The Right to Divorce

Punishment for Blasphemy against the Prophet (sws[1])

Distribution of Inheritance

Abortion

Sūrah Āl-i ‘Imrān (144-200)

Insurance

Hifz al-Furūj (Guarding the Private Parts)

Organ Transplantation

The Fast

Fundamentals of Understanding Islam

Are Muslims a Single Nation?

Subject Matter of the Holy Qur’ān

Etiquette of Sexual Intimacy

Mosques

The Lawful and the Unlawful

Jihād and War in Islam

Head Covering for Women

Forbidding Wrong

The Question of Interest

Implementation of the Sharī‘ah (Divine Law)

Women Travelling with a Mahram

Islam and the Taliban [1]

Our Education System

Sūrah Āl-i ‘Imrān (118-143)

Sighting the Moon

Sūrah Al-i ‘Imrān (100-117)

Sūrah Al-i ‘Imrān (81-99)

Characteristic Values of Muslim Culture

Sūrah Al-i ‘Imrān (64-80)

Sūrah Āl-i ‘Imrān (42-63)

Sūrah Ali-Imran (21-41)

Sūrah Al-i ‘Imran (1-20)

Belief in Divine Books

Oaths and their Atonement

Islamic Customs and Etiquette

The Dietary Shari‘ah

The Penal Shari‘ah

The Shari‘ah of Jihad

The Shari‘ah of Preaching

The Economic Shari‘ah

The Political Shari‘ah

The Social Shari‘ah

The Shari‘ah of Worship Rituals

The Phases and Abodes of the Day of Judgement

The Signs and Events of the Day of Judgement

Belief in the Hereafter

Some Issues pertaining to Prophethood

Some Traits of the Prophets

Belief in the Prophets

Belief in the Angels