Declaration Of Faith

My parents taught me the kalimah shahadah as follows: la ilaha illAllah Muhammad ur rasulullah. Why do I have to add that Prophet Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah while there were so many prophets and all of them taught the same religion? Would it matter if I just said la ilaha illallah?

Why do we mention the name of the Prophet Muhammad (sws) and the Prophet Ibrahim (sws) in the tashahhud (sitting position in the prayer)? Also please tell me who authored the supplication to be made in this position?

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Names Of God And The Prophet (sws)

Could you please share your understanding of the following:-


In salah we recite thanā (a formula said after the first takbīr). What is its source? Is it a part of the Qur'an or a separate wahi (revelation)?

b. What is the source of the names of Almighty Allah and names of Prophet Muhammad (sws)? Is "Ya Jamilo" the name of Allah?

C. What is the source of six "Kalimas" that are taught to every Muslim. Are they part of wahi?

d. I believe that during the time of the Prophet Muhammad (sws) mosque is not only used for offering ritual prayers but also as a place for conducting state affairs and shelter for the travelers and alike. Could such a practice be implemented today to help our rulers aligned with the truth?
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