I am in debate with a non-Muslim lady, who is a well read person. I need to clarify certain issues regarding Islamic punishments, in particular the punishment for fornication. The questions on which I require your answers are:
i. Does the Shari‘ah differentiate between an unmarried, married and a married person who commits adultery while awarding punishment.
ii. In case of a rape victim needing to provide four witnesses to prove her allegations against the rapist, is there any Ijtihad, which makes use of modern medical science (DNA test to confirm identification of the criminal) in absence of failure to produce witnesses?
iii. If no, (that is if the victim fails to prove that she was raped due to absence of such witnesses) would the victim of the rape be punished for qadhf (falsely accusing someone of fornication?