Will our holy Prophet (sws) intercede for the Muslims on the Day of Judgement?
The Holy Qur'ān negates the idea of intercession by any one on the Day of Judgment merely on the ground of the status they (the recipients of the intercession) occupy in this world or a particular race or religious group they belong to. It variously charges the Jews of unjustly deeming themselves worthy of high reward because of their being chosen people of Allah. Almost the same beliefs have found place among most of the Muslims today. They deem being adherent to the religion of the Prophet Muhammad (sws) sufficient for their eternal success in the Hereafter. This is supported by the belief of the intercession by the Holy Prophet on the Day.
This kind of belief and ideas have not place in the Holy Qur'ān. It says:
O Children of Israel! Remember My favor wherewith I favored you and how I preferred you to (all) creatures. And guard yourselves against a day when no soul will in aught avail another, nor will intercession be accepted from it, nor will compensation be received from it, nor will they be helped. [2:47-8]
At another place it tells that there would be no intercession except for the will of God. Nobody will dare intercede except when the Almighty honours him with that. This, it should be noted, must be in accordance of the principle of justice and the wisdom of God. He will not violate his attribute of being just. Another thing that should be appreciated is that nobody will dare speak in favour of the evil people.2:255 reads:
Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him. Unto Him belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedes with Him save by His leave?
The following verse leads to the above-mentioned principle.
[A reward] from the Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that lies between them; the most Gracious – there is no one who has the authority to speak on His behalf. On the Day when Gabriel and the angels will stand arrayed [before Him]. [The Day] when only they will speak whom the most Gracious allows and who speak the truth. That Day [O People!] is sure to come; therefore, now whoever wishes can make his abode towards his Lord. We have forewarned you of an imminent doom on the Day when a man will see all that he has sent forward, and the unbeliever will cry: O would that I were dust! (78:37-40)
Therefore, it will only after the permission of the Almighty that people will speak.