Why does the Qur'an reason from the stories of the earlier people? Is there any logic or particular significance in this? Prehistoric fables can't be presented as evidence even today. Why do you call them 'historical arguments'?
We believe that the addressees of the Qur'an believed in those tales as historical realities. That is why they did not challenge the Qur'anic assertions in this regard. We see that at times the Qur'an tells its addressees that they knew those historical facts and even passed through the remains of the settlements punished by the Almighty. The Bible too contained parts of the stories of the earlier Prophets. We call them historical because of two reasons: a) they are historical in nature and b) the addressees of the Qur'an and the author of Qur'an both agreed on the authenticity of those historical facts.