Declaration Of Faith

My parents taught me the kalimah shahadah as follows: la ilaha illAllah Muhammad ur rasulullah. Why do I have to add that Prophet Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah while there were so many prophets and all of them taught the same religion? Would it matter if I just said la ilaha illallah?

Why do we mention the name of the Prophet Muhammad (sws) and the Prophet Ibrahim (sws) in the tashahhud (sitting position in the prayer)? Also please tell me who authored the supplication to be made in this position?

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Authenticity Of Kalima Tayyiba

I am a student of the Qur’an and have few questions for you. But at this time, I would like to have your thought and guidance only on the following questions.

1. Nowhere in the Qur’an I found the First Kalima. Do you think Allah (God forbid) forgot to mention it or it is we who ignored the real Kalima from the Qur’an and invented something for ourselves? The first Kalima is called Kalima Tauheed. But with all honestly, I do not think that the first Kalima is a Kalima Tauheed because it includes two entities (Creator and one of his creatures, i.e. Allah SWT and Muhammad (sws). It is also a violation of the Qur’anic teaching when God says “do not make distinction among my messengers”, and yet we pick one Prophet and include in our daily prayers. It seems the Islamic world has abandoned and forgotten God's true message and started worshipping the messenger.
2. Hadiths have contradictions and included a lot of non-sense. I believe it can't be a source of Islamic laws and has very little, if any, to do with the Prophet (sws). Then why we put so much emphasis on it when we talk about Islam? Is Qur’an not clear, complete and fully detailed book?
3. Almost all Islamic duties (Ibadat) came through Prophet Ibrahim (sws) and at the time of Ibrahim A.S, Prophet Muhammed (sws) did not exist. Then why we say Durood-e-Ibrahimi in our prayers? Our Ibadat/Namaaz must be fully devoted to Allah ONLY. None of His creatures should be part of our Ibadat/Namaaz.
4. We conclude that al Prophets were pious people and guaranteed Jannah. Then instead of worrying about our own neck, why we say Durood-O-Salaam to the prophet, day and night? It is shirk (polytheism) and against the teachings of the Prophet. Is it not? I expect a comprehensive and logical answer.
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Names Of God And The Prophet (sws)

Could you please share your understanding of the following:-

In salah we recite thanā (a formula said after the first takbīr). What is its source? Is it a part of the Qur'an or a separate wahi (revelation)?

b. What is the source of the names of Almighty Allah and names of Prophet Muhammad (sws)? Is "Ya Jamilo" the name of Allah?

C. What is the source of six "Kalimas" that are taught to every Muslim. Are they part of wahi?

d. I believe that during the time of the Prophet Muhammad (sws) mosque is not only used for offering ritual prayers but also as a place for conducting state affairs and shelter for the travelers and alike. Could such a practice be implemented today to help our rulers aligned with the truth?
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