Ali [rta] Is Door To Knowledge

I am in a process of learning and I would like to consult you in this context. Following is a piece of Hadith, I would appreciate it if you would send me the complete Hadith with reference, along with the authenticity of the Hadith. I heard that three caliphs are also included in some versions of this Hadith.

أنا مدينة العلم، وعلى بابها

I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its door.

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Conflict Between Hazrat Aishah (rta) And Hazrat Ali (rta)

My question is about the status of Hazrat Ayesha in our eyes. God has revealed a complete surah in her respect. The Qur’an also requires of them to stay in their homes. Apparently her offensive against Hazrat Ali is a violation of the express Qur’anic command. If it was not wrong than why did she resign and withdraw herself from public politics? I also want to know she got killed?

My second question is why Hazrat Ali (rta) changed the capital from Medina to kufa? Was there a specific strategy involved? Or as the point seems people of Makkah were not ready to accept him?
My third question about the term shaheed? Can one dying of medical problems be called shaheed? Were Hazrat Umar (rta) and Usman (rta) shaheed or we only respectfully regard them as such. They were not fighting with enemy but they were only running the government and discharging their responsibility. Why don’t we confine the criteria of shaheed only to the martyrs of war as it seems most simple and appropriate because due to this broad criteria we have made the people who have not contributed in Muslim Umma much but became shaheed and are enjoying more status than deserved for example Banazir Bhutto, her father, Zia ul Haq etc?
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Did The Prophet (sws) Forbid Second Marriage To Ali (rta)

I heard a hadith which says that once Hazrat Ali (rta) asked permission from Muhammad (sws) for second marriage and the Prophet (sws) refused to grant him permission. Could you please confirm the hadith and, why Muhammad (sws) refused to grant Hazart Ali (rta) his request?

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