(This write-up is prepared by the Hadīth Cell of Jāved Ahmad Ghāmidī)
روي أنه قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: المسلم من سلم المسلمون من لسانه ويده والمؤمن من أمنه الناس على دمائهم وأموالهم والمجاهد من جاهد نفسه في طاعة الله والمهاجر من هجر ما نهى الله عنه. والذي نفسي بيده لا يدخل الجنة عبد لا يأمن جاره بوائقه.
It is narrated that the Prophet (sws) said: "A true muslim is one from [the transgressions of] whose tongue and hands, all other Muslims are safe; And a true mu'min is one from whom people's lives and wealth are secured; And a true mujāhid is one, who subdues his inner self and forces it into God's obedience; And a true muhājir is one, who leaves everything that God has disapproved. By Him, Who controls my life in His hand, no such person shall enter Paradise, whose neighbour was not safe from his transgressions."
Notes on the Text of the Narrative
This narrative or a part of it, with minor variations, has been reported in Bukhārī (Nos. 10, 11 and 6119), Muslim (Nos. 40, 41 and 42), Tirmidhī (Nos. 2504, 2627 and 2628), Nasā'ī(Nos. 4995, 4996 and 4999), Abū Dā'ūd(No. 2481), Ahmad Ibn Hambal(Nos. 6515, 6753, 6792, 6806, 6835, 6836, 6889, 6912, 6925, 6953, 6955, 6982, 6983, 7017, 7086, 8918, 12583, 15037, 15247, 15673, 15682, 17068, 19454, 24004 and 24013), Dārimī(Nos. 2712 and 2716), Ibn Hibbān(Nos. 180, 196, 197, 230, 361, 399, 400, 510 and 4862), Bayhaqī (Nos. 20544, 20545 and 20928), Nasā'īSunan al-Kubrā(Nos. 8701, 11726, 11727 and 11730) Ibn Abī Shaybah (Nos. 19519 and 26496), 'Abd al-Razzāq (Nos. 8817, 20297, 20852) Abū Ya'lā(Nos. 2273, 3909, 4187, 7286, 7288 and 7492) and Humaydī (No. 595). Except where otherwise specified, the preferred text is the one reported in Bukhārī (No. 11).
In some narratives, as for instance in Bukhārī (No. 11), the Prophet (sws) said these words when he was asked: أي الإسلام أفضل؟ (what kind of Islam is the best?), while according to Muslim (No. 40), the Prophet (sws) said these words in response to the question: أي المسلمين خير؟ (who is the best among Muslims?). In yet another reporting, it is reported that the Prophet (sws) actually said: أسلم المسلمين إسلاما (the Muslim, who is complete in his acceptance of Islam). According to some of the narratives in Ahmad Ibn Hambal (Nos. 24004, 24013 etc.), the Prophet (sws) said these words during the address of the last hajj. Keeping the nature of the reported saying in mind, it is quite understandable that the Prophet (sws) may have said these words on different occasions to remind Muslims of one of their primary responsibilities towards their fellow Muslims, in particular, and their fellow human beings, in general.
In some narratives, as for instance in Ahmad Ibn Hambal (No. 6753), the word المسلمون (other Muslims) has been replaced by الناس (other people).
In some narratives, as for instance in Ahmad Ibn Hambal (No. 6925), the word الناس (people) has been replaced by المؤمنون (believers).
The sentence والمؤمن من أمنه الناس على دمائهم وأموالهم(and a true mu'min is one from whom people's lives and wealth are secured) is reported in Tirmidhī (No. 2627).
The sentence والمجاهد من جاهد نفسه في طاعة الله (and a true mujāhidis one who subdues his inner self and forces it into God's obedience) is reported in Ahmad Ibn Hambal (No. 24004).
In some narratives, as, for instance, Bukhārī (No. 11) or Muslim (No. 41), the words: المهاجر من هجر ما نهى الله عنه (a true muhājir is one, who leaves everything that God has disapproved) have been omitted. While in some narratives, as for instance Ibn Hibbān, narrative no. 196 these words have been replaced by المهاجر من هجر السيئات (a true muhājir is one, who leaves bad deeds).
The last part of the text, starting from والذي نفسي بيده till the end is reported in Ahmad Ibn Hambal, narrative no. 12583.