It is commonly believed that on the Day of Judgment God Almighty will call the people by his/her mothers' name. Is it authentic?
There are different sayings ascribed to the Prophet (sws) in this regard. According to some children would be called in the names of their fathers and while others say that they will be called in the names of their mothers. Bukhari and other compilers of the sayings of the Holy Prophet (sws) have quoted traditions part of which clearly tell that on the Day of Judgment people will be called "such person son of such person". This clearly shows that people will be called in the names of their fathers. The tradition, which, tells that people will be called in the names of their mothers is not that authentic and was not accepted and reported by the compilers of the traditions of the Prophet (sws). It is not only mentioned in some books while dealing with the life history of a narrator involved in this tradition. The text follows:
إسحاق بن إبراهيم الطبري كان بصنعاء قال ابن عدي منكر الحديث روي عن مروان بن معاوية عن حميد عن أنس مرفوعاً يدعى يوم القيامة بأسماء أمهاتهم ستراً من الله عليهم و هذا منكر
Ishaq Bin Ibrahim, lived in Sanaa. Ibne Adi said, 'he is Munkiru'l Hadith' (one whose report is not accepted because of his faltering memory and bad character). He reported on the authority of Marwan Bin Mu`awia who reported from Hameed who reported from Anas (ra) that the Prophet (sws) said: People will be called by the names of their mothers because Allah would not want to expos them. And this tradition is Munkar (i.e., that is not acceptable). 
Even before stating the narrative, the compiler has made it clear that Ishaq Bin Ibrahim is not a reliable narrator. After mentioning another narrative of his the author writes:
قال الدار قطني منكر الحديث و قال ابن حبان يروي عن ابن عيينة و الفضل بن عياض منكر الحديث جداً يأتي عن الثقات بالموضوعات لا يحل كتب حديثه إلا على جهة التعجب
Dara Qutni said, 'he is Munkiru'l hadith.' Ibni Hibban said, 'he (Ibrahim) narrates from Ibni Uyana' and Fazal Bin Ayaz both of them are worst Munkiru'l Hadith. He narrates concocted traditions on authority of reliable reporters. It is not allowed to report from him except to represent as a wonder.
As obvious from the above the report carries many flaws and is considered to be a concocted one. Therefore, it would be inappropriate to ascribe it to the Holy Prophet (sws).
A certain Qur'anic verse is also sometimes quoted to prove that it is indeed the imams of the people to whom they will be ascribed. The Almighty says:
Keep in mind the day when we will call every group with their respective imams. (17:71)
The verse has nothing to do with calling people in the names of somebody on the Day of Judgment. It states that people will be called to account along with their leaders in religious matters for example Prophets and Messengers or other leaders in the realm of religious matters.
 Bukhari No: 5823-4
 Mizan ul I`iridal Fi Naqd-I-Rijal, CD Edition Vol., 1 Page: 327
Mizan ul I`iridal Fi Naqd-I-Rijal, CD Edition Vol., 1 Page: 327'