My question is about the status of Hazrat Ayesha in our eyes. God has revealed a complete surah in her respect. The Qur'an also requires of them to stay in their homes. Apparently her offensive against Hazrat Ali is a violation of the express Qur'anic command. If it was not wrong than why did she resign and withdraw herself from public politics? I also want to know she got killed?
My second question is why Hazrat Ali (rta) changed the capital from Medina to kufa? Was there a specific strategy involved? Or as the point seems people of Makkah were not ready to accept him?
My third question about the term shaheed? Can one dying of medical problems be called shaheed? Were Hazrat Umar (rta) and Usman (rta) shaheed or we only respectfully regard them as such. They were not fighting with enemy but they were only running the government and discharging their responsibility. Why don't we confine the criteria of shaheed only to the martyrs of war as it seems most simple and appropriate because due to this broad criteria we have made the people who have not contributed in Muslim Umma much but became shaheed and are enjoying more status than deserved for example Banazir Bhutto, her father, Zia ul Haq etc?
Here are the answers to your questions:
1. The directives related to the wives of the Prophet (sws) being confined to their homes primarily pertained to the lifetime of the Prophet (sws) because the Hypocrites had launched a besmearing campaign to malign the Prophet (sws) by maligning his wives. After his departure, obviously such a campaign slowly faded away. Hence if A'ishah (rta) participated in a battle that took place more than two decades after the Prophet's departure, she was not violating any such directive.
Moreover, if someone is of the view that these directives applied to the wives even after the demise of the Prophet (sws), he should realize that the situation in which Aishah (rta) came out was exceptional and extraordinary circumstances, such decisions have their justification.
2. The shifting of the capital to Kufa by Ali (rta) of course just have been based on expedient circumstances and for administrative purpose. One reason could be the expanding Muslim empire which could be better controlled from Kufa.
3. Please refer to: Who is Shaheed?