تقسیمِ میراث سے متعلق ایک سوال

سوال:

پچھلے دنوں میرے ایک عزیز کی وفات ہوئی ہے،جن کے پسماندگان میں والدین،ایک بیوی،ایک بیٹا،ایک بیٹی،ایک بہن اور ایک بھائی ہے۔ متوفٰی کے اہل خانہ اُن ترکے کی شرعی تقسیم کے بارے میں جاننا چاہتے ہیں۔ برائے کرم قرآن مجید کی روشنی جواب عنایت فرمائیں۔


جواب:

صورتِ مسئولہ میں قرآنِ مجید کے قانونِ وراثت کے مطابق متوفی کا تَرکہ اُس کے وُرثا میں جس طرح تقسیم کیا جائے گا،بالترتیب اُس کی تفصیل یہ ہے :

1۔ تقسیمِ وراثت سے پہلے یہ دیکھا جائے گا کہ متوفٰی کے ذمہ کسی شخص یا ادارے کا کوئی واجب الادا قرض تو نہیں ہے۔ اگر ہے تو سب سے پہلے اُس کے مال سے اُس قرض کو ادا کیا جائے گا۔

2۔ یہ معلوم کیا جائے گا کہ میت نے اپنے وُرثا کے سوا کسی فرد یا مصرف کے لیے اپنے مال میں سے کچھ دینے کی وصیت تو نہیں کی ہے۔ اِس طرح کی کوئی وصیت اگر واقعتاً موجود ہے تو پھر مالِ متروکہ میں سے اُسے ادا کیا جائے۔

3۔ اب اُس کے بچے ہوئے کُل ترکہ میں سے چھٹا حصہ متوفٰی کے والدین میں سے ہر ایک کو اور آٹھواں حصہ اُس کی بیوی کو ملے گا۔

4۔ اب تَرکہ میں سے جو کچھ بچے گا وہ سارا کا سارا متوفٰی کے ایک بیٹے اور ایک بیٹی میں اِس طرح تقسیم کردیا جائے گا کہ بیٹے کو بیٹی کے مقابلے میں دونا ملے۔

5۔ صورتِ مسئولہ میں قرآن کی شریعتِ میراث کے مطابق میت کے بہن اور بھائی کے لیے اُس کے ترکہ میں کوئی حصہ نہیں ہے۔ میت کے مال میں بہن بھائیوں کا حصہ قرآن نے اُسی صورت میں رکھا گیا ہے جب اُس کے اولاد نہ ہو۔ اُس صورت میں اللہ تعالٰی نے اُنہیں اولاد کے قائم مقام ٹھیرایا ہے۔ (سورۂ نسا4 : 11۔12)

answered by: Muhammad Amir Gazdar

About the Author

Muhammad Amir Gazdar


Dr Muhammad Amir Gazdar was born on 26th May 1974 in Karachi, Pakistan. Besides his studies at school, he learned the science of Tajweed Al-Qur’an from a renowned Qu’anic reciter, Qari Khalil Ahmad Bandhani and completed the memorization of the Qur’an in 1987 at Madrasah Tajweed al-Qur’an, Karachi.

He obtained his elementary religious education from Jami’ah Dar al-Hanafiyyah, Karachi. He graduated from Jami’ah al-Uloom al-Islamiyyah, Binnori Town, Karachi and obtained Shahadah Aalamiyyah in 1996 and received an equivalent certificate of Masters in Islamic Studies from the Karachi University.

During the year 1997 and 1998, he served in Jami’ah Binnori Town as a Tafseer and Tajweed teacher and also taught at Danish Sara Karachi (A Former Dawah Centre of Al-Mawrid Foundation).
In 1992, Dr Gazdar was introduced to Farahi school of thought when first time met with Ustaz Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (a renowned Islamic scholar) and had the chance to learn Islam from him and tried to solve many controversial issues of Hadith, Fiqh and Usool under his supervision.

In January 1999, he started another Masters programme in Islamic Sciences offered by Al-Mawrid foundation in Lahore and he completed it with top position in the batch in August 2001.
Mr Gazdar officially joined Al-Mawrid foundation as an associate fellow in research and education in 2002 and worked in this capacity until December 2018. He worked for the Karachi center of Al-Mawrid for about 10 years as a teacher, lecturer and researcher. He taught various courses, delivered weekly lectures, conducted workshops on different topics, taught in online classes, answered questions of the participants verbally and wrote many answers for foundation’s official website too.

In September 2012, he moved to Kuala Lumpur Malaysia to participate in another Masters programme in Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage at International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). In January 2015, he completed his 3rd Masters in Qur’an and Sunnah department of the university with the GPA: 3.92.

Dr Amir started his Ph.D programme in the Qur’an and Sunnah department of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) in February 2015 and completed it with distinction on 25th March 2019. His Ph.D research topic was a comparative study of contemporary scholars’ view on the issue of Hijab and Gender Interaction in the light of Quranic and Hadith texts.

In December 2018, he has been appointed at Al-Mawrid Foundation as Fellow of research and education.

Dr Gazdar has many academic works to his credit. He has written a few booklets published in Urdu language and has authored several articles which have been published in various research journals in Malaysia, India and Pakistan (Arabic language). His two research books have been in Malaysia and Lebanon in 2019 (Arabic language).

Furthermore, he is actively working in the Hadith project of Ustaz Javed Ahmad Ghamidi and playing a significant role in it as a researcher and writer since January 2016.

Moreover, Dr Gazdar has been leading in Qiyam-e-Ramadhan and Tarawih prayer since 1989 in various mosques and at Sada Bahar Lawn (2002-2011) in Karachi, Pakistan. He worked as a part time Imam at Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah mosque of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) from 2013 to 2016 where he lead in Tarawih and Qiyam-e-Ramadhan for four years. Other than this, he has served for several mosques in Kuala Lumpur as a volunteer Imam for Tarawih and Qiyam-e-Ramadhan.

Answered by this author